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Evaluate the approach of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

In this essay I will discuss the Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, then I will critically evaluate the approach, with strengths and limitations, give an example of an episode that , I tried to use this approach, give the reasons in which situations I would use it. And finally what I had learned from this research and how it impacted me for future practice. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, have roots in behaviourism, as well as Cognitive therapy. In our days many cognitive behavioural therapist follow the principles from both these schools. In the beginnings of 1970s, Professor Aaron T. Beck developed a theory of depression, which promotes the importance of peoples depressed style of thinking. Becks work has changed the nature of psychotherapy , not just for depression , but for a range of psychological problems such as , phobias, anxiety, depression, anger, sexual and relationships problems, drugs and alcohol abuse, obsessive compulsive disorder, I just mention a few of them. For a successful treatment is necessary that the patient work together with therapist, and is willing to change, is vital that patient is able to recognise his abnormal thinking or behaviour. CBT is a short -term therapy normally between 10 to 15 sessions and lasts for an hour. With the help of the therapist the patient will tackle these abnormal thinking or behaviour, by learning a different range of techniques to combat them. Abnormal behaviour is caused by maladaptive thoughts that a person can internalise in its self, this maladaptive behaviour does not allow the patient to have a normal life. As above referred CBT is mixed with cognitive and behavioural therapy They are combined because how we behave often reflects how we think about certain things or situations. The emphasis on cognitive or behavioural aspects of therapy can vary, depending on the condition being treated. For example, there is often more emphasis on behavioural therapy when treating an eating disorder because repetitive actions are a main problem. On the other hand, the emphasis may be more on cognitive therapy when treating depression. In this type of therapy the patient have to talk about his feelings, the way they see the world, and also other people. The two main techniques of CBT in a session is to the patient discuss with , the therapist about his evidence for and against negative beliefs, the second one the therapist will ask to the patient for him to test his beliefs , and change the way that he reacts to them and see what happens. The therapist helps the patient to understand his actual thought and patterns. In particular, to identify any harmful, unhelpful, and false ideas or thoughts which he may have, that triggers his health problem, or makes it worse. The aim is then to change his ways of thinking to avoid these ideas. Also, to help his thought patterns to be more realistic and helpful. The treatment with the patient is based in talking , both therapist and patient will work together to identify and understand the reason , for the patient abnormal behaviour , or thought . CBT does not rely on the past, but in the present here and now, therapist and patient will look at patient problem in different perspective more healthy and positive. The therapist will set goals and assignments. Strategies which are monitored and evaluated, in-between the sessions. With the techniques and the homework that the therapist had planned for him , in a situation of abnormal behaviour , or thought the patient , will recognise what trigged the situation, and how he have to behave to overcome that situation. It is important that the patient recognise what trigged the situation, and put in practice the techniques set by the therapist that will help him to change that. This therapy will make the patient more aware. The patient is also asked to maintain a diary to write down the way he thinks, feels and behaves in daily situations, emotions, automatic thoughts, logical response and outcome is also another helpful technique. It will be then more easily to break the maladaptive pattern. However as any approach in the human behaviour it has strengths, and limitations. CBT is not suitable for everyone, only helps certain conditions, it had been shown good results in treating anxiety and depression Eysenck, P.286, 1997 “but is especially effective with panic disorder. Rachman (1993, p.279), “As far as anxiety disorders are concerned, the greatest theoretical and clinical progress has been made in applying cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) to the…treatment of panicky.” People who take medicines