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Evaluation of SWOT Analysis of Marks and Spencer

SWOT analysis contains two component activities. There is an internal assessment to determine what strengths and weaknesses the firm possesses. There is also an external assessment to identify opportunities and threats from outside the organization. The standards which translate SWOT into strategies are that a firm should select the strategies that maximize the use of their strengths and minimize reliance on weaknesses to take advantage of environmental opportunities while avoiding threats. The purpose of SWOT analysis is to provide a realistic appraisal of the firm and the environment in which it operates. SWOT provides a basis for the formulation of realistic goals and objectives and strategies for their implementation. Without a SWOT analysis the firm’s planning process is fatally flawed. Planning is an information-based activity and, without information planning, quickly degenerates into a political exercise in selling individual biases and preconceptions. Further complicating matters is that if SWOT is not essentially conducted, there is no basis upon which to assess progress toward the accomplishment of goals and objectives; and the accountability upon which managerial control is based also quickly degenerates. There are significant benefits to SWOT. By the identification of the strengths and weaknesses of the organization, strategies can be designed to efficiently allocate the organization’s resources, hence increasing overall organizational effectiveness. SWOT can identify profitable opportunities and high-risk ventures that enhance the firm’s effectiveness. Preventive measures can be designed to avoid major environmental threats that may save large amounts of resources that might otherwise be required to correct damage from those environmental threats. The identification of organizational strengths provides valuable information concerning what competencies exist within the firm upon which to base strategies. The same activities also result in information that permits avoidance of reliance on weaknesses that may not be capable of fulfilling strategic roles within the organization. The effectiveness with which strengths and weaknesses are assessed will, in large measure, determine the effectiveness of the organization’s strategies. There are several environments in which a firm functions. These environments are the economic environment, the sociopolitical environment, and the technological environment. Each of these environments has important components and implications for the strategic planning process. The economic environment consists of both factor and product markets considerations. The availability of supporting market structures, intermediate goods, labor, and the price levels within these areas will determine the costs of production for the firm. The product market; its relative competitiveness, whether it is expanding or contracting; and its continued viability will determine the ability of the firm to generate revenues from that market. The case presented here examines the crisis and ongoing problems of Marks
Ethics in Criminal Justice Administration Analysis.

PART A Minimum of 175 words: What are the prevailing theories of crime control? How do these crime control theories impact the overall policing function and its success? How does the data support the notion that crime control theories positively (or negatively) impact policing functions? Explain.PART BWrite a 1,400- to 1,750-word paper in which you analyze the relationship between ethics and professional behavior in the administration of criminal justice.Explain the role of critical thinking with regard to the relationship between ethics and professional behavior.Include in your paper a proposal for a seminar in ethics training for law enforcement officers.In your proposal choose five areas of ethical conduct and that will be stressed in the seminar.Explain why you chose those areas and what the expected benefits of the training will be for both officers and the community.Include at least four peer-reviewed referencesAPA FORMATINCLUDE INTRODUCTION INCLUDE CONCLUSIONNO MAKOR GRAMMAR ISSUESNO PLAGIARISM
Ethics in Criminal Justice Administration Analysis

Introduction to Autism Spectrum Disorders in Young Children.

Please ensure all work is original and no plagiarism. Turnitin will be used.For this week’s Discussion make sure you have viewed the video “Oreo Game” found in your readings
in this unit. Pay particular attention to Ally, a child with autism
working with a professional who is attempting to facilitate a social
interaction between Ally and her peers. Then answer the following
Discussion topics.
Analyze Ally’s social skills and describe some of
the social difficulties that you observe her to exhibit. What strategies
does the educator use in this video? What are some interventions strategies that a
professional could utilize to address Ally’s social skill difficulties?
Include why you think using these additional strategies would be
beneficial. How might you utilize these strategies as a professional in
your field?

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Introduction to Autism Spectrum Disorders in Young Children

HCA 360 Grand Canyon University Ethics Breach Questions.

