Evaluate factors that influence safe, quality patient-centered care. Consider: • Technology • Communication • Collaboration • Shared decision-making • Laws, regulations, and policies Analyze changes in technology and their effect on quality patient care. Explain the roles of communication, collaboration, and shared decision-making. Consider communication and collaboration between health care team members, between the patient and staff, and involving insurance companies. Cite a minimum of two peer-reviewed sources in an APA-formatted reference page.
1.0 Introduction In any classroom situation where children are in the midst of learning there are a number of different learning theories occurring and being utilised in practice. Children are constantly learning and as teachers in a classroom it is our prerogative and responsibility to ensure children benefit from developmentally appropriate learning opportunities derived from the wisdom of certain learning theories. In this work I intend to show how Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory is utilised as a basis for teaching and learning within my classroom. I will analyse and demonstrate how this theory’s three major themes; social interaction; the more knowledgeable other (MKO); and the zone of proximal development (ZPD) and subsequently scaffolding and contingent teaching methods, are utilised in specific ways within early years classroom activities. 2.0 Social Learning The Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) viewed human cognitive development and behaviour as a complex dynamic of interaction between the self and the socio-historical-cultural environment in which the child is immersed (Vygotsky 1986) As suggested by Vygotsky (1986), social interaction is at the core of cognitive development and speech. It is through the intrinsic need to communicate with another that both speech and thought develop and, according to Vygotsky, lay the foundations that eventually form inner-personal psychological functions. This subsequently leads to egocentric speech which in turn transforms into ‘inner speech’ (Vygotsky 1986). The social element in Vygotsky’s social learning theory is central to all other processes. This is in contrast with Piaget’s view of development (Piaget 1954) which posits that the primary motivation for human development comes from inside the individual. Vygotsky perceived the human child as a ‘little apprentice’ (Vygotsky 1986) who receives support and help from his peers and teachers, whereas Piaget’s metaphor for the child’s developing cognitive process and behaviour is that of a ‘lone scientist’ (Piaget 1954). In an early years classroom, both theories of the ‘little apprentice’ and the ‘lone scientist’ are relevant and applicable. However, I will demonstrate through an example of a classroom activity in an early years reception class how I believe Vygotsky’s concept of social learning can enable a wider degree of learning opportunities than Piaget’s view of learning. 2.1 Discovering sound creation: The ‘lone scientist’ vs. the ‘little apprentice’ In this classroom activity, I created and produced activities specifically designed to take advantage of the benefits derived from Vygotsky’s learning theories. The objective of this activity is for the students to progressively come to understand how and why sounds of various pitch are made, and to subsequently recreate a range of sounds. We can observe the ‘lone scientist’ in action when a child is using liquids, bottles and a funnel. The child is using the funnel and water to fill two bottles and transfer liquids, whilst doing so, the child is given a hard metallic object and asked to hit the bottle. When the child does so, a certain pitched sound emanates from the bottle. The child enjoys the sound, his curiosity is peaked, and he proceeds to purposely knock, to experiment with, the two bottles he has, to create varied pitch from the two bottles. This same experiment by the ‘lone scientist’ now leads to a situation where the child now becomes a ‘little apprentice’. The child’s friend is interested in the first child’s discovery and joins him. The first child, Child A, relates to the other his discovery. Child A doesn’t have the language and conceptual understanding to describe what is occurring beyond only being able to explain that he has made a noise using the tools (water, bottles and the metal funnel). The friend, Child B, observes and starts to use ‘talk’ to describe the steps and the process happening in much more detail than Child A. Child B, having a greater level of language and cognitive ability, is able to better accurately describe the experiment to his friend. They both then, through shared experimentation-play, discover how to make several different sounds in several bottles. The children further their learning by discussing their ideas about how hard to hit, what to use to hit the bottle with and their general excitement about it. Child A responds to Child B by copying the same language, modelled by Child B, and then progressing through the experiment with his friend using the new language acquired. Albert Bandura described the dynamics of such interaction: “Most human behavior is learned observationally through modelling: from observing others, one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action.” (Bandura 1977). It is observable that both Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s concepts of child learning are relevant in an early years classroom setting. However, if we hold to the Vygotskyan notion that language lays the pathways to inner thought, and