are a greater risk to relapse , when they stop taking them , I agree because they didn’t learn to identify what triggers their maladaptive behaviour , and didn’t challenge them in trying new behaviours, it is like they are frozen by the medicines, and when they stop taking them , they defrost and everything will start again . CBT is claimed to treat schizophrenia that is a very serious disorder, and that is extremely difficult to treat, and medicines are necessary for the patient, in my opinion this disorder cannot be treated by CBT. In other side CBT is extremely structured and does not focus in the past, but in “here” and “now”. However studies had shown that patients after 2 years of therapy has finished, do better than those using other type of treatments, however every individual is unique, two patients with same disorder may have different results because the degree of the extension of the disorder may differ. CBT does not take in account genetic factors, also does not take in consideration interpersonal factors like his social role, life experiences that can produce mental disorders. Another aspect is that is not clear if the abnormal thoughts can be the cause of the disorder. Secondly is unfair to blame the patient for their mental disorder, because it may be other people the responsible an example is the case of bullying is not the victim fault. Also the patient must be willing to change; he may find boring the homework, and the diary sheet. Also disrespects the patient intelligence by making the therapist, rather that the patient unconscious wisdom, the source of clear intelligence about the problem. Also the therapist encouragement to tackle this abnormal behaviour is vital interpersonal skills like warmth, acceptance and empathy will make the CBT more successful. Overall this approach is positive but is effectiveness will depend in factors, such , type of disorder , willing to change by the patient, support of the therapist, commitment to do the homework, and attend the sessions. If in my practice I’m working with a service user that have a problem in low self esteem, problems in relationship, I would use this approach to set goals for the user confront his fears, in other situations like eating disorders, depression, panic attacks, the help of a qualified therapist is essential, because he will know better than me how the user is progressing, his evaluation also will more accurate, because I don’t hold a degree or a masters in that area. I have a couple of friends, who had marital problems such as verbal abuse towards each other, both of them asked to talk with each other, accusing one another for the failure of the relationship. I spoke with both of them together, and asked about their negatives attitudes, and asked them why they couldn’t do things in another way, that wouldn’t hurt the partner. But they were both resilient to change, and admit their mistakes , in this situation I thought they needed the help of a professional, I didn’t had the skills and techniques that a therapist would have, and maybe because I was a friend, they may had felt uncomfortable talking with me, in this case the commitment of the couple to recognise their abnormal attitudes was imperative, to try ad change them, my friend was stressed, anxious and depressed because of the marital problems, and she was pregnant at the time. I advice her to book an appointment with her GP expose the situation, and try counselling and because she was pregnant, this would affect the unborn child. I now understand that in practice , I can approach a service problem with different theories , that can help me to decode and assess the user situation in a constructively perspective, if a I just rely in one single approach, I will miss other underlying problems, in the case above there was other theories that could explain certain behaviours and attitudes. Coulshed (1991.p.8) ” Theoryless practice does not exist ; we cannot avoid looking for explanations to guide our actions , whilst research has shown that those agencies which profess not use theory offer a non problem solving wooly and directionless service”. CBT and social work. both have the aim to empower the user to control his life, in my view in certain situations, I would use this approach of course that, I need more training and skills to work effectively. Having researched this approach I learned that in certain situations with users we can use techniques and skills from different approaches, and analyse the service user situation with different approaches. I believe that will bring a deeper insight into the service user assessment of needs and resources to help him to be in control of his life again.
ENG 225 Week 3 Assignment. I’m stuck on a Film question and need an explanation.