The purpose of this assignment is to examine the role technology plays in health care ethics.Though technology, in its increasing ubiquity, largely serves to simplify and make more convenient many daily processes, the extent to which people use and are reliant on technology means that the potential for a vulnerable attack is also heightened. Health care technology has made massive strides in improving quality patient care, making telehealth more accessible to the masses, and cutting down on unnecessary costs. But the more data are digitized, the greater the probability of a breach.Imagine a scenario in which it was discovered that a company producing wearable fitness-tracking devices had been selling confidential consumer data to the consumers’ health insurance company. Based off of the data consumers had been entering in their fitness-tracking app, this third-party insurance company was then able to suggest health and life insurance plans that would best meet the needs of their clients.In a paper of 500-750 words, address the following points:How is this scenario an example of an ethics breach? In what ways were both entities responsible for violating consumer confidentiality?What consequences might both companies face as a result of this breach?Moving forward, what changes would the health insurance company need to implement in order to ensure that their communications with customers and corporations comply with HIPAA?Suppose that a customer had updated a health insurance plan based off of a recommendation made by the insurance company, founded on information received illicitly from the fitness-tracking company. If the customer had a medical emergency that required the use of that added health insurance coverage, is the insurance company still in the wrong? Is the fitness-tracking company still in the wrong? If the misuse of customer data helped to save a patient’s life, was there still a breach of ethics? Explain your position.How will a renewed commitment by both corporations to honor the confidentiality of customer information serve to promote the common good? How is ethical decision making within a business setting consistent with the Christian worldview (CWV)?
HCA 360 Grand Canyon University Ethics Breach Questions

The Importance Of ATP And Enzymes

The Importance Of ATP And Enzymes. The Importance of ATP and Enzymes Our cells are perpetually using ATP (adenosine triphosphate). It is lucky for us that ATP is a renewable resource. With the inclusion of a phosphate group back to ADP, ATP can be replenished. In our reading of the textbook, it says, “This takes energy, that is like recompressing a spring, and wherever food enters the scene”. The chemical energy that harvests cell respiration from sugars and other organic fuels is used to regenerate a cell’s supply of ATP. Cellular work employs ATP recycled when ADP and phosphate are combined with cellular respiratory energy. Thus, energy from processes that yield energy, like the disintegration of organic fuels, is transferred to the actions that consume energy, like the contraction of a muscle and alternative cellular work. The ATP cycle can operate at an amazing rate: in a working muscle cell, up to 10 million ATPs are absorbed and recycled every second (Simon, E. J., Dickey, J. L., Reece, J. B., Hogan, K. A., 2016). For metabolism to occur in ATP chemical bonds within the chemical molecules should be broken. This method needs that the molecules absorb energy from their surroundings. So, in a