that social learning leads to greater learning opportunities, we can safely say from the evidence, that Child A optimized and increased his learning opportunities and learning potential, by taking part in a peer learning situation. This was apparent by the level of thought and communication that was engendered: hypothesising, acquisition of new language patterns, vocabulary and an increase in higher cognitive function through Child B’s conceptual paraphrasing of their combined experimentation. Child A learned more as a Vygotskyan ‘little apprentice’ than as a Piagetian ‘lone scientist’. Findings from Palincsar (1986) presented a similar conclusion. This said, the significance of being a ‘lone scientist’ is not diminished; it still has its own place as an important form of learning for a child, but it does not generate as many learning opportunities and also does not enable the higher cognitive functions to blossom as quickly and as they did, ‘domino-style’ with peer learning. 3.0 The More Knowledgeable Other The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO), the second major theme in Vygotsky’s social learning theory, refers to another individual who is, as its title implies, an individual who is more knowledgeable and has a higher ability than another. This individual serves as a guide or teacher who helps the learner to achieve and know more through their assistance than that individual would be able to achieve alone. In school, the expert in this collaboration has traditionally been the teacher, although, according to Vygotsky (1978), this role can be played equally well by more abled peers. This ‘More Knowledgeable Other’ principle can be observed using the same scenario presented in the preceding section. In this example, Child A has just discovered that he can create varying pitch of sound by hitting two bottles with different amounts of liquid. The MKO, the teacher in this case, comes in and suggests to the student to make many more different sounds, the teacher poses several leading questions: First asking the child what he thinks he could do to make more different sounds. Second, what he thinks the water has to do with the sounds. And lastly, what is different about the two bottles. The child first answers that he could fill more bottles with water. He struggles with the second question but answers that the water makes the sound. And for the third question, he answers that the water level is different in each bottle. The teacher suggests the child to fill seven bottles each with a different amount of water. The child does this and then proceeds to hit the bottles, discovering that a whole range of sounds can be produced. Through a process of carefully constructed, carefully controlled, questions and thought provoking statements, which Wood calls ‘contingent teaching’ (Wood 1988), the teacher is able to guide the student to further his reasoning and cognitive skills. The MKO has served as the guide for the learner to gain more ground in his learning experience and enabled the learner to achieve a more concrete and tangible understanding of the concept. We can observe that the MKO was instrumental in the child achieving a higher level of attainment. Moreover, we can observe that the teacher assessed where the student was at in his level of understanding and started to increase the level of difficulty and challenge, widening the potential of learning opportunities of the student. This leads us right into Vygotsky’s third theme of social development; the zone of proximal development. 4.0 The Zone of Proximal Development The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) is described by Vygotsky as the difference between what a learner can do by himself and what he can accomplish with an adult or more competent peer (Vygotsky 1978). Therefore, working within the ZPD, the teacher is assisting learners to work just beyond their capacity to do something on their own. We can demonstrate this principle once again using our original scenario of the child having accomplished making two different pitch sounds with two different bottles. The teacher has observed that the child has reached the top end of what he can accomplish on his own and joins the child, the bottom end of the ZPD. To verify his assumption, the teacher asks two specific questions: First, why the sounds are different in each bottle, and second, can the child make new sounds, sounds that are higher. The child cannot fully comprehend why the bottles are making different sounds, but he answers that the water is making the sound. In regards to the second question, the child confirms that he can make new sounds using new bottles and water, but he doesn’t comprehend how a higher sound can be made. The teacher must now prepare to use Wood’s (1988) five levels of assistance in contingent teaching to incrementally guide the student to a full understanding of the concept and task. From this the teacher has now extrapolated the point where the child’s zone of proximity begins. The teacher then begins assisting the child contingently, as Wood (1988) describes “making any help given conditional upon the child’s understanding of the previous levels of instruction”. Wood furthers this by explaining that the teacher ensures ‘the child is not left alone when overwhelmed by the task and also guarantees him greater scope for initiative when he showed signs of success’. In other words, the teacher gives exactly the amount of help as is needed and nothing more, based on the child’s ‘moment to moment understanding’ (Wood 1988). The teacher asks open ended and leading questions, helping