Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp A critical analysis of a chosen statement ‘One Chance to get it Right’ The development of Priorities for care, is intended as the basis of care for everyone in the last few days and hours of life, irrespective of whether that care is provided in a hospital, hospice, the persons home (including care homes) or another place. Leadership Alliance for the Care of Dying People. 2014. One Chance to Get it Right. London. UK Government. (LACDP, 2014). This essay will critically discuss, debate and analyse the ‘Once Chance to get it Right (LACDP, 2014) document above and demonstrate knowledge and understanding of relevant evidence in relation to end of life (EoL) care. The importance of recognising when people with Learning Disabilities (LD) are approaching EoL care and the communication barriers people with LD face within the healthcare system will also be discussed. The above statement is from a document published by the Leadership Alliance for the Care of Dying People (LACDP, 2014, p. 6). The LACDP is a combination of twenty-one national organisations set up to lead and provide a focus for improving the care of people who are dying and their families, (LACDP, 2014, p.6). The focus on five priorities of care; which aims to focus on the patient and put them at the centre of palliative care (Lancet, 2014, p. 103). With this new approach to caring for dying people based on the service users and loved ones wishes and needs, the LACDP (2014) aims to promote a more individualised care pathway (LACDP, 2014, p. 6) reflecting openness, transparency and candour that further enhances communication and participation in decision making (Taylor, 2015, p.139). It was developed to replace the Liverpool Care Pathway, to encourage a more individualised care pathway, reflecting on openness, transparency and candour that further enhances communication and the involvement of the dying person and those important to them rather than generic protocols (LACDP, 2014, p.7, Luckhurst and Clarke, 2017, p. 130). The five priorities reinforce the focus for individualised care according to the needs and wishes of the dying person in the last few days and hours of life (LACDP, 2014, p. 10). In addition to this, it emphasises the importance of sensitive communication, involving the dying person and with their agreement, their family and those important to them are involved in decisions about treatment and individualised plan of care (Luckhurst, and Clarke, 2015, p.130-131). The Department of Health (DoH) define LD as the presence of having a reduced ability to understand new or complex information, a reduced ability to learn new skills, and to cope independently, which occurs before adulthood with a lasting effect on development (Department of Health, 2001, p. 14). Some individuals with LD may have different ranges of presenting competencies with their social functioning skills and behaviours and communication (Read, 2005, p. 15). In relation to health care individuals with LD are known to have a higher risk of developing additional physical and mental health problems compared to the general public and as such more likely to be high and frequent users of all healthcare services (Alborz et al. 2005, p. 174). Mencap highlighted failures to provide quality healthcare in their report Death by Indifference (MENCAP, 2007), which described experiences of six families which members had passed away after experiencing poor quality care (Mencap, 2007, p. 3). Talbot, Astbury and Mason, (2010, p. 200). This report detailed the failings of health service care leading to deaths which Mencap suggested was institutional discrimination. (MacArthur, et al. 2015, p. 1554). A qualitative study by Afia et al (2013) exploring barriers of accessing help from health services, found several themes relating to the challenges in healthcare access and discrimination from health services. A number of patients in the study felt they experienced discrimination because of their LD or treated differently (Afia et al., 2013, p. 9). Some of these experienced mentioned in the study were supposedly due to direct discrimination caused by negative staff attitudes towards patients and carers and failure to treat patients with respect and dignity, whereas other experienced were due to indirect discrimination by the lack of staff awareness of patient’s needs (Afia et al., 2013, p. 9). However, a study by Flynn, et al (2015) researching the attitudes of oncology nurses highlighted issues in confidence of communication skills when dealing with patients with LD (Flynn, et al. 2015, p. 569). Stating the Nurses felt less confident and positive in providing care to patients with LD, including reports of having less relevant knowledge and experience in caring for this patient group (Flynn, et al. 2015, p. 571). Another study by Bailey, Doody and Lyons (2014) suggest evidence of limited experiences of nurse’s ability to care for service users with LD, and many felt they lacked knowledge and skills required to fully support them. (Bailey, Doody and Lyons, 2014, p. 32). This suggests that effective training needs to be picked out and made accordingly for nurses practising in specific contexts (Lewis, Gaffney and Wilson, 2016, p. 1476). One the challenges of EoL care, highlighted by the End of Life Care Strategy (Department of Health, 2008, p. 45) states that those with LD may not be identified, resulting in inadequate care. Individuals with LD have a high rate of morbidity and complex healthcare needs that are frequently unmet and are often diagnose late in their disease trajectory partly due to lack of screening opportunities, and in some cases seldom referred to hospice and palliative care services (Schofield, 2015, p. 81). Some of the leading causes of death for individuals with LD include respiratory disease such as pneumonia and aspiration, the second leading cause of death is cardiovascular disease and there is an increased incident of oesophageal, gastric and gallbladder malignancies and dementia within this patient group (Tyrer and McGrotgher, 2009, cited in Schofield, 2015, p. 81). Talbot, Astbury and Mason (2010, p. 202) highlight a further health issue for people with LD, which is the secondary prevention which involves the early detection and screening of physical health problems. Diagnostic overshadowing can also be frequently reported in individuals with LD (Mason and Scior, 2004). This can happen when a healthcare professional interprets changes in individuals as being part of their LD rather than a symptom, exacerbation or indicator of ill health (Morton-Nance and Schafer. 2012, p. 44, Mencap 2007). The LACDP highlighted that there are misperceptions about when a person is approaching EoL (LACDP, 2014, p. 17). In a study by Li, and Ng (2008) the analysis of data showed areas of uncertainty about what specific signs and symptoms to recognise when patients were becoming unwell or what to expect as the disease progressed, highlighting the issue that timely diagnosis and intervention may possibly be delayed and in result appropriate care may be unnoticed (Li and Ng, 2008, p. 947). This poses a barrier to assessing and planning personalised care in advance, which is an imperative part in the nursing process as pre planning of care has found to be one of the most important ways to ensure patient-focused care (Ingleton, 2015, p. 8). However, a study conducted by Regnard, et al., (2007) highlighted a high number of distress cues that carers and family members could easily identify by observing for changes and absence of content signs and reduction in activity (Regnard, et al., 2007, p. 284). This suggests that family members and carers for service users with LD have a higher chance of recognising symptoms of distress. Regnard, et al., (2007) states that “although distress may be hidden, it is never silent” (Regnard, et al, 2007, p. 277). People with LD may have different capacities for receiving, understanding, remembering and expressing themselves through language (Regnard, et al., 2007, p. 277). To support Regnard’s theory, Perry et al., (2013) argues communication impairment as a cause in miss diagnosis, symptom recognition and recognising when they are approaching EoL (Perry et al, 2013, p. 205). Tuffrey-Wijne (2003), has argued that communication is one of the biggest obstacles to accurate medical assessments (Tuffrey-Wijne 2003, cited in Read, 2005, p. 16). The second priority of the LACDP highlights the importance of communication, it states if the dying person needs additional support to understand information, communicate their wishes or make decisions, then these needs must be met (LACDP, 2014, p. 19). Research suggests that shortcomings exist in the delivery of EoL care to people with LD. A mixed-methods study by Ryan et al, (2010) highlighted that although the staff displayed a willingness to provide palliative care to people with LD, staff lacked experience and confidence to do so (Ryan et al., 2010, p. 571). This could present a challenge for