Prior to beginning work on this assignment, read Chapter 8 of Film: From Watching to Seeing, as well as your instructor’s guidance and lecture materials, and Chapter 7 from Film Genre Reader IV. The ENG225 Research Guide in the Ashford University Library will be particularly helpful in locating required sources.This assignment is your opportunity to apply the auteur theory to the work of one selected director. To do that, you will watch at least two feature-length films by the same director as the basis for your analysis and argument.
Note: You should watch any chosen film twice—once to ensure that you have grasped the storytelling and once to take more specific notes on aspects of the film you wish to discuss. You may choose any appropriate director, but be sure to consider the three criteria of auteur theory before making your selection. Reflect on the film you chose in your Week 2 written assignment and look ahead to the Week 5 Final Paper guidelines to ensure that you choose a film for this assignment that will work with the requirements on the Week 5 Final Paper. You may opt to write about the same film in your Week 2 written assignment and Week 5 Final Paper, and applicable pieces of this assignment can be used to write both. If you do this, you should reflect on and revise this assignment based on the instructor’s feedback before you incorporate it into any future writing assignments.
Your paper should be organized around a thesis statement that focuses on how your chosen director and his/her films meet the criteria posed by auteur theory and advance the possibilities of storytelling through the medium of film. Review the Week 3 Sample Outline, which provides a clear guide for developing a solid analysis as well as insight on composition.
In your paper,

Explain auteur theory.