the child as little as possible so as to enable him to figure things out for himself, such as, how much water he should put in the next bottle and why he might want to put less or more water; taking ‘baby steps’ into the ZPD. Following this, the teacher suggests the child tries to create a high pitched sound with a new bottle. The child doesn’t fill enough water in the bottle and hits it; a low pitch sound is created. The teacher then again asks a leading question and moves further into the zone of proximal development, hoping to lead the child upwards in reasoning and cognition: What sound do you have now, a high or a low sound?”, the child answers, “A low sound.” Teacher asks: What do you think you can do with the water in the bottle to change the sound?” The child is stumped and cannot answer. The teacher uses the next level of contingent teaching, giving a higher degree of help than only speaking to the child, and points to the level of water in the bottle and again asks the same question. This uses the same oral prompt as before, but adds the additional help of focussing the child’s attention on the level of water which is bringing him slowly nearer to understanding the role that the water plays in making a sound and helping him understand the answer to the original verbal prompt. The child thinks and answers that he can put more water in the bottle. The teacher again asks “How do you think the sound will be once you’ve added some more water?” The child reasons that the sound will be higher. The teacher asks the student to first test his hypothesis by hitting the other bottles, listening for the sound and commenting on the level of water that accompanies the sound coming from each bottle; thus allowing the child to make a correlation between the pitch and the amount of water in the bottle. The child is now far into the ZPD and reaching towards its limit; this is observed by the child hesitating more and taking longer to respond to the steps of the task. Finally the child adds some water and hits the bottle, creating a higher pitched sound as expected. We can see that the teacher brought the child beyond the limit of what he can achieve on his own, into the ZPD, and continued to raise the level of challenge and level of reasoning required by increasing the complexity of the task. The child was thus able to reason at a higher level and able to express his thought process orally well into the higher areas of his ZPD. The reasoning behind ZPD is the belief that children can do more, with assistance, than by themselves and additionally, what they can do with help today, they will hopefully be able to do alone tomorrow (Vygotsky 1986). Wood (1988) described the roles of the teacher and learner as that of expert and novice. The teacher aims to create situations where the learner may slowly, over time, transform to become an expert himself. Vygotsky (1978) suggested this: The child is firstly a spectator as the expert (parent or teacher) does the majority of the cognitive work. He then becomes a novice as he starts to take over some of the work under close supervision of the expert. As the child grows in experience and capability of performing the task, the expert passes over greater and greater responsibility but still acts as a guide, assisting the child at problematic points. Eventually, the child assumes full responsibility for the task with the expert present still in the role of a supportive audience. (Vygotsky 1978 cited in Wray
Tristyn Bailey Murder Research Paper. Paper details “You will prepare an annotated bibliography on a topic currently in the news. This annotated bibliography should follow specific APA formatting requirements (see examples below this assignment on the Modules page) and include 5–7 sentence annotations for each source. These annotations should comment on the source’s main points and how the articles relate to each other and your topic. You should use only “academic” sources. In other words, your sources should base their ideas on research and facts instead of opinion or common knowledge. Great places for these types of sources are academic and professional journals. HINT: If your work doesn’t look exactly like the sample, your formatting is WRONG. Fix it! You will submit the assignment as a .doc or .docx file on Canvas no later than the due date. A word count is not necessary for this assignment. Provide a list of scholarly resources with short summative annotations, all in APA format. “Annotated Bibliography” formatively assesses the skills of documenting source information and of evaluating arguments, claims, and evidence from multiple texts in order to identify appropriate and relevant information related to the writing task or assignment. Purposefully differentiate the use of paraphrasing, summarizing, and directly quoting as a rhetorical strategy Purposefully apply appropriate citation style (APA) through in-text citations and reference section in order to show writer credibility Create an accurate works cited or reference section with multiple author books or periodicals that reference complex academic texts gathered from academic databases (e.g., EBSCO, ProQuest, etc.) https://www.easybib.com/guides/writing-guides/paper-types/how-to-write-a-research-paper/ https://www.liberty.edu/media/1171/Annotated_Bib_2014.pdf https://www.easybib.com/guides/citation-guides/apa-format/ https://www.eastbaytimes.com/2021/05/28/tristyn-bailey-murder-boy-14-charged-as-adult-details-of-attack-revealed/Tristyn Bailey Murder Research Paper
SDSU The Influence of Gender & Stage of Life on Social Media Use Analysis.