healthcare professionals attempting to implement the five principles of care for the dying patient. The End of Life Care Strategy (Department of Health, 2008, p. 60) recommends that people receiving EoL care should be able to express their wishes and their preferences in relation to their care and where they would prefer to die. However, people with LD will often have a different way of communicating that may involve non-verbal methods. Verbal communication with a person with LD is often hampered, health professionals and care/relatives rely strongly on their joint interpretation of their needs and signals of distress. This can be problematic as some healthcare staff have been known to have a shortage of knowledge and skills regarding other communicative aids (Bekkema, et al. 2015, p. 7). This suggests that opportunities may be missed for this group of people to make decisions, communicate their wishes and ask for treatments such as pain relief. Missed opportunities for communication goes against the second priority of care in the LACDP, which states that open and honest communication between staff and the person who is dying, and those identified as important to them, including carers, is critically important to good care (LACDP, 2014, p. 19). Although some people with LD may have communication tools that they use as in their daily life, this may not always meet their needs during their stay in hospital which may be caused by hospital staff not being familiar with the model of communication used. Hannon and Clift (2011, p.109). Establishing how the person normally communicates, such as alternative communication or augmentative communication like Makaton or with the use of pictures to support speech. Facilitating the person in communication as well as giving them time to allow them to process information by using straightforward language and using those who know them to assist, where possible can help the struggles of communication barriers health professionals face when discussing death and dying (McLaughlin, 2015, p. 80). According to Becker (2010, p, 153) the accurate assessment of pain is the cornerstone of successful pain relief and long-term management of that pain. Without it there are many facets of the patient’s experiences that could be missed, and consequently their pain may not be well controlled. A study by Morton-Nance and Schafer (2013) shows how the loved ones of services users with LD described how witnessing a patients’ poor experiences of inadequate symptom control significantly affected them, describing symptoms of physical and mental pain experienced by people with a LD, which were often not addressed or controlled satisfactorily (Morton-Nance and Schafer, 2013, p. 44). Pain assessment in groups such as individuals with LD can be difficult to assess and can result in poor management and outcomes (Cleary and Doody, 2016, p. 80). There are a number of tools such as the Abbey pain scale (Abbey, et al., 2004, p. 6) that can support health professionals to identify pain for those with a communication difficulty and/or cognitive impairment that are appropriate to use with people with a LD. Non-verbal communication is really important in these cases (Mitten, 2006, p. 17). Distress may be due to pain, but it may also be caused by other symptoms or anxiety. The Disability Distress Assessment tool (Regnard, et al., 2007, p. 276) can be used to assess and identify distress cues in cognitively impaired people (Regnard et al., 2007, p. 279). This is emphasised in the second priority, which states that pain language must be used verbally and in all forms of communication. If the dying person needs additional communication support to understand information, communicate wishes and make decisions, then these needs must be met. (LADCP, 2014, p. 19). The fifth priority is about creating an individualised plan of care, with symptom control and psychological, social and spiritual care, which must be agreed on by healthcare providers and delivered with compassion (LACDP, 2014, p. 88). Communication in the way that people with a LD can understand is imperative to create an advance care plan (ACP) that is individual to the service user. Parry, Land and Seymour (2014) discussed the importance of how people with a specific terminal diagnosis should be provided with opportunities to discuss their future care. Discussions about these matters complete part of ACP, which aim to help individuals anticipate how their condition may impact them in the upcoming future and, if they wish, to record their choices, preferences and advanced decisions to refuse treatment (Parry, Land, Seymour, 2014, p. 331). The Palliative care for people with LD network state the importance that everyone, including those with LD, are offered opportunities to engage in ACP. Even if they do not have mental capacity to fully engage in ACP discussions, the person should still be supported with their individual communication needs to share their wishes and choices about EoL care. NHS England (2017, p. 13). ACP and early discussions about what the service users wishes, and preferences involving EoL care and dying between health professionals and the dying person and their loved ones, can go some way to overcome the difficult choices between active treatment and palliative care and service users wishes, before their condition deteriorates to the point where they are no longer able to communicate their needs (MacArthur, 2015, p. 1159). The ACP framework and the way in which ACP highlights the preferences and wishes of patients, could also be appropriate for people with LD and their family/carers (Voss, et al, 2017, p. 939). A literature review by Kirkendall, Linton and Farris (2016), suggest that there is a lack of involvement of the individual with a LD in their EoL decision processes, explaining that it is vital more time is spent on how to communicate a terminal diagnosis those with LD so professionals are able to assess and create ACP’s in partnership with the individual (Kirkendall, Linton and Farris, 2016, p. 993). Voss, et al, similarly agree on the importance of ACP as individuals with LD and their limited capacity for understanding and communication, and understanding their own health conditions, can have trouble expressing symptoms and feelings, and have difficulties with medical examinations or interventions. Voss, et al, (2017) also suggest that all EoL decisions should therefore carefully consider the benefits for the patient’s quality of life (Voss, et al, 2017, p. 938). Research has shown that joint working and learning between LD and palliative care services can enable more robust assessment, care planning and are delivery to people with LD (McLaughlin, et al., 2014, p. 80). The five priorities of care argue the significance of joint development of a plan for end of life care (LADCP, 2014, p. 156). People with a LD may currently be perceived as challenging to many palliative care services, yet there is lack of research around this topic. More empirical and collaborative research is needed that highlights positive practice; recognizes practice development, and identifies innovation, practical interventions and approaches. This is needed to enable professionals to understand the varied perceptions of illness and treatment, increase knowledge and develop skills, and have an appreciation of need from the key people involved (Read, 2005, p. 18). The physical health care needs of people with LD pose challenges to all involved in their care. In order to make progress in all levels of health promotion, partnership working involving generic health services, specialist LD health services, social care and education providers is required. Talbot, Astbury and Mason (2010, p. 202). This is echoed by Hahn and Cadogan (2011), cited in Dunkley and Sales (2014), who suggest that the implementation of a palliative care education programme tailored to the needs of care staff could increase confidence in EoL care provision (Dunkley and Sales, 2014, p. 281). In conclusion, this essay has discussed the importance of recognising a patient with LD is approaching end of life care and the difficulties faced in accessing EoL care. This has been discussed in relation to cognitive ability and the barriers health care professions face in planning appropriate care in reasonable time, as well as how this affects those with LD. This essay has also discussed how communication barriers affect how service users receives EoL care and how the importance of appropriate communication is needed to ensure that assessments and planning are completed regarding their wishes and best interests. Reference list: – Abbey, J. et al. (2004) ‘The Abbey Pain Scale: a 1-minute numerical indicator for people with end-stage dementia’, International Journal of Palliative Nursing. 10 (1), pp. 6–13. – Afia, A. et al, (2013) ‘Discrimination and Other Barriers to Accessing Health Care: Perspectives of Patients with Mild and Moderate Intellectual Disability and Their Carers’, PLoS One, 8 (8), pp. 2-9. – Alborz A., McNally R.