chemical reaction to ATP, the cell has to allocate some energy in order to make more energy. In relating this to your own life: Cleaning up as you go along when cooking takes effort, but in the long haul, you will have less to do, or clean when you are finished cooking. The time spent, or invested at the beginning is the activation energy, it activates the stimulant (energy) and generates the chemical reaction. The importance of ATP being critical to the cellular chemical process is because energy-carrying molecules are found within the cells of all living things. ATP captures energy obtained from the breakdown of food molecules and releases it to fuel, or different cellular structures. Enzymes change metabolism to occur by reducing the quantity of energy of activation needed to interrupt the bonds of chemical molecules. If you believe of the activation energy as a barrier to a chemical reaction, lowering that barrier is the function of an enzyme. It does this by binding to and placing reactant molecules under physical or chemical stress, making it simpler to break their bonds and initiates a response. In the analogy that I gave of: Cleaning up as you go along when cooking takes effort, but in the long haul, you will have less to do, or clean when you are finished cooking. This would be the comparison of having help from someone, you would start and end at the same spot regardless if you had someone help or not, someone’s help lowers your activation energy, meaning that it is more likely for you to complete the task. An enzyme in the response to a catalyzes is very selective. This selectivity is based on the enzyme’s ability to recognize a certain stimulant molecule, called the substrate of the enzyme. An enzyme area called the active site has a form and chemistry that suits the molecule of the substrate. For the most part, on the active site, there is a pocket or grove on the enzyme surface. When a substrate slides into the docking station, the active site shifts slightly to the substrate and catalyzes the response. This synergy is called induced fit because the onboarding of the substrate causes the enzyme to alter its shape slightly, making them fit between the substrate and is snugger on the active site. After releasing the products from the active site, another substrate molecule can be accepted by the enzyme. The key feature of enzymes is the ability to function repeatedly. In conclusion, if you took the enzyme “lactose” and followed its breakdown we would understand why it is underproduced or defective in lactose-intolerant people. The structure change of this enzyme is why people cannot drink dairy products and which results in them taking lactose pills to build their immunity to milk products. By binding the enzyme “lactose” to a molecule, it causes a metabolic reaction and disrupts the molecule’s function. Lactose is a substrate imposter that plugs up the active site in the molecule. The inhibitor disrupts the enzyme by changing its shape which makes the enzyme under-produced, or defective and without the function of a non-intrusive enzyme, you can’t drink dairy products without a reaction, for some people it causes diarrhea (Simon, E. J., Dickey, J. L., Reece, J. B., Hogan, K. A., 2016). References Simon, E. J., Dickey, J. L., Reece, J. B., Hogan, K. A. Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology. [South University]. Retrieved from https://digitalbookshelf.southuniversity.edu/#/books/1323125574/ The Importance Of ATP And Enzymes