I’m working on a psychology multi-part question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.
Activity #8 (Chapter 12 Factorial Design)Design a 2 x 4 study
Give the study a title (1 pt)
What is your hypothesis? (2 pts)
Describe your independent variables (what are they are and what are their levels/groups) (2 pts)
How many total groups do you have and what are they? (2 pts)
What is your dependent variable? (1 pt)
Provide an example of a main effect and an example of an interaction (2 pts)
Example of a 2 x 3 (I can’t make it too easy and give you a 2 x 4 example!). Do not use the same independent or dependent variables that are in this example
The Effects of Diet and Exercise on Weight Loss
Be sure to list the “2” variable first (diet) and the “3” variable second (exercise)
It is hypothesized that those who are on a 1000 calorie diet and exercise 4 hours a day for a month will lose more weight than those who are not on a diet and exercise either 1 hour or 2 hours a day
First independent variable = diet (2 levels: Group 1= no diet; Group 2= 1000 calories a day for 1 month)
Second independent variable = exercise (3 levels: Group 1= exercise 1 hr per day for a month; Group 2 = exercise 2 hrs per day for a month; Group 3 = exercise 4 hrs a day for a month)
6 total groups
1. No diet/exercise 1 hr a day for 1 month 2. No diet/exercise 2 hrs a day for 1 month3. No diet/exercise 4 hrs a day for 1 month4. 1000 cal a day for a month/exercise 1 hr a day for 1 month5. 1000 cal a day for a month/exercise 2 hrs a day for 1 month6. 1000 cal a day for a month/exercise 4 hrs a day for 1 month
Weight loss after 1 month
Main effect: Those on a diet lost more weight than those not on a diet
Interaction: Subjects who were on a 1000 calorie a day diet and exercised 4 hours a day lost the most weight
SDSU The Influence of Gender & Stage of Life on Social Media Use Analysis
Oil-Spill in the Gulf of Mexico Essay
Oil-Spill in the Gulf of Mexico Essay. The oil spill that occurred in the Gulf of Mexico elicits the potential of negative impacts to marine and wildlife of animals in the surrounding environment. This is one of the biggest spills that have occurred in human history. Not only is the wildlife affected, but plants and other living organisms in the environment are also adversely affected. Due to these effects, an imbalance in the ecosystem, especially about the delicate marine ecosystem is large disrupted. This article explores the environment as impacted by the recent oil spills in the Gulf of Mexico elaborating on the implications of the oil spills to the habitat of the Deep Water Horizon including the marine birds, marine mammals, and ocean turtles among other reptiles, fish and wildlife refuges. During the time of the BP accident, over eight thousand organisms were affected. In actuality, the effects of approximately two million oil gallons of oil and chemical dispersants have been short term with long terms effects insurmountable. Long-term effects of the oil spills could be experienced by human beings and other animals so many years in the future. However, scientists could devise ways of dealing with the anticipated negative effects of the oil spill in the future. The chemical compounds released to the environment shortly affected birds. These birds could not regulate their body temperature as the environment normally required. Also, some sea reptiles, including sea turtles, were covered with oil, which resulted in deaths due to suffocation. Lastly, the deep-sea corals were adversely impacted as many died while others are still dying in the deep sea (Thurman and McWhorter 23). Thus, both man and animals will be exposed to the chemicals contained in oil for a very long period. Some of the effects that could be caused by the chemicals might affect the genes and result in genetic disorders. The deposits are expected to last and persist for years (Thurman and McWhorter 20). A study on the health effect of fish, particularly dolphins in areas that were heavily oiled, such as the Louisiana coast, in Barataria Bay, over 50% of the dolphins investigated were critically ill, with about 17% having a very poor prognosis to survival. The oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico heightened the adversity affecting this threatened Kemp turtle species where more than 