PED 103 Chesapeake College Developing a Healthy Scheduled Fitness Plan Paper.
Developing a Health-related fitness program Student’s Name: Chronic diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, stroke and cancer are responsible for the majority of deaths in the U.S. One important way we can prevent chronic disease and premature death is to engage in regular exercise that promotes health-related fitness, such as cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, and body composition. This assignment has been designed to guide you toward the development of a fitness program that will improve the quality of your life now and for years to come. I. Identify and define the components of health-related fitness: II. Exercise goals: Create specific, measurable goals that you can use to track the progress of your fitness program. Your goals should relate to one aerobic and one anaerobic activity you have indicated in your program. Before you can set specific and realistic goals you must assess your current level of fitness. Methods used to assess current fitness level (include results): AerobicMuscular strengthMuscular enduranceFlexibilityBody composition Specific fitness goals: AerobicMuscular strengthMuscular enduranceFlexibilityBody composition III. Developing cardiorespiratory endurance: In the chart below, fill in your chosen aerobic activities and then indicate the duration, intensity and frequency for each. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends a frequency of 3-5 days per week, a duration of 20-60 minutes while sustaining an intensity of between 55-90% of your maximum heart rate. Aerobic/Cardio ProgramFrequency (check √ ) Activity *Duration (How long?) *Intensity (How vigorous?) M T W Th F Sa Su Example: Power-walking 30 min. 75% √ √ √ √ * Duration and intensity should be represented by numerical values. IV. Calculate intensity: Cardiorespiratory endurance can only be achieved through regular aerobic exercise. One of the principles of conditioning, intensity, determines how hard you need to work to increase your aerobic capacity. While engaging in an aerobic exercise monitoring your heart rate is one way of determining the intensity of your workout. When you determine Target Heart Rate (THR) complete the following steps: STEP 1: Find your resting heart rate (RHR). Take your radial or carotid pulse and count it for 15 seconds and then multiply by 4.RHR _____ STEP 2: Calculate your estimated maximal heart rate (HRmax) HRmax = 206.9 – (0.67 x age)_______ STEP 3: Calculate your heart rate reserve (HRR) by subtracting your resting heart rate from your HRmax (see STEP 1). HRR = HRmax – RHR HRR = _____ – ______ HRR = ______ STEP 4: Calculate 55% and 90% HRR Lower end of THR = 0.55 x HRR = _______ Upper end of THR = 0.90 x HRR = _______ STEP 5: Add your RHR back to these values .55% HRR + RHR = _________ .90% HRR + RHR = _________ THR _______________bpm to ________________bpm V. Developing muscular strength & endurance: Using the chart on the next page, create your own resistance/weight training program based on the equipment and facilities available to you. Exercises: Your program should include a minimum of 10 exercises and include exercise for upper, lower and mid-section muscle groups. List the exercises and the muscles they develop in the program below. Intensity: Experiment with different amounts of weights until you find a good starting weight, one that you can lift easily for 10-12 repetitions. Fill in the starting weight for each exercise in the program chart below. Duration: Include at least 3 sets of 8-12 repetitions for each exercise. If your program is focusing on strength alone, your sets can contain fewer repetitions using a heavier load. If you are focusing on endurance or toning, your sets should contain more repetitions using a lighter resistance. Fill in the starting repetitions and sets for each exercise in the program below. Frequency: Work out at least 2 days per week. Indicate the days you will train on your program plan; be sure to alternate days when working the same muscle groups. Resistance/Weight Training Program (muscular strength/endurance) *Exercise Muscle(s) developed (Provide specific muscle terms, i.e. biceps) Intensity: Weight/ Resistance (i.e., lb.) Duration: RepsSets Frequency M T W Th F Sa Su Example: Crunches Upper Abdominals No added resistance 15 3 x x x *Exercise descriptions may be necessary. VI. Warm Up: All physical activity should begin with a well-designed Warm-up. Describe an appropriate warm-up routine for one of your aerobic exercises you have chosen. Also describe how you would warm-up for your resistance/weight training exercise session.
Essay Topic: Discuss a number of populations who are entering criminal justice system at an increased rate. Pick two of the populations discussed in this Unit who are experiencing this problem, and explain the shared and different reasons why this is occurring. You should use case studies and examples to support your argument. The Increasing rates of aboriginal/ Torres Strait islanders people (ATISP) and immigrants (ethnic minorities) coming in contact with the Criminal Justice system (CJS) can be argued as whether “Australia’s criminal justice system (CJS) has satisfied the coexisting core principles which include fairness, transparency and equality before the law” (Burgess, 2010, p12). This piece explores the two populations through the conservative and oppressive attitude of the CJS and the challenges of multiple factors such as police discretion, institutionalised racism, bias and discrimination. The history revolving around the system’s ability to impose “equality, fairness and access” ( Beazer, 2018, p280), is argued on what factors have contributed to the increasing rate of the CJS compared to other populations and determine how/why the CJS sees these populations as problems, how they come in contact with the CJS so often, the similarities and differences between these populations which intersect and reforms which can help with our current CJS to overcome the barriers of bias and overrepresentation of these populations. The criminal justice system (CJS) under the Common law/ Westminster system derived from the UK, examines ‘the rule of law’ being defined as ‘within which all people should be treated alike: without fear or favour; rich or poor; male or female; established Australian or migrant” (White and Perrone, 2015, p.351). In correlation, Indigenous people are constantly overrepresented, experience institutionised racism and discrimination and disregarded with constant experience to “intense scrutiny and intervention” (Cuneen, 2008, p65). The issue of overrepresentation and treatment of indigenous and Torres Strait islanders becoming “racialised and criminalised” (Cunneen,2008, p68), is the fact that “white policy makers hold leverage and control over them systematically, eroding the relationship between ATISP and the CJS” ( Cunneen, 2016, p1). The CJS reveals itself to be an unknown and unfamiliar system with western legal ideology which overrides the ATISP’s system of tradition, community values and casts it out as irrelevant (Cunneen, 2016,p48 ). They are essentially a population which “lives in a country with two laws” (Cunneen,2008,p121). The erosion of trust, identity and understanding between the Indigenous community and CJS comes from their stolen identity during the cross generational colonisation/marginalisation, where “the Law Reform Commission of Western Australia (2006, p192) found that ‘historically Aboriginal people have been subject to oppressive treatment by police. As a consequence, Aboriginal people often distrust and resent police officers” (Cunneen, 2016, p70) .Hence, the ATSIP has endured oppression, which involves reported stats “back in 1991, depicting the number of Indigenous prisoners increasing by 8% annually compared to 3%” (Cunneen, 2011,p8) while in the ABS 2017, prisoners in Australia reporting “the rate of imprisonment being 15% higher compared to non-aboriginal people and that the rate for aboriginal people has increased by 4% from 2,346 in 2016 to 2,434” (ABS, 2017). By imposing Western ideologies, “It is not the case that Indigenous people are ignored in criminology, but that they are constantly the object of intense scrutiny and intervention” (Cunneen, 2008, p65). Consequently, the ATISP had to “accept the fact that they are a doomed race whom has been imposed/ trapped by an alien culture” (Cunneen, 2008, p131). The CJS has flaws in accommodating Indigenous people