Georgia Southern University The Uprising of the Movements Analysis Paper

essay writer free Georgia Southern University The Uprising of the Movements Analysis Paper.

Discuss the parameters and differences of the Civil Rights Movement, Ferguson and Today’s Black Lives Matter Movements in a four to six-page paper.Specifically, you will need to research the general history of the Ferguson Movement, and the Civil Rights Movement in addition to the recent Black Lives Matter Movement of Today which involves George Floyd, Breonna Taylor and Amaud Abery. Make the comparisons by talking about the key players of the movement, why the movements took place, where and the significance of these events. For the Civil Rights Movement of the 60’s you can pick a place or event Like the 4 Little Girls killed in Birmingham, Emmitt Till (whose death started the Civil Rights Movement) Rosa Parks on the bus etc.You can write your essay in the first or third person.Use a minimum of 3 cited sourcesDue DateJun 29, 2020 11:59 PM
Georgia Southern University The Uprising of the Movements Analysis Paper

JetBlue Airway Companies Blogging Essay

JetBlue airway is one of the companies that are making use, and benefiting from the use of web 2.0 applications. There was a time this company set a 21-hour blogging when they were opening their new terminal 5 at JFK airport. Their main theme was to keep continuous posts to inform the world about the happenings in the new terminal. This blog was to target both the customers and the employees from all over, to keep them updated. That blog exists up to date as a way of connecting both the internal and the external customers, and at the same time to show this company has adopted the new technology (O`Reilly). By use of web 2.0, David Neelman, the CEO of JetBlue was able to come up with a personal blog for the advantage of the JetBlue airways. After taking a flight in JetBlue, David collected data from the customers that he used to post in this blog. Through this, JetBlue was able to interact with its customers directly, and was a very successful exercise that attracted many customers to this airline and acted as a lesson to other companies. Consumer participation, social engagement, and motivation are crucial aspects in JetBlue. Through Flickr, JetBlue shares its events such as thanksgiving parties online to keep their customers engaged in their every move. The web 2.0 has helped JetBlue to share its experiences with customers, to make them participate through comments and feel as part of the company. This is a great way of motivating the customers to maintain the company loyalty (O`Reilly). Through online sharing, the customers and the employees of the company feel honored and appreciated. Through the exclusive eBay stores, JetBlue has interacted with its treasured customers through the most comfortable way without interrupting their activities. JetBlue believes in making the best use of technology to reach new customers and to retain the old ones through participation and socializing with them. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through the applications of web 2.0, JetBlue has managed to maintain the customers’ loyalty even during the tough times. When customers realize the company is concerned about the services they receive, their level of motivation and loyalty to that company increases. The customers determine the continuity of any business. The company cannot grow if it does not retain new customers as well as attracting more. Through their quality services, JetBlue manages to attract more and more customers as well as retaining the old ones (Doctorow 89). Through different web 2.0 applications, customers have the freedom to make both positive and negative comments concerning the company services. The company also tries to market itself through these applications to attract more customers. JetBlue as well, conducts some events and parties to increase its fame through advertising its services. Through these events, parties, advertisements on various media channels, and by use of web 2.0, JetBlue gathers many people to be part of their customers. The consumer participation in any company brings some assurance to the company of customer retention. When customers participate and become involved in the happenings of the JetBlue services, the company gets a chance to know where to improve their services according to the desires of the customers (Howe). JetBlue does outsourcing crowd through creation of open blogs for customers and other people to specify their likes, and for the company to get the desired people to work with. Through this, JetBlue manages to perfect its services to serve customers satisfactorily. When the company serves customers satisfactorily, a chance of attracting more customers is created, and the company becomes assured of growth. When the customers grow the revenue of the company also grows making the company to benefit financially. The stronger the customers base of the company the better for the company. If the company can serve customers without them returning to the business, that is a sign of business downfall. We will write a custom Essay on JetBlue Airway Companies Blogging specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More JetBlue airway is a successful company, whereby in some areas in United States, it has the greatest number of flights, and the largest load capacity. The charges of this airway are higher compared to other airlines, although it still attracts more customers due to its quality services. To maintain its quality services, JetBlue ensures a regular turnover of its planes (Doctorow 87). The company has a policy of purchasing several new planes at the same time as a way of replacing the existing ones. The company believes in efficiency and comfort of new planes that are below fifteen years on air. To maintain its policy, the company out of its high profits keeps on purchasing new planes for their customers. The company has benefitted from this policy through the effectiveness of the flights due to increased productivity. On the other hand, purchasing of these planes at the same time, leads to a period when all of them will deserve repair and maintenance of the engine at the same time of the year. This becomes like a weakness as it causes some flight inconveniences. It is also expensive and time consuming for the company to do the maintenance of several planes at the same time. It would be advisable if the company can purchase the planes one at a time, to create some intervals for maintenance. Through this, the company would be in a position to serve its customers effectively throughout the year. Works Cited Doctorow, Cory. The Branding of Billy Bailey. San Francisco: Running Press, 2003. Howe, Jeff. The Rise of Crowdsourcing. 2006. Web. O`Reilly, Tim. What is Web 2.0. New York: O`Reilly Media, 2005. Web. Not sure if you can write a paper on JetBlue Airway Companies Blogging by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More