500 sea turtles are found stranded (Incardona et al. 1510). The increased deaths of marine animals are causing an ecosystem balance instability resulting in an extrapolation of imbalance in the marine food web. The liberated oil toxicity educed immediate adversity to eggs and larval organisms of many species, which lowered the numbers or even wiped out the entire age group of the affected organisms. This will be elicited in the coming years. Lastly, there is a decline in the populations of fish and other wildlife in the vicinity of the disaster region. This population fluctuation is expected to continue for years to come based on the effects of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil disaster, where there was a collapse of the herring population (Proctor, Flather and Elliott 535). In conclusion, the marine life has been and is continually experiencing the effects of the Gulf oil disaster years after the accident. Mitigating protocols need to be designed to facilitate a reduction in the duration of these adverse effects on the ocean environment will be felt. Works Cited Incardona, John, Luke Gardner, Tiffany Linbo, Tanya Brown, Andrew Esbaugh, Edward Mager, John Stieglitz et al. “Deepwater Horizon crude oil impacts the developing hearts of large predatory pelagic fish.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111.15 (2014): 1510-1518. Print. Proctor, Roger, Roger Flather, and Alan Elliott. “Modelling tides and surface drift in the Arabian Gulf—application to the Gulf oil spill.” Continental Shelf Research 14.5 (1994): 531-545. Print. Thurman, Harold, and James McWhorter. Introduction to oceanography. Upper Saddle River: NJ: 2011. Print. Oil-Spill in the Gulf of Mexico Essay
Current Ethical Issues in Business
essay writing service free Current Ethical Issues in Business. Current Ethical Issues in Business Introduction Ethics is an important ingredient in business. Many businesses have a corporate code of ethics in which they outline the principles that guide behavior in the organization. Even with those stipulations, businesses frequently face challenges regarding the breakage of the rules in their codes of ethics. At times, businesses pay penalties for failing to comply with governmental or legal codes of ethics. In the following section, the paper explores some contemporary ethical issues such as executive pay, corporate social responsibility, globalization, business ethical climate, health care, etc. CEO Pay One of the contemporary ethical issues in businesses regards executive pay. Over the recent past, chief executive officers of some of the Fortune, 500 companies have earned monthly salaries to the tunes of tens of millions. In the United States, executive pay has raised to more than 270 times that of an average worker (Umoh, 2018). The ethical part of the discussion regarding the high pay includes the role of the CEO in the process of deciding his or her pay. As members of the board of directors, CEOs could take part in deciding their salaries and other allowances. A second point is a justification for such high payments bearing in mind the contribution of junior and subordinate employees (to the company’s productivity and profits). As much as companies want to attract talent in an increasingly competitive business world, I think businesses should reconsider the contributions of all employees and not just the CEO. That way, there will be fairness in decision-making. If businesses view productivity as a product of teamwork, perhaps they would not pay the CEO such huge amounts at the expense of the average employee who works for 40 hours or more for the sake of the business. Even so, I cannot give a preferable figure because companies differ in their production capacities, the number of employees, and the profits they make. Only I believe that companies should consider other employees in the determination of CEO salary and not the perceived role of the CEO in the success of the business. Climate and Corporate Social Responsibility The responsibility of reducing the footprint applies to all companies. Bill McKibben once wrote a book in which he reminded the audience of prior warnings of the dangers of climate change. In the book, Bill presents a handful of facts and statistics showing the rates of increment in the carbon footprint over