Describe, using Chapter 8 of the text as a reference, the criteria for what makes a director an auteur.

Identify a director who meets the criteria posed by auteur theory

Summarize briefly the ways in which this director meets those criteria using examples from at least two of the director’s films.

Apply the lens of auteur theory in breaking down the director’s technical competence, distinguishable personality, and interior meaning using specific examples of his/her work (e.g., particular scenes or plot components).
Analyze the specific ways in which filmmaking techniques, consistent themes, and storytelling distinguish your chosen director as an auteur among his/her peers.

The Directors and Auteur Theory paper

Must be 900 to 1200 words in length and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s APA Style (Links to an external site.) resource.
Must include a separate title page with the following:

Title of paper
Student’s name
Course name and number
Instructor’s name
Date submitted

For further assistance with the formatting and the title page, refer to APA Formatting for Word 2013 (Links to an external site.).

Must utilize academic voice. See the Academic Voice (Links to an external site.) resource for additional guidance.
Must include an introduction and conclusion paragraph. Your introduction paragraph needs to end with a clear thesis statement that indicates the purpose of your paper.

For assistance on writing Introductions & Conclusions (Links to an external site.) as well as Writing a Thesis Statement (Links to an external site.), refer to the Ashford Writing Center resources.

Must use at least two scholarly sources in addition to the course text.

The Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.
To assist you in completing the research required for this assignment, view this Ashford University Library Quick ‘n’ Dirty (Links to an external site.) tutorial, which introduces the Ashford University Library and the research process, and provides some library search tips.

Must document any information used from sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.) guide.
Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. See the Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.) resource in the Ashford Writing Center for specifications.

ENG 225 Week 3 Assignment

Starbucks Target Market

Starbucks open its first coffee store in Seattle, Washington and at the end of 1990 Starbucks expand its headquarters in Seattle and also build a new roasting plant. In 1990s Starbucks opens 60 retails shops in United Kingdom. At the end of 2000s Starbucks total branches was 3500. Coffee is one of the rapidly growing industry in this world. According to national coffee association, USA 49% of American age 18 and more drink coffee beverage every day. Coffee industry was in peak of its success at the end of 1990s. Starbucks purchases and roasts high-quality whole bean coffees and sold them along with fresh brewed coffees, Italian style espresso beverages, gold blended beverages, a various complementary food items, coffee related accessories and equipment. TARGETED MARKET AT THE TIME OF LAUNCHING At the time of Starbucks launching the target market was upper income class. But during 1990s Starbucks realise that the growth of Starbucks depends on the middle or lower class incomes because these two classes are more motivated and go to the discounted products. Starbucks also focus on consumer habits and share its speciality of coffee with the buyers. In the end of 20th century there are many changes in market that helped Starbucks getting successful. The most important change of the last twenty, thirty years is the changes of economic policies over the world. Starbucks target market was 18 years to 24 years young professional because they are not yet been loyal with coffee industry. Starbucks strategy comprises to locate its stores at picky places such as the first floor of blocks of offices, underground main entrance and urban areas. An addition to sales through its company-operated retail stores and licensed retail operations, Starbucks sells coffee and tea products through other channels like distribution targeting restaurants, hotels, colleges and universities and other work places. Starbucks stated goal is to become the leading retailer and brand of coffee in each of its target markets and it aims to achieve this goal through continued aggressive expansion of Company operated retail locations. STARBUCKS STRATEGY Starbucks adopt different type of strategy to build its branding in the market. Starbucks has numbers of capabilities likes market leadership and its outlets as customers means its locations which means it is the place where customers can relax from work or home and its supply chain management. To try to keep the coffee taste in the stores clean, Starbucks banned smoking and asked employees to refresh from draining perfumes. Prepared foods were kept covered so consumer would smell coffee only instead of other food. Starbucks is culture oriented company who introduce new techniques like commuter mugs and T shirts in different regions of USA that was in keeping with each city’s culture(like peach shape coffee mugs for Atlanta State, Paul Revere picture for Boston State and the Statue of Liberty for New York city). To make sure that Starbucks’ stores reach the maximum standards, the company used “mystery shoppers” who posed as customers and rated each location on а number оf criteria. Starbucks’ internal operations can be divided into two parts: Retail and Specialty. The Retail division is governed directly by Starbucks Corporation. The Specialty division includes foodservice, licensing agreements to overseas outlets and revenue from foreign joint ventures. STARBUCKS AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Starbucks main objective was to launch itself as the most renowned and respected brand in the world. The company main objective was to the expansion of its branches all over the world, to broad its retail business, develop new techniques, product and introduce new distribution channels in order to achieve its goals. The company another aims was establish its brand as a leading brand in coffee market by selling high quality products, providing better services and build relationship between customers and the Starbucks. SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTHS OF STARBUCKS Starbucks is good at taking advantage of opportunities. Starbucks is internationally recognized and has a global presence Starbucks has strong ethical values. WEAKNESSES Reliable on beverage innovation Starbucks 50% business is in USA from last three decades. Starbucks need to spread its business all over the world to spread its business risk. Starbucks is dependent on a main competitive advantage, the retail of coffee. It could make them slow to diversify into other sectors should the need arise. OPPORTUNITIES Company has the opportunity to expand its business around the globe In 2004 the company created a CD burning service in their Santa Monica (California USA) cafe with Hewlett Packard, where customers create their own music CD. THREATS Starbucks are increasing the cost of coffee and dairy products Consumer taste might be change in future. Consumer can replace coffee with other cold beverage or leisure activity. CONCLUSION Starbucks is a leading company around the globe. Starbucks used a very simple strategy, “connecting links between treating employees with dignity and respect and producing а good product and services.” That was the major factors that differentiate Starbucks from others and bring the successful to Starbucks.