Literature Review of Methods for Earthquake Analysis

CHAPTER 2 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 INTRODUCTION Earthquakes result from the sudden movement of tectonic plates in the earth’s crust. The movement takes place at fault lines, and the energy released is transmitted through the earth in the form of waves that causes ground motion many miles from the epicenter. Regions adjacent to active fault lines are the most prone to experience earthquake. As the ground moves, inertia tends to keep structure in place, resulting in the imposition of displacements and forces that can have catastrophic results. The purpose of the seismic design is to proportion structures so that they can withstand the displacements and the forces induced by the ground motion. Seismic design has emphasised the effects of horizontal ground motion, because the horizontal components of an earthquake usually exceed the vertical component and because structures are usually much stiffer and stronger in response to vertical loads than they are in response to horizontal loads. Any learning process has different components through which learning takes place. School learning may be based on book knowledge, theoretical explanations and study, but most people learn more from real examples and learning by doing. Seeing is also much more educative than just reading, reason for which the illustration of a topic is of great importance to the learning process. Analysing post earthquake pictures does vividly teach about what designs were faulty and why. Unfortunately, that cannot be said from the structures that were not damaged because from the outside little can be seen. Only the study of the drawings and calculations can determine why a certain structure did not fail, and while neighbouring structure were damaged or totally collapsed. In particular those constructions that are at the point of total failure are interesting because they present themselves as a freeze frame during the process of collapsing. Earthquake engineers in recent years have emphasized the need for performance-based seismic analysis. An essential element in many seismic evaluations is the determination of ultimate inelastic response of the structure. Performance-based methods require reasonable estimates of inelastic deformation or damage in structures which are better quantities to assess damage than stress or forces. The performance based analysis is based on quantifying the deformation of the members and the bridge structure as a whole, under the lateral forces of an earthquake of a certain level of seismic hazard. Existing codes are based on elastic analysis which has no measure of the deformation capability of members of bridges. The performance based analysis gives the analyst more choice of ‘performance’ of the bridges as compared to the limit states of collapse and serviceability in a design based on limit state method. Flexibility of soil causes lengthening of lateral natural period due to overall decrease in lateral stiffness of the structural system. Such lengthening of lateral natural period may considerably alter the seismic response of the building frames resting on isolated foundation. Considerable amount of works have been carried out in the above said areas by researchers. In the present work, a few literatures related to these areas are reviewed and reported. 2.2 CODAL PROVISIONS FOR PERFORMANCE BASED ANALYSIS The FEMA-273 (1997) document provides technically sound and acceptable guidelines for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings. The guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings are intended to serve as a ready tool for design professionals, a reference document for building regulatory officials, and a foundation for the future development and implementation of building code provisions and standards. This document provides different Seismic performance levels of buildings for structural and Non-structural components in detail. It also gives different analysis procedures used for Seismic rehabilitation of buildings. The FEMA-349 (2000) action plan presents a rational and cost effective approach by which building stakeholders: owners, financial institutions, engineers, architects, contractors, researchers, the public and governing agencies, will be able to move to a performance based design and evaluation system. The plan recognizes that there is a strong demand from stakeholder groups for more reliable, quantifiable and practical means to control building damage. It also recognizes that there is not a focused understanding among these groups as to how these goals can be obtained. This Plan describes how performance based seismic design guidelines can be developed and used to achieve these goals. It engages each of the groups in the development of these guidelines, by which future building design will become more efficient and reliable. The FEMA-356 (2000) standard is intended to serve as a nationally applicable tool for design professionals, code officials, and building owners undertaking the seismic rehabilitation of existing buildings. The procedures contained in this standard are specifically applicable to the rehabilitation of existing buildings and are, in general, more appropriate for that purpose than are new building codes. Advancement of present-generation performance-based seismic design procedures is widely recognized in the earthquake engineering community as an essential next step in the nation’s drive to develop resilient, loss-resistant communities. FEMA 445 (2006) program plan offers a step-by-step, task-oriented program that will develop