the years. Companies represent one of the groups of the primary stakeholders to blame for the increment in the carbon footprint, although the author invites everyone to revisit their contributions to that trend and to make decisions regarding the future (McKibben, 2010). As the discourse of climate change continues to intensify, many governments have continued to strengthen regulations regarding manufacturing and other business activities that increase the footprint. Both the private and public sectors have intensified their initiatives for keeping the footprint as low as possible. The corporate greening campaign is a fruit of those incentives. Through the initiative, companies call upon manufacturers and other players to ensure that production activities release the lowest levels of greenhouse gases (Clegg, KornbergerCurrent Ethical Issues in Business
UCLA Best or Your Worst Workplace Experience Motivation Theories Discussion
UCLA Best or Your Worst Workplace Experience Motivation Theories Discussion.
Using the motivation theories, explain either your best, or your worst workplace experience in terms of motivation. Go in detail and provide information on your boss, work, context, environment etc. that affected your motivation. How and why did the situation lead you to perform at your best? Alternatively, how and why did you chose to not be performing according to expectations?If you have little or no prior work experience, or don’t feel comfortable sharing, please watch the movie “Office Space” (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0151804/ (Links to an external site.)) and analyze the situation Peter Gibbons and his colleagues are experiencing (you may chose either character, however, I recommend you address Peter Gibbon’s situation). If you chose to analyze the movie, your analysis has to go beyond the two short videos posted on the course website. Using the theories discussed, explain why he is motivated, or not so motivated, to perform highly.Theory 1:Theory 2:Theory 3:
As a reminder, the eight motivation theories discussed in the book and in class were: Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsAlderfer’s ERG TheoryHerzberg’s Two-factor TheoryMcClelland’s Motive Dispositions TheoryEquity TheoryExpectancy TheoryReinforcement TheoryGoal Setting TheoryLength & Structure: Your assignment should not exceed three to three and a half (double spaced) pages in length (Times New Roman font size 12, double spaced) that is, about one (1) page (double spaced) for each theory (required), 0.5 page introduction (optional). Please make sure to use headlines, introductions, and other elements of structure. An introduction might help if you are referencing your own work experience. It is less important if you opt to analyze the movie. Grading: This assignment will be graded 70% on your ability to correctly apply motivation theories and 30 % on grammar and spelling. It is therefore important that you carefully edit your answers before turning them in. Please make sure you reference three different theories. If you analyze the same theory three times you will receive full points. If you chose your own work experience, you may analyze the same or different work situations/jobs. File Format: You are required to upload your assignment in the form of a WORD or PDF document. If your document uses a different file format it will not be read and graded you will receive ZERO points. Please be aware that you cannot re-submit your document in the proper file format after the deadline has passed, even if you submit a different (unreadable) file format in time. If your file format is NEITHER PDF NOR WORD your assignment cannot be read and graded and you will receive ZERO points. The link will close after the due date that is posted. There is going to be a zero tolerance for late submissions.
UCLA Best or Your Worst Workplace Experience Motivation Theories Discussion
This week our topic shifts to working with data. In this week’s discussion post, please note a system that
Q2: This week our topic shifts to working with data. In this week’s discussion post, please note a system that you work with frequently that has a major data component. Note the type of data, how the data is managed and maintained, and any other important factors regarding the data in the system.