stemming from their limitations of access and lack of consideration to accommodate Aboriginal customs and traditions into the CJS’s procedures. This places the system’s challenges in maintaining the coexistence of “equality, fairness and access” (Beazer,2018,p280) and essentially the system fails by their lack of inclusion and integration of aboriginal customs. The ATISP within the CJS is disadvantaged where they are being overrepresented through their “race being conflated with criminality and viewed as a colonised and criminalised group” (Cuneen,p68,2008). This means that actions which are not normally deemed a crime by the state, are more likely subjected to over-policing and arrest. Overpolicing has been an issue where “over-representation happens at all levels of the justice system: including initial contact, arrest, conviction and imprisonment” (Cunneen, 2015, p370). The population was subject to “constant surveillance experienced by some Aboriginal communities, being dramatically brought to public attention in the 1970s, following media reports on the policing of the Sydney suburb, Redfern, where there was a high concentration of Aboriginal people” (Cunneen, 2015, p370). This depicts the history of ATISP and the police to have been depicted as a long hostile and discretionary relationship. Forms of discretion range from stats showcasing that police would more likely stop and search young aboriginal people compared to non-aboriginal people and between 90-95% of these searches were unsuccessful” (Cunneen, 2016,p72). Additionally, “move-on notices were issued to Aboriginal people in inappropriate circumstances and were disproportionately affected by this law. Aboriginal people were also being targeted by the police for congregating in large groups in public areas even though no one is doing anything wrong” (Cunneen, 2016, p72). Crimes considered minor offenses and not heavily defined by the state such as “public drunkenness and minor offences such as offensive language” (Weatherburn,2014,p3), “were still subjected to twice as likely to be arrested and three times more likely to be imprisoned compared to non-indigenous people ” (AHRC, 2019). With these arrests there have also been a substantial increase in ATISP deaths in custody. A report has examined “between 1989 and 1996, a total of 96 ATISP died in custody” (Cunneen, 2011, p8) while “between 2008 and 2019, 153 ATISP have died in custody” (AHRC, 2019). Evident in the death of Ms Dhu in 2014, she was mistreated by police where she was “cuffed, accused and overlooked by her complaining about her injuries/pain seeming exaggerated/faked and eventually died due to infection by injuries caused by her partner” (Allam,2019). Another example showcases the death of Kwementyaye Briscoe, “where he was arrested due to him being drunk in a public space. His death comes by the mistreatment and lack of treatment by police while being dragged to his cell, succumbing to alcohol poisoning and inadequate medical checking ” (Allam, 2019). Overall, the history of hostility/oppression portrayed by authorities and police showcases the lack of inclusion, trust and reform between the authorities and ATISP. The overrepresentation of Immigrant (ethnic minority) populations comes from the public’s fear of crime and factors of labelling, discrimination and institutionalised racism play a significant role in depicting the “myth of the criminal immigrant being deeply rooted in public opinion, shaped by political rhetoric and fanned by sensationalist media accounts” (Sydes,2015,p11).This results in different ethnic groups ending up increasingly racial profiled and overpoliced within our general population and overrepresented in the CJS. As ethnic minorities means any person born outside Australia, defining this term would be difficult as there are people who have the appearance of a minority, yet it is also easy to misrepresent who exactly is born in Australia or born overseas just by their appearance (Pyonting,2008, p119). Age and race also makes the label “dubious and not straight forward” (Pyonting, 2008, p119 ). In “forming the myth which protrudes the idea of fearing crime where gangs of ethnic minority youth are perceived to be threatening because of unfamiliarity to or produce prejudice on the part of, dominant ethnic groups engendered by media and popular representations” (Cunneen, 2008, p119). Although there has never been a true link to ethnicity and crime, people’s perceptions usually “stems from the fact that immigrants typically embody the characteristics known to be associated with crime among natives” (Syde, 2015, p13). However most people base their judgment on their “appearance, socio economic status, education and age which links them demographically with other ethnic minority groups” (Mukherjee,1999, Cunneen, 2008, p119). History of Immigrant crime linking usually relates back to assumptions and past actions where people from particular minority races have committed horrific or shocking crimes which have substantially impacted the community. However reports have found that first generation immigrants are “actually underrepresented in crime with 3.9 per 1000 with being less than that for adult Australians at 5.7 per 1000 people” (Pyonting,2008, p120). Considering this, the “recidivism rate of immigrants was half that of Australian born locals” (Pyonting, 2008,p120). However “popular media prejudices and misconceptions” (Poynting,2008,p121) blow these situations out of proportion. Examples dating back to the 1950’s show that different minority groups change, so long as they are the centre of attention at the time. From the 1950’s and 60’s, “the attention was directed at the Italians and greeks , where in 1961 they were involved in an organised prosititution” (Pyonting, 2008, p121). During 1970, “there was a whole community of Italians being criminalised due to the sales of cannabis” (Poynting, 2008, p121). In the 1980’s, “Vietnamese people were a sign of violence and drug related crime due to paranoia and connection to the Vietnam War” (Pyonting,2008, p121). Essentially the common trend of these events were, whatever the state defines as a crime at the time and whatever ethnic group/ minority produces drama, moral panic and substantial harm to a community, whether it is now or in the past (eg 9/11,Vietnam War), will cause moral panic upon the community, who will disproportionately label, racialise and misrepresent (Poynting,2008,p121). In correlation, the “rise in young ethnic gangs: Asian and Lebanese in the 1990’s in the diverse cities of Melbourne and Sydney, was another incident which produced moral panic, and were subjected to popular state surveillance and intervention” (Poynting, 2008, p121). Essentially this never ending cycle would continue today to the incident of the South Sudanese population being blamed for the “Apex gang” involvement in the Moomba brawl incident in 2016 ( Benier, 2018). Essentially this situation caused the community to stereotypically label the sudanese gangs as the current trending gang. Perspectively, this trend will never end and once another incident arises, this will provide a chain domino effect lunging onto the next minority. Ultimately, institutionalised racism stems from the differences and bias which comes from the exaggerated perceptions and opinions of the media and general population, where essentially “the extra visibility of young ethnic minority people feeds the media’s moral panics over gangs, as well as bolstering a racial stereotyping based upon physical appearance” (White, 2015,2013a, p45). Essentially both discussed populations intersect quite similarly by being interwined through institutionalised racism, marginisation and discrimination. Intersectionality showcases how both groups form similar tendencies for other people to stigmatise them and assume them as deviants in our society. Factors such as discrimination, racism and socio economic status form a basic foundation to why they are commonly overrepresented in the CJS. Both populations experience “differential policing , where this refers to a style of policing that negatively impacts those subject to police decisions based on particular sexual, racial and class dimensions and stereotypes” (White, 2015, p370). Both populations also have similar age groups being overrepresented particularly the youth whom are less controlled compared to first generation parents. ATISP are also subject to moral panic and stereotyping since “in a similar vein, the dominant construction