next-generation performance-based seismic design procedures and guidelines for structural and nonstructural components in new and existing buildings. This program plan is a refinement and extension of two earlier FEMA plans: FEMA 273 Performance-Based Seismic Design of Buildings – an Action Plan, which was prepared by the Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California at Berkeley in 1997, and FEMA 349 Action Plan for Performance Based Seismic Design, which was prepared by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute in 2000. The state of practice for performance-based assessment, performance-based design of new buildings, and performance-based upgrades of existing buildings will all be significantly advanced under this Program Plan. ATC-40 (1996) document provides a comprehensive, technically sound recommended methodology for the seismic evaluation and retrofit design of existing concrete buildings. Although it is not intended for the design of new buildings, the analytical procedures are applicable. The document applies to the overall structural system and its elements and components. The methodology used here is performance based: the evaluation and retrofit design criteria are expressed as performance objectives, which defines desired levels of seismic performance when the building is subjected to specified levels of seismic ground motion. Acceptable performance is measured by the level of structural and/or non-structural damage expected from the earthquake shaking. Damage is expressed in terms of post yield, inelastic deformation limits for various structural components and elements found in concrete buildings. The analytical procedure incorporated in the methodology accounts for post elastic deformations of the structure by using simplified nonlinear static analysis methods. IRC 6 The object of the Standard Specifications and Code of Practice is to establish a common procedure for the design and construction of road bridges in India. This publication is meant to serve as a guide to both the design engineer and the construction engineer but compliance with the rules therein does not relieve them in any way of their responsibility for the stability and soundness of the structure designed and erected by them. The design and construction of road bridges require an extensive and through knowledge of the science and technique involved and should be entrusted only to specially qualified engineers with adequate practical experience in bridge engineering and capable of ensuring careful execution of work. IS 1893 (Part 3): 2002 The standard (Part 3) deals with the assessment of earthquake forces and design of new bridges on highways, railways, flyover bridges, pedestrian bridges, submersible bridges, utility bridges and aqueducts. The earthquake effect on retaining walls and bridge abutments are covered. The hydrodynamic effect of water on submerged substructure and method of assessment of liquefaction potential of soil is also included. The methodology of estimation of seismic forces given in the code can be employed for seismic evaluation of the existing bridges and retrofitting of such structures.This standard deals with the earthquake resistant design of regular bridges in which the seismic actions are mainly resisted at abutments or through flexure of piers, that is, bridges composed of vertical pier-foundation system supporting the deck structure with/without bearings. However for all special and major bridges, detailed dynamic studies should be undertaken.This standard does not deal with the construction features relating to earthquake resistant design of bridges. RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS Greg Griffin and M. Saiid Saiidi, have made a study to better understand the bridge response due to site response effect. Several methods are available to predict bridge response to incoherent ground motions, but are typically cost prohibitive to implement in standard bridge designs. To simplify the analysis and understand the pseudo-static displacement and acceleration behavior, they developed a response history computer model for a two degree of freedom (DOF) system. A super structure of a bridge is represented by shear beam connected both DOF. They used Superposition of the pseudo-static and acceleration response in order to determine the total DOF response. The site response effect was predicted by a SDOF, nonlinear ground response model. An iteration scheme using the Newton-Raphson method was implemented and it has been verified with an equivalent linear stiffness method. Later Parametric studies were conducted on different structure masses and shear beam stiffnesses. For varied soil depths at supports, they used three different earthquake ground motions. A stiffness parameter defined as Coupling Ratio (CR) varies from 0 (each DOF responds independently) to 1 (rigid body response) has been observed. Then the magnification factors were calculated as the ratio of the relative displacement at each DOF due to the incoherent ground motion to the uniform base motion response. They observed from the study that magnification factors could be used to account for ground motion incoherency by modifying the response of a two DOF system subjected to uniform base motion. Said M. Allam and T. K.Datta , studied on response spectrum method of analysis for suspension bridges subjected to multicomponent, partially correlated stationary ground motion. This analysis conducted is based on the relationship between the power spectral density function and the response spectrum of the input ground motion and fundamentals of the frequency