PLST 400 Liberty University Employment Law for Business Discussion Replies

essay writing help PLST 400 Liberty University Employment Law for Business Discussion Replies.

I’m working on a business law discussion question and need a sample draft to help me study.

Student Reply #1 BR An employee has a set weekly schedule. An employee gets paid a particular amount and has taxes taken out. The employer offers benefits to its employees. Grocery Stores have paid cashiers and managers. The cashiers and managers are the employees. Grocery stores uses outside companies that come in to stock particular products or demonstrate products. Most likely some of the people are not employed by the store. The other day a man was putting out Krispy Crème donuts at the store and a customer asked him how to find something in the store. He politely said, “I’m sorry, I do not know where that is at. I do not work here. Some situations are not this simple. For example, a temporary employee who has recently turned into a full-time employee.The three tests to determine if a person is an employee are “common-law agency test, IRS 20-factor analysis, and economic realities test.” Dawn Bennett-Alexander & Lauren Hartman, Employment Law for Business 14.15,16, (9 ed. 2019). “Who has control over the employee?” Dawn Bennett-Alexander & Lauren Hartman, Employment Law for Business,14 (9 ed. 2019). “Who is in control of hiring or paying said person?” Dawn Bennett-Alexander & Lauren Hartman, Employment Law for Business, 14.15,16, (9 ed. 2019). “Does the person get hourly paid and benefits?” Dawn Bennett-Alexander & Lauren Hartman, Employment Law for Business, 8 (9 ed. 2019). “An employer has the responsibility to pay FICA, excise tax, unemployment compensation, Medicare and state taxes.” Dawn Bennett-Alexander & Lauren Hartman, Employment Law for Business 8 (9 ed. 2019). “Section 530 cites criteria to claim independent contractors.” Dawn Bennett-Alexander & Lauren Hartman, Employment Law for Business, 12, (9 ed. 2019). “The company never treated the worker as an employee, and has treated all those in similar position as independent contractors.” Dawn Bennett-Alexander & Lauren Hartman, Employment Law for Business, 12,14.15 (9 ed. 2019). “Federal taxes are filed with the worker as independent contractor.” Dawn Bennett-Alexander & Lauren Hartman, Employment Law for Business, 12 (9 ed. 2019).An “at will employee” does not have a contract agreement and “either party can end the working relationship”. Dawn Bennett-Alexander & Lauren Hartman, Employment Law for Business,55 (9 ed. 2019). A company outside of Walmart may hire a person for a weekend job to put bikes or grills together. When that order is completed the working relationship may end.A retaliation is when an employer has something against an employee who files a claim against the company and makes it very difficult for the employee to keep the job. Dawn Bennett-Alexander & Lauren Hartman, Employment Law for Business,82 (9 ed. 2019). An example: A man files sexual harassment, the company denies him is regular access to meetings and begins giving his work to another employee because he is deemed untrustworthy.In the New International Bible, the King favor Daniel but the people around him were jealous and came up with a plan to get rid of Daniel. Daniel remained faithful to God and while doing so disobeyed the new laws that sent him to the lion’s den. Be honest and have compassion in the work you do but do not jeopardize your relationship with God. Daniel chapter 2.References:Bennett-Alexander, D. and Hartman, L., 2019. Employment Law for Business. 9th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, pp.8,12,14.15,16,55,82.—————————————————————————–Student #2 APDaniel Chapter 2 (New International Bible)There are several tests used by the court to classify an employee, however the common-law agency test Is the predominant test used. Dawn D. Bennett-Alexander & Laura P. Hartman, Employment Law for Business 13 (9th ed. 2019). The most important factor in classifying an employee is the “right to control”. Id. The employer needs to have the right to control the work that an employee does. Id. Under the common-law agency test, courts will also consider if the worker Is paid standard wages. Id., at 14 The common law agency test will also determine employees regarding employment taxes. Id.The difference between an employee and an independent contractor can also be defined by the IRS 20-factor Analysis. Id. at 15. In their publication, “Internal Revenue Service ‘Independent Contractor or Employee? Publication 1779” the IRS asked 20 questions to determine whether a worker is an employee or an independent contractor. Id. A few of the questions include training – whether or not the employer trained the employee which indicates the employer’s control, if the employer hires, supervises and pays assistant, if there are set hours of work and if the work is performed on the employer’s premises. Id.An example of an employee is a floor worker at Trader Joes. They are required to work a set number of hours, clock in and clock out at the end of their shift, work on Trader Joe’s premises, retrieve their floor assignments from management, and are paid hourly. Trader Joe’s management also has the right terminate the employee’s employment. Trader joe’s employees are only allowed to do what is authorized under Trader Joes employment during their work hours.An independent contractor, however, is a person who will contract with a person to complete a task using their own methods. Id at 7. An independent contractor generally has the freedom to complete their jobs without the direction or supervision of an employer. Id.The at-will employment rule is that either party in an employer-employee relationship may terminate the relationship at any time. Id. at 55. However, the termination cannot be for prohibit reasons. Id. Thus, the parties can leave the relationship at any time. Id. If an employer chooses to terminate the relationship due to, for example, an employee’s sexual orientation, then that is discriminatory and is illegal. Id. Exceptions to the at-will rule also include, if any employee refuses to break the law on behalf of the employer, and the employer terminates the relationship, exercising a statutory right, fulfilling a statutory duty such as reporting for jury duty or reporting violations by the employer. Id. at 57As Christians, we owe our employers obedience and respect, and to work well with sincerity and genuineness. Ephesians 6:5-9 ESV. If we work well, and conduct our selves with our employers the Christian way, then the Lord will cover us. Id. This still stays the same regarding this weeks readings, because as employees in the world today, we should conduct ourselves with morals, obedience and respect. And should an employer decide to conduct themselves in a negative way that is illegal or detrimental, then we as Christians have a duty to remove ourselves from that employment.
PLST 400 Liberty University Employment Law for Business Discussion Replies

Four Policy Elements Essay

Four Policy Elements Essay.