of Aboriginality within the media is largely negative and tends to be associated with stereotypes such as the long-grasser, juvenile joyrider, petty thieves and drunk crimes” (White, 2015, p45). The two populations ultimately incite bias from public perception and fear based on their actions/behaviour around them. Perspectively both populations experience institutionalised racism, where over policing is common for police to perceive these ethnic groups to behave in a certain way and harness particular stereotypes. The differences from which these populations experience stem from their origins, status and methods in which they are mistreated by authorities. Although ATISP has existing reforms such as koori courts, community centres and night patrols, ethnic minorities don’t really have any of these reforms and tend to be trapped within public perception due to the population’s past actions. Whatever differences and similarities these populations have in common, what is certain is the fact they are caught in a society which is bias and sensitive to fear of crime. Both populations require inclusion, reform and alternate/diversion sentencing measures within the CJS to avoid overrepresentation. As our country becomes more diverse and with society’s values changing rapidly, the CJS/law should follow suit to reflect these changes in depicting society’s diverse values and customs. Our current CJS fails to adopt and adapt changes under the rule of law, which reflects as conservative barriers block inclusion and why certain populations end up overrepresented. Populations such as the ATSIP and Immigrant ethnic minorities mainly become overpoliced due to them being subject to institutional racism, labelling, discrimination and oppression. Resolving the problem of overrepresentation requires the CJS to be open to reform, understanding, interaction, education and social inclusivity to allow the system to provide alternative access/justice solutions to represent the values of the general population. Overall, given the conservative nature and stance of our CJS, the perspective of the general society, and the lack of change to reform the flaws in accommodating these populations equally within our justice system and society, is essentially what makes these populations so overrepresented. Bibliography Allam, L Bannister J,Herbert M, Wahlquist C, 2019, Deaths inside: Indigenous Australian deaths in custody 2019, The Guardian , Balnaves foundation Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 2017 . Prisoners in Australia, 2017. Australian Bureau of Statistics Australian Human rights commission 2019, Indigenous Deaths in Custody: Report Summary, Australian Human rights commission, Beazer, Farrar, Filippin, Wilson 2018. Access and Justice 14e legal studies for units 3 and 4. Cambridge University Press, 14th ed. Benier, K., Blaustein, J., Johns, D.,
Create a PowerPoint presentation that showcases your ability to tell a story. Introduction This portfolio work project will give you practice with professional writing expectations, as well as motivating and persuading others by telling a story. Create a brief slide presentation, with graphics, and preferably your voice presenting, that analyzes the tools and strategies that leaders can use to build trust and collaboration, and explains why you believe storytelling is one effective tool for you to use to lead your team. The Creating a Presentation in the MBA Program Resources and the Guidelines for Effective PowerPoint Presentations [PDF] document will help you with this presentation. The Ariel Group explains that a story needs to follow a basic four-step format that gently leads the audience into the story, through the story, and connecting the story: The Ariel Group. (2011). Executive essentials: Storytelling [PDF]. Available from https://www.arielgroup.com/ Use this format, based on page 9 of the Ariel group resource, to create six slides (including cover page and references): Slide 1. Cover slide with title and your name, and a graphic for interest (be sure to credit graphic artist in the reference slide). Slide 2. Introduce the subject matter or business content, much as the introduction to a paper would do. Example: “NASA has a reputation for communication issues among teammates, but our team is going to change all of that. This presentation does this and that.” Slide 3. Building Trust and Collaboration. Discuss the importance of trust and collaboration in the workplace, then identify and discuss at least two tools or strategies (other than storytelling) leaders can use for building trust and fostering collaboration. Slide 4. Storytelling. Explain ways in which leaders can use storytelling to build trust and relationships. Slide 5. Transition into the story. This slide should transition into your story, setting the expectations of the audience of what is to come. Example: “I once worked at another company that had some major communications issues. It wasn’t life or death like here at NASA, but we did have some serious problems in communications that impacted our ability to be effective. Let me share with you a story to illustrate a vision of how we can work together . . .” Slide 6. Tell the Story. This slide should actually tell your story: Set the stage. Describe the conflict. Describe the resolution. Example: “About 10 years ago I was working as a shift leader at a manufacturing facility where safety was supposedly part of the culture, yet we had a frighteningly bad safety record . . .” Continue the story. Slide 7. Connect the story to a teaching point or subject matter. This slide should bring your story back to the issue at hand. Example: “In this situation, we learned this and that. Here at NASA, we can do the same thing. We can prove that communications this and that.” Think of this like explaining the moral of the story. Slide 8. References. Include references here. Deliverable Format Content and Organization. Attach a PowerPoint presentation that has a cover page, seven content slides per the above, and a references slide. You must have exactly eight slides—learning to follow established guidelines is important in school and the workplace. Audio Presentation. Your slides must be presented with audio; this is an important part of storytelling. Most learners simply record directly into PowerPoint, but you may use other recording software if you wish, as long as your instructor can access it without a password to see your slides and hear your presentation. If you have a disability that makes audio a problem discuss it with your instructor or coach. Slide Appearance. Your slides should be modern, professional, and effective. This means using color and some graphic design. Templates in PowerPoint can help with this. There are many free graphics websites you can use for graphics. Be sure to provide an APA citation for any graphics. Presenter Notes. Note that your slides should not be text heavy. However, you should make ample use of presenter notes. While the presenter notes do not have to be a word-for-word transcriipt, they should be very close to what you say in your audio. References. Your presentation must be evidence based, and as such must have APA formatted citations. This includes a reference slide at the end, but also intext citations on the slides themselves or in the presenter notes. Refer to the writing resources in the MBA Program Resources, especially paying attention to the MBA Academic and Professional Document Guidelines, under Writing Skills, for more information. Evaluation By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies through corresponding scoring guide criteria: Competency 2: Apply leadership strengths and behaviors to workplace situations. Apply storytelling skills to a workplace situation where trust and collaboration are essential. Competency 3: Recommend evidence-based strategies for leading and collaborating in complex environments. Analyze the tools leaders can use to build trust and relationships, foster collaboration, and help employees feel engaged with their work. Explain ways in which leaders use storytelling to build trust and relationships. Competency 4: Communicate effectively through academic and professional writing. Develop text using organization, structure, and transitions that demonstrate understanding of the relationship between the main topic and subtopics. Integrate appropriate use of scholarly sources, evidence, and citation style. Convey clear meaning in text through sound grammar, usage, word choice, and mechanics.