domain spectral analysis. They said that analysis duly takes into account the spatial correlation of ground motions between the supports, also the quasi-static component of the response, and the modal correlation between different modes of vibration. They have analyzed the suspension bridge under a set of important parametric variations to study (1) The comparison between the responses obtained by the response spectrum method of analysis and the frequency domain spectral analysis; and (2) To investigate the behavior of suspension bridges under seismic excitation. The parameters defined in analysis include the spatial correlation of ground motion, the ratio between the three components of ground motion, the angle of incidence of the earthquake, the nature and number of modes considered in the analysis, and the nature of the power spectral density function of ground motion. They finally concluded that the response spectrum method of analysis provides a fair estimate of responses under parametric variations considered in the study. TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS Yong Deng, a senior structural engineer has made a research on seismic issues over structures. He studied that Non-linear Time history Analysis simulates the structure behavior under severe Earthquake movement exactly than any other methods. In his paper, Non-linear time history analysis has been presented with one of the world famous project. Yerba Buena Island (YBI) West-Bound (WB) Ramps are portion of San Fransisco-Oakland Bay Bridge Project. The ramps are touched down to Yerba Buena Island from YBI WB widening by hinges. . This project is located at a 0.627g Site Specific Response for Safety Evaluation Earthquake (SEE). YBI WB On-ramp is a highly horizontally Curved Bridge with radius of 38.8 meters. He mentioned that Seismic behavior is very important for the project. In order to understand structural non-linear behavior, especially highly horizontally curved bridge behavior under severe earthquake events, YBI WB On-ramp stand-alone bridge is analyzed by non-linear time history analysis method. A analysis software SAP 2000 with Hilber-Hughes-Taylor α direct integration method is used for Non-linear Time History Analysis. Seismic Modeling is also discussed in this paper. Then he has used six sets of acceleration time histories for Non-linear Time History Analysis by SAP 2000. Also a program developed by University of California-Berkeley is used to verify Non-linear Time history Analysis accuracy in this paper. Site Specific Response Spectra ARS is also used for liner analysis and compared with results of Non-linear Time History Analysis and with the program developed by California-Berkeley University. Later the Non-linear push-over analysis is performed to determine the structural capacity and ductility under severe earthquake events. Finally, discrepancies between different program analyses are discussed and recommendations are presented. R. K. Dowell, has studied on a new method for finding member forces for statically indeterminate bridge frames. He said that the unique aspect of this new method is that it produces exact member-end-moments for statically indeterminate bridge frames from simple closed-form equations, without the need to setup and solve a system of simultaneous equations, as required in the stiffness method. Also the result shows that new method is 1000 times faster than any of the currently available methods that depend on matrix manipulation. He presented the incremental form of the closed-form approach and nonlinear time-history results for a typical bridge frame subjected to earthquake loading are compared with the results obtained from stiffness method. Finally he concluded that new closed form approach is based on modified classical analysis techniques and is so fast and stable that bridge designers may now consider using nonlinear time-history analysis for the seismic design of typical highway bridge structures. PUSHOVER ANALYSIS Mark R. Capron, he made a study on pushover based seismic evaluation of a 2,164 m long bridge located near the New Madrid Seismic Zone in southeastern Missouri. His research includes the existing structure, and the substructure retrofitted with column jackets, cap-beam modifications, and seismic isolation bearings. The research shows that the existing structure has 30% to 40% of the displacement capacity required for the 500 year design level, and significantly less than required for the 1,000 and 2,500 year levels that retrofits can improve performance to the 500 year level and that isolation bearings can improve performance of the main spans. Ima Muljati and Pennung Warnitchai, has studied the performance of Modal Pushover Analysis (MPA) in predicting the inelastic seismic response of multi-span concrete bridges. Considered bridge is subjected to lateral forces distributed proportionally over the span of the bridge in accordance to the product of mass and displaced shape. Later the bridge is pushed up to the target displacement determined from the peak displacement of the nth mode inelastic Single Degree of Freedom System derived from Uncoupled Modal Response History Analysis. Then the peak response from each mode is combined using Square-Root of Sum-of-Square (SRSS) rule. Results shows that the use of SRSS rule is not appropriate in this bridge and the displaced pattern is shifted from the elastic shape due to yielding, Modal Pushover Analysis can predict well the total peak response of the bridge in inelastic range. P.S.Lande and A.D.Yawale, they studied that the structures within elastic range have quiet high displacement