Use the 4 references I attached because should include in the paper and add 6 more for complete the 10 sources required in the paper.In a research paper, provide researched rationale for the nature and substance of your 4 selected, distinct policies. This paper is to be reflective of an academic research paper. The research paper must address the reasoning and/or rationale for the inclusion of the selected policy elements in a policy manual.The selected policies must correctly address employment legislation pertinent to the stated size of the company (25-49 employees). In elaborating on the rationale, you may want to consider the following questions: Why should these elements be in a policy manual? What laws or principles mandate an organization follow these guidelines? What cases have established precedent for this issue to be addressed clearly in an organization’s employee policy manual?Support your rationale with (at minimum) the 10 scholarly sources used in your annotated bibliography in addition to the textbook and the Bible. Remember, government websites and previous/current court cases are useful but will not be included in the scholarly reference requirement.The paper must be at least 1,750 words, in addition to the cover page, the abstract, and the references page. It must be written in current APA format. Papers submitted with less than the minimum word count will not receive full credit in this area of the grading rubric.Following are some examples of HR policy topics. These are only examples. You may identify/select other topics that would be relevant and appropriate for a general employee policy manual/handbook.Dress CodeTechnology UseCode of ConductConfidentialityHarassmentBenefits (This can be more specific to areas such as paid time off, health care benefits, and so forth.)Training Opportunities/Expectations
Four Policy Elements Essay

A Study On Brutus V Cassius English Literature Essay

Throughout the play, Julius Caesar, many characters contrasted each other, but there were two who stuck out the most and they happened to be Brutus and Cassius. Brutus and Cassius appear to be similar, but very diverse in different aspects of their life. Brutus has a genuine personality, and Cassius changes his personality when he is around different people. The four basic differences that Brutus and Cassius shared were personality, leadership, relationships, and handling crises. These two had several differences in their personalities. Brutus was a very honorable man, as Anthony stated in his speech several times. He always would put his honors at the top of his priorities. On the other hand, Cassius wants to get to the bottom of the case. He is more of a problem solver, than a wise thinker. He mainly tried to find out why Anthony was so loyal to Caesar. Brutus felt he had more power over Cassius because he had a high government position. Every time Brutus and Cassius would quarrel, Brutus would be victorious. When Cassius had an idea, Brutus would always make up another idea, even though Brutus could have been completely wrong. Therefore, Cassius felt his ideas and work to be meaningless. Brutus was a fierce leader. He always carried out his orders, no matter how tough they were. Cassius did a good job in rounding up all of the conspirators, but he did not finish out the job. Brutus took control of them and led them to kill Caesar. Cassius would always fall under Brutus’ control every time he had a good idea. Cassius came up the idea to overthrow Caesar and kill him, but he did not have the strength to carry out the operation by himself especially when there was a crisis at stake. Brutus had a strong relationship with Caesar. Brutus was known for his honorable traits. Antony, in his speech, even mentions, “And Brutus is an honorable man.”(Act III, Scene II, 95) When Caesar said, “Et tu, Brute,” (Act III, Scene I, 85) he thought that they were good friends and thought Brutus would never harm him. For Brutus to kill a man, he must have done it for the right cause. Cassius liked Caesar just as much, but had a different opinion. Caesar basically became a god to the Roman people. When the Romans thought of him as this, he could get the people to what he wanted, he wanted. In a way, Cassius was frightened and jealous of Caesar’s power. Cassius and Brutus both finished off Caesar for the good of Rome. Neither Brutus nor Cassius were strong at dealing with crises. Brutus was said to be a rational thinker. When crises came up, though, he would always take the easy way out. At the end of the play, he ended up killing himself because he could not make the decision whether to go and fight or kill himself. Cassius does not think about the crisis, he reacts. When he heard Antony was going to kill all of the conspirators, he thought it would be best to kill Antony along with Caesar. As you can see, Brutus and Cassius were both strong leaders, but Brutus always had the upper hand. He was outspoken with a high government position. Whoever tried to quarrel with him, he would come out on top. Brutus knew what he was doing at all times and never questioned himself. Cassius, on the other hand, turned out weak compared to Brutus. He knew how to lead people, but did not think he could possibly do it. Cassius and Brutus broth had some similarities but contradicted each other in many areas. They were both great examples of leaders in Julius Caesar.

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