PED 103 Chesapeake College Developing a Healthy Scheduled Fitness Plan Paper
Drug Receptor Occupation Theory Experiment
Drug Receptor Occupation Theory Experiment. The aim of the experiments was to investigate the drug/receptor occupancy theory and also show that the similar effects of histamine could be produced by carbachol through acetylcholine receptors after inhibition of histamine receptors. The selection of the ileum was advantageous because the tissue could be used over and over before damage and also the abundance of histamine in the gut (Ganellin and Parsons, 2006). The choice of antagonist was influenced by the generalised view that the histamine inducing mediators were of the H1 type (Zseli, Zappia, Molina and Bertaccini, 1979) who cited the earlier works of Ash and Schild (1966). Further works by Hill et al. in 1977 cited by Zseli et al. (1979) showed 3H-mepyramine as an antagonist at histamine receptors. The drugs used were mepyramine (a histamine antagonist), carbachol (a muscarinic agonist). Bovine serum albumen (BSA) and egg albumen were introduced in the second part of the investigation to provide a challenge for the mast cells in the sensitisation. For both parts of the experiment, the tissue setup was the same. A piece of ileum, approximately 3cm long was arranged in a bath containing Tyrode’s solution with oxygen bubbling through. The ileum was tied on both ends using reef notes and one end was tied to a transducer arm to record contraction responses and the other end was held firmly by the tissue holder ensuring it was completely immersed in the solution. The bath containg the tissue was in a water bath set at 35Â°C. For the first part, dilutions of 10-3M to 10-6M histamine were made from a stock of 10-2M and 10-4M to 10-6M of mepyramine. Responses to volumes of 0.1ml and 0.3ml histamine starting with the lowest concentration were obtained, whilst adhering to etiquette of washing out the tissue before the next volume or concentration. Two washes were carried out, 15 seconds apart. The recorder arm was started 80 seconds prior to the next addition. Once the maximum response had been obtained from the histamine from the trace, the mepyramine was added to a bath containing twice the amount of histamine that produced half the response on its own and labelled 2x and the addition stopped once the response caused in the presence of the mepyramine was less than that of x. A concentration/antagonist graph was plotted in order to work out the pA2 value, which would give an indication of how strong an antagonist the mepyramine was. The second part was carried out in three stages: one control and two sensitised experiments. Dilutions of 10-4M histamine, 10-4M mepyramine and 10-4M carbachol were made. Control Graded responses to 0.3ml, 0.6ml and 0.9ml of histamine were obtained, followed by an addition of 0.2ml of mepyramine then 0.4ml of histamine. Finally, 0.4ml of carbachol was added, and the response noted. Sensitised 1 0.2ml, 0.4ml and 0.6ml of histamine and carbachol were used to obtain graded responses after washing the tissue from the control experiment. 1ml if the egg albumen was added followed by 0.4ml of histamine. This was to see if the egg would prevent a contraction. 0.2ml of mepyramine was added and 30 seconds later 0.4ml of histamine. Finally 0.4ml of carbachol was added. All the responses were recorded on the trace for later analysis. Sensitised 2 Once more, graded responses to histamine were obtained from the washed tissue. 0.2ml of mepyramine was added followed by 0.4ml of histamine 30 seconds later. 1ml of egg albumen was added after 0.2ml of mepyramine was added and finally 0.4m of carbachol was added. RESULTS The contraction responses were read of the trace diagram by counting the number of squares to the maximum point before line levelled off. The value for x was chosen at half the maximum response, which was 0.1ml. this was doubled to have 2x. Trace diagrams – attached Trace diagrams for various responses of ileum (not to scale, for illustration purposes only) Control responses “page 1” Graded responses to histamine (used 0.9ml l0-4M and 0.3 and 0.6ml of l0-3M) “page 2” Response to 0.4ml of 10-4M carbachol Response 1ml of the bovine serum albumen solution Response 1ml of the egg albumen solution 0.2ml of l0-4M mepyramine followed after 30sec by 0.4 ml of l0-4M histamine Response to 0.4 ml 10-4M carbachol “Page 1” shows the graded responses to histamine “Page 2” shows the responses when mepyramine and carbachol were added Sensitised Experiment 1 (note the trace goes the opposite way to normal (i.e. down =response) Histamine (0.2 and 0.4 ml of l0-4M) 0.4ml of 10-4M Carbachol 1ml of the bovine serum albumen solution 1ml of the egg albumen solution Part B 1ml of the egg albumen solution without washing add 0.4 ml of l0-4M histamine (the peak is the response to histamine not the 2nd application of egg albumen) 0.2ml of l0-4M mepyramine followed after 30sec by 0.4 ml of l0-4M histamine (missing) 0.4 ml of 10-4M carbachol Part B Other groups results (for missing data on mepyramine and histamine) Histamine (0.2 and 0.4 ml of l0-4M) 0.4ml of 10-4M Carbachol (missing) 1ml of the bovine serum albumen solution (missing) 1ml of the egg albumen solution 1ml of the egg albumen solution without washing add 0.4 ml of l0-4M histamine (the peak is the response to histamine not the 2nd application of egg albumen) 0.2ml of l0-4M mepyramine followed after 30sec by 0.4 ml of l0-4M histamine (the bit missing in the data set above) 0.4 ml of 10-4M carbachol Sensitised Experiment 2 Part A Histamine (0.2, 0.4 and 0.3 ml of l0-4M) Part B 0.8 ml of 10-4M Carbachol 1ml of the bovine serum albumen solution 0.2ml of 10 -4M mepyramine followed after 30sec by 1ml of egg albumen Part C 0.2ml of 10-4M mepyramine followed after 30sec by 0.4 ml of 10-4M histamine 0.4 ml of l0-4M carbachol Part A Response stops here Part B Part C (below) Response in the presence of histamine, mepyramine and carbachol. Only carbachol produced a response. DISCUSSION From the first experiment, it was seen that the response gradually reduced as the concentration of the mepyramine increased (Figure 1) suggesting that the tissue was obeying the drug/receptor occupancy theory where mepyramine was acting on H1 histamine receptors (Zseli et al. 1979). The relatively high pA2 value was an indication of how strong the antagonism was since the concentration of mepyramine at 10-6M was lower than that of the histamine at 10-3M. The control experiment demonstrated that histamine produced a response in the absence of its antagonist mepyramine and so did the carbachol even when the mepyramine was present. This could have been due to existence of other receptors which responded to the carbachol which Foster (1991) suggests could be the same as those used by acetylcholine, since both are muscarinic agonists. The first sensitised experiment further supported the hypothesis that the response to carbachol could have been caused by receptors of a different nature because the histamine would not cause a contraction in the presence of mepyramine whereas the carbachol did. Upon addition of the BSA and the egg albumen, there were still contractions from histamine which were stopped by addition of mepyramine (from trace c in experiment 2) yet again showing that mepyramine was very competitive. CONCLUSION Carbachol acts through acetylcholine receptors and mepyramine is a very active antagonist which even at low concentration will have an inhibitory effect on the histamine receptors in the ileum. Drug Receptor Occupation Theory Experiment
Concepts of Homeland Security and Homeland Defense and Two Responses
i need help writing an essay Concepts of Homeland Security and Homeland Defense and Two Responses.
Before completing this forum, make sure to carefully read the below instructions, the forum grading rubric, and the attached forum philosophy and example forum response. Please provide a response to the following question:Describe the concept of homeland security and its relationship to homeland defense and national security.Note there are 5 total forum posts required each week, although your final reply is just an acknowledgement of the Professor Wrap Up at the end of week.Important — Forum Grading Rubric: Answers the forum question(s) with a relevant, coherent and scholarly initial forum response (>250 words) 20/20; demonstrates lesson comprehension in forums with no more than 10% of content as direct quotes 15/15; employs complete and proper APA in-text parenthetical citations of the required readings for this week 10/10; responses to two classmates initial forum answers (>100 words each) 20/20; quality answer to professor follow-up question 20/20, main forum has APA reference list at end of forum (including the required readings) 5/5; reads and acknowledges professors end of week wrap up forum 10/10.(the attached philosophy and example post also show you where to find the wrap up).Note: your primary forum post answering the assigned question for the week is due on Thursday by 1155PM EST, and per the syllabus you can lose up to 5 points per day for late work. (but week 1 you can have a little leeway)Instructions: Craft your main forum answer like a short paper directly answering the topic of the week with a well written response that fully utilizes the required readings for the week with at least 250 words of content (not counting reference list or restating the question). Focus only on the assigned question(s) in a scholarly manner using in-text citations from the required readings (save your personal experiences and opinions for your four forum replies in any given week). Each sentence referring to any ideas or information from any source must be cited properly including the author and year of publication. Do not cite or paraphrase the course lessons — they are just basic information to start the week off and is not meant to be a primary source for you to reference in your reply (to receive full credit you must utilize and cite the listed required readings for that week). You should not be directly quoting from the readings (or other scholarly sources) in your forum post as you only have 250 words to answer the question (paraphrase and synthesize). However, if you do use a direct quote you must also include the page or paragraph number that you are quoting from like (Hoffman, 2006, p.7) or for articles and sources without pages (Renner, 2016, para.15). If you are directly quoting and there is no page number to cite, then you manually count the paragraphs and cite that number. If you do directly quote from a required reading in your post, they can not be more than 10% of your overall post per the APUS “incorporating quotes” guidelines listed on our course syllabus page.Your posts also are required to have an APA style reference list at the end of your post listing the sources employed (it must be titled “references” and not “works cited” or any other title per APA). For more on APA citations and reference lists see the APUS Style Guide for APA. Forum posts are graded based on demonstrated knowledge of the lesson and weekly readings, relevance, timeliness, as well as clarity and quality of analysis and synthesis. Sources utilized to support answers are to come from the weekly readings, but other credible and scholarly sources may be used to supplement (but not replace) the assigned readings. However, dictionaries, encyclopedias and Wikipedia are not scholarly and are not acceptable sources in college level work. Do not use non-scholarly open websites as sources for your reply to the main forum answer. Make sure all your work in this course is your own original writing and not copied and pasted from a classmate, the internet, or anywhere else. The order of your posting matters and you must first provide your own initial forum answer for the week before replying to any classmates or the professor. The remaining four replies of the week are more of a free flowing classroom discussion. This offers you opportunities to leverage your relevant personal experiences and express your thoughts and opinions. Respond to at least two other students initial forum answers with a minimum of 100 words each. In your replies to classmates you may offer your opinion on the topic of the week, substantially support or supplement another student’s answer, or even politely disagree with or challenge their forum answer (but do not ask your classmates questions, or do so only as a last resort per the forum philosophy). You will also reply to my follow up question in your own forum string, and also read and acknowledge the Professor wrap up forum I post toward the end of the week. Also, do not be afraid to respectfully disagree with the readings or a classmate where you feel appropriate; as this should be part of your analysis process and employing critical thinking and academic freedom. All forum work must be completed within the academic week. When replying to the main forum answer make sure to include your name in the “topic title” of your initial forum answer/response. Your post must be a text answer directly into the forum area and attachments such as word documents are not acceptable.
Concepts of Homeland Security and Homeland Defense and Two Responses
The Umayyad Dome Of The Rock
The Umayyad Dome Of The Rock. The Umayyad Dome of the Rock is one of the fundamental works of Islamic architecture. The Umayyad Dome of the Rock is renowned work of art and architecture, which had a number of implicit meanings among which it is possible to single out political implications and correlations to Biblical scriptures. In addition, the Umayyad Dome of the Rock reveals the impact of external factors, including the impact of Christianity and Judaism on the architecture of the dome. Historically, Islam and Judaism were closely intertwined, although Islam had appeared centuries ago since the appearance of Judaism and Christianity. Many specialists view Judaism as one of the major monotheistic religion, which became the precursor of such world religions as Christianity and Islam (Cowling, 2005). In fact, the emergence of Islam was the development of the new religion, which had a lot of similarities to Judaism and Christianity. In such a context, the similarity between Islam, Christianity and Judaism can be viewed as the result of the historical interaction between these religions. The development of Islam was closely intertwined with Judaism and Christianity because representatives of these religions have interacted since ancient time. Even though Islam emerged in the seventh century AD, the population converted to Islam had an extensive experience of interaction with Judaist, whereas Jews always lived in Muslim countries. In such a way, the interaction between Islam, Christianity and Judaism was determined by the historical development of both religions and it was grounded on the neighborhood of both cultures. In such a context, the implicit meaning of the Umayyad Dome of the Rock reveals not only hidden Islamic context and meaning but also it reveals the influence of Christianity and Judaism on Islam. The influence can be traced through the architectural form and the form of the Dome, which is borrowed from Christianity and Judaism. At first glance the Umayyad Dome of the Rock is the manifestation of the traditional Islamic architecture. The Umayyad Dome of the Rock was built in Jerusalem, the city, which was sacred for Muslims as well as representatives of other mainstream religions in the region, such as Judaism and Christianity. It is important to place emphasis on the fact that “the holiness of Jerusalem was, after all, inherited by Islam from Judaism and Christianity” (Rabbat, 14). Therefore, the construction of the Umayyad Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem was an important decision and, in all probability, it was determined by the importance of building in the political and religious context. In fact, the construction of the Umayyad Dome of the Rock was the attempt to show the power of Islam and its domination in the Holy City – Jerusalem. On the other hand, specialists point out that “the Dome of the Rock has no immediately discernible purpose or function other than the commemorative one, and even that is riddled with uncertainties” (Rabbat, 12). However, such uncertainty concerning the purpose of the construction of the Umayyad Dome of the Rock is caused by the variety of implications concerning the meaning of the building and its purposes. In other words, the diversity of views on the Umayyad Dome of the Rock leads to the emergence of numerous interpretations of the meaning of the building. The Umayyad Dome of the Rock represents the manifestation of the Islamic architecture. The Dome is executed in architectural traditions typical for Islam, including the interior design, deprived of pictures and having citations from Quran. On the other hand, specialists point out that it is necessary to view the “Dome as a monument which used Biblical connotations and Christian-Byzantine forms to impose Islam’s presence in the Holy City. The combination would imply that the new faith considered itself the continuation and the seal of the two preceding ones: Judaism and Christianity” (Rabbat, 12-13). Such a conclusion derives from the monumental architecture and the location of the building. The Umayyad Dome of the Rock has incorporated elements of Biblical texts and scriptures. Hence, the Umayyad Dome of the Rock reveals the close links of Islam with other religions, such as Christianity and Judaism. Basically, it is possible to trace the links to Biblical texts through the scriptures within the Dome that reveals the connection between Islam and other religions which used Biblical scriptures as a source of sacred texts. The similar trends between religions can be traced by similarities of their religious concepts and ideas. For instance, Christianity, Islam and Judaism are monotheistic. Judaism was one of the first monotheistic religions, whereas Islam is one of the latest world religions, which had gained the public approval and support of many believers. Christianity, Judaism and Islam recognize one God only, although each religion has its own God. In addition, similarities can be traced in sacred texts and books of Judaism and Islam. Islam and Judaism have similarities in sacred texts because their sacred texts are interrelated. To put it more precisely, they often refer to similar or identical events in the history and religious life of Jews and Muslims (Ross, 1984). As a result, they focus on similar events but the interpretation of these events as well as their details may differ depending on the religion. Hence, the elements of Biblical texts and Christian and Judaist concepts can be traced in the Umayyad Dome of the Rock. Therefore, the Dome became a symbol of the superiority of Islam over other religions because elements of Biblical texts show that Islam is superior to other religions (Esposito, 1998). At the same time, it is possible to presuppose that the Biblical elements in the Umayyad Dome of the Rock can be determined by the attempt of architects to show the power of Islam and its superiority in regard to other religions. In such a way, the Umayyad Dome of the Rock could symbolize the superiority of Islam because it showed that all Biblical texts and sacred texts of Christianity and Judaism were incorporated in the Umayyad Dome of the Rock that implies their subordination to Islam. In addition, specialists (Rabbat, 15) point out the political implications of the Umayyad Dome of the Rock. What is meant here is the fact that the Umayyad Dome of the Rock could be constructed to the show the power of the ruling dynasty (Cowling, 2005). To put it more precisely, the ruling dynasty attempts to show its respect to God and religion. In such a context, the construction of the Umayyad Dome of the Rock was the manifestation of the attempt of the ruling dynasty to leave its trace in history of Islam and to show its power. At the same time, the construction of the Umayyad Dome of the Rock implied that the ruling dynasty is eternal because its rule will last as long as the Umayyad Dome of the Rock stands. In such a context, the Umayyad Dome of the Rock has a symbolic political meaning. In addition, the building was constructed in Jerusalem, which was not only the religious center but also the subject of heat political struggle. For instance, Crusades always aimed at the invasion of Jerusalem, whereas Muslims always attempted to preserve the city as the Holy City of Islam. Thus, the Umayyad Dome of the Rock had multiple meanings and implications. The Dome has religious, political and cultural implications of the construction of the Umayyad Dome of the Rock. The main point of the construction of the Umayyad Dome of the Rock was to show the superiority of Islam and Islamic culture over other religions and cultures. The Dome was constructed to show the power of the ruling dynasty, which constructed the Umayyad Dome of the Rock. In such a way, the Umayyad Dome of the Rock became a symbol of Islam in Jerusalem. The Umayyad Dome Of The Rock
DNA Isolation System for DNA Profiling
DNA Isolation System for DNA Profiling. 1. Introduction DNA profiling has reached great heights in forensic science with new technological advancements every other year, which makes it possible to associate the evidence with a particular person. DNA profiling techniques are widely used in human identity testing for identifying the suspect, paternity testing, identification of victim’s in mass disaster and identification of a person’s identity from human remains. DNA profiling technology is not only used in human identity testing but also in wild life and conservation genetics. DNA profiling is most often subjected to discrepancy and number of factors; like the extraction protocol followed, source of the DNA (blood, saliva, semen, skin cells, sweat, hair etc), contamination of the sample, match probability, Partial DNA profile, Low copy number, mixtures, etc can cause ambiguity and the defence counsel often tend to raise questions on these issues . DNA profiling methods utilize the genotypic differences between the individuals to identify the contributor. Profiling the entire genome is a daunting task to perform, hence for this reason: short tandem repeats on the non coding regions of the genome are profiled. These tandem repeats on specific alleles of the non coding regions are said to be unique among individuals, perhaps the DNA profile as evidence may not be declared as a 100 % match with the profile of the suspect hence forth, a random match probability that some other person unrelated to the suspect having the same profile is calculated. Finding a suitable DNA isolation system to attain a good profile is important. The extraction procedure varies according to the type of biological evidence and also on the quantity of the evidence collected. The method of choice in a forensic laboratory is one which can yield sufficient quantity of amplified DNA and a good quality profile. 2. Source of DNA evidence: The efficiency of obtaining a full good quality profile also depends on the source of the DNA sample. Though DNA can be obtained from various sources like Semen, Blood, Hair, Bones, Teeth, saliva, Sweat, Urine and skin cells, but the focus is mainly imposed on the DNA obtained from blood and saliva and buccal swabs when collecting reference samples from a suspect or victim. Chelex and Qiagen are best suited for samples obtained from buccal swabs, skin cells and blood. Each nucleated cell has approximately 6pg of DNA, while liquid blood has 5000-10,000 nucleated blood cells per/ml. Blood is an excellent source of human DNA. DNA is present in white blood cells of humans, but not in red blood cells which lack nuclei. A small spot of blood, approximately 50 Âµl is sufficient enough for PCR amplification. Buccal swabs are easy and a painless method to collect DNA sample. They contain numerous cheek cells which shed very frequently, which is a rich source of cellular DNA. Buccal Swabs also contain considerable amounts of saliva in it, making it even a good source of DNA. 3. Methods for DNA extraction: The organic extraction methods like phenol chloroform method are cheap and efficient enough to remove PCR inhibitors but greatly reduce the amount of DNA. The other widely used techniques below are used in many forensic laboratories in UK and also in other parts of the world. 3.1 Chelex method: The Chelex is one of the easiest and simplest methods to use for forensic casework. It works effectively well when the sample quantity is minimal even a “speck of blood”. The extraction mechanism is simple and effective based on cell lysis during heating and binding of Chelex resin (Styrene vinyl benzene copolymers) to the Mg2 ions preventing the degradation of DNA from DNase yielding a single stranded DNA which is compatible for further PCR analysis. 3.1.1 Advantages: Cheap, reliable and fast. Less number of sample transfer between tubes , less chance of contamination Non hazardous chemicals used Yields single stranded DNA, hence compatible with PCR technique. Efficient even when the sample amount is slightly minimal than required. 3.1.2 Limitations of Chelex : One of the major disadvantages of Chelex is that it is not efficient in removal of inhibitors. Not suitable for long term storage because the resin loses its binding capacity with the metal ions. Presence of Chelex resin particles even after removal step may sometimes inhibit PCR process. Degraded DNA is unsuitable for extraction using the Chelex method because the heating may cause disruptions in the degraded DNA. Uneven distribution of resin beads may also affect the PCR process. 3.2 Qiagen: The QIAamp extraction kit is much more rapid and fast method when compared with the Chelex and other organic extraction methods. The QIAamp kit uses a special spin column which made of a silica gel membrane. Under high salt (Chaotropic) concentrations, the DNA binds with the silica membrane and Cells are lysed on addition of Proteinase, and on further washing and spinning removes unwanted contaminants and inhibitors, while the DNA is still adsorbed to the membrane. The Adsorbed DNA can be finally eluted by rehydration with aqueous low salt solutions. The eluted DNA is double stranded. 3.2.1. Advantages: No toxic chemicals used High quality yields Efficient removal of contaminants and inhibitors Can be used for variety of samples like freshDNA Isolation System for DNA Profiling