Abstract Freedom of movement among the citizens of the European Union has taken a progressive and historical process. This began with workers in the steel and coal industry and progressed to the freedom of movement of all persons including ordinary citizens. This study is mainly concerned with the anti-discriminatory clause of the freedom of movement legislation. There were various forms of discrimination among the EU member states that rendered exercising of the legislation ineffective. The study explores the agenda behind the anti-discrimination directive, decision making process through to its implementation. The study also examines some of the controversies surrounding the implementation of this directive by the member states. In order to succeed in exercising these rights the EU member countries ought to pursue convergent and well harmonized strategies that match with EU policies. Introduction Free movement across the EU member states was founded upon the Maastricht accord, which like the Rome statute did not considers the legislative challenges of these EU affiliate countries in their social system. This brought a new political dimension to the already existing economic integration among the EU member states. Each and every citizen of the EU affiliate states automatically gains EU citizenship but still retain their national citizenship. On the other hand, EU citizenship increases the economic benefits to the citizens of the EU member’s states as stipulated in the treaty1. Maastricht treaty gives EU citizens right to enjoy within the scale of the treaty the same treatment in the law regardless of the nationality. For that reason, EU citizenship has increased the rights of the persons within the EU member states considerably. EU court of justice ruled that citizens of the EU are eligible to live in any state as citizens, consequently the EU citizenship gives citizens of the EU member states right to move freely across the these countries2. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the EU, the policy for free movement of people is mainly associated with labor mobility. The EU’s Lisbon Strategy for growth and employment could not be achieved without guaranteeing the right of citizens to t lives and work anywhere in the Union. The mobility of workers is encouraged because it brings benefits to the individuals in terms of personal and career development3. The paper analyses the EU s policy on free movement of people and more specifically the Directive in the rights of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States adopted by the European Parliament and the Council on 29 April 2004 (2004/38/EC)4. In the first place, the paper identifies the nature of the policy process, its setting in the EU agenda, the actors who are responsible for its formulation then it evaluates the power and influence exercised in the policy making process, as well as its implementation. The Nature of free movement of persons The European Union ability for legislative acts and other initiatives on free movement of people is based legally in the provisions in the Treaties of the European Union. In the treaty of Rome, the universal right of free movement was not enshrined. It was only the Treaty of Maastricht which introduced the freedom of movement as a fundamental right that the EU citizens have irrespective of whether they have economic activities or not. Article 3 /2/ of the TFEU stipulates that the Union shall offer its citizens an area of freedom, security and justice without internal frontiers, in which free movement of persons is ensured5. Article 45 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) provides for the freedom of movement of workers who shall move freely within the territory of member States and shall stay in the Member States for the purposes of employment. The rights of economically-active persons to free movement within the EU have been complemented by limited rights for non-economically-active citizens to move freely within the EU, under Article 20 (1) of the TFEURegulation 1612/1968 of the Council of 15 October 1968 on the freedom of movement of workers within the Community only provides for the free movement of employees6. We will write a custom Coursework on European Union Free Movement Directives and Regulations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Agenda setting Towards the end of 1970s European parliament on all the EU stakeholders to fight forms of discrimination the EU citizens were facing in relation to their freedom of movement within the EU’s jurisdiction7. In most occasions the EU council opposed this action arguing that EU had no legal base to deal with this issue. One of the issues that attracted great concern especially in UK was the protection of the immigrants linked to immigration policies of the individual member states. Debates on appropriate policy to fight racism and xenophobia continued and deepened in 90’s. The fight against racism also involved policy consultations among non-governmental organizations and action groups which resulted to the formation of European Network against Racism (ENAR). Simultaneously, a group of legal experts from these groups of activists formed Start Line Group (SLG). This organization became a major tool for policy formulation and also helped in organizations of awareness campaigns to support and promote synchronization of the policies against discrimination of the EU member states8. The above group of activists lobbied rigorously across Europe to acquire the legal basis for the anti-discrimination policy geared towards the preparation of the Amsterdam treaty. Starting Line Group later on supplied the EU commission with a particular draft proposal for the directive on combating religious and racial prejudice. Their contributions were openly supported and authenticated by the European Parliament which issued a number of resolutions pushing for the EU commission to utilize the SLG proposals as foundation for main proposal, which was accepted by the commission9. The following events were taking place in order to integrate all the debates which were also taking place in the EU member states. Therefore, pushing of this agenda at the European level was very attractive to rights group since they wanted to bypass some o the EU member countries that were reluctant to adopt this policy. In spite of the obstacles experienced within the EU institution wise, attaining a unanimous decision for safeguarding protection against the above forms of discrimination was very vital in choosing EU as the policy platform10. Not sure if you can write a paper on European Union Free Movement Directives and Regulations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, the coalition between different set of players with the European parliament and commission with the well organized competence of the Starting Line Group in consolidating information and authenticating support to raise the subject on the agenda was very important. Policy formulation Besides the intensive lobbying, the research carried out by the legal experts was also used for awareness and formulation of the legislative proposals. Those who took part in the debate utilized existing research, assigned new research or assumed this role on their own. In fact, the migration policy group in collaboration with the European Centre on Racism and Xenophobia analysed and compared the proposed legislations from the EU commission and the SLG and the national versions11. This was done to come up with the common ground by accommodating all the proposals to convince the restrained governments. The main distinction between the SLG’s proposal and the Commission’s proposal was the insertion of religion as a basis or discrimination. This was removed by the EU commission but later re-introduced by the European parliament. Framing the religious subject into the EU agenda as an obstacle to free movement of people was considered to be an effective strategic approach. Another positive aspect was the decision by the commission to handle the issue of racism separately from other forms of discrimination12. Decision making At the proposal stage, the EU commission had most of the influence on the proposal in line with the EU comitolgy in decision making process. The commission voted for the proposal and submitted the draft for adoption in EP and the council who approved it. The commission took over most of the implementation process. The decision making process was facilitated by a number of factors including domestic politics and tactics from the European parliament. Politics as a factor in the decision making process was very much unpredictable13. Australian election in the year 2003 brought the extreme right Australian freedom party into the then coalition government resulting to solemn concerns and unilateral approval by the rest of the EU member states. This also underpinned the necessitated urgent response from the EU institutions which analysts believe was a crucial factor for quick adoption of the directive. European parliament strategically narrowed the debate by persuading the EU commission and council to move the directive on racism swiftly. Henceforth, the decision making process took place in a consultative manner, isolating the process behind the close doors of the council thus keep away from the interference. This was specifically frustrating for the European parliament which had been a more active proponent of the EU obligation against racism. However, the European parliament stepped up its opinion delivery after gaining more seats14. With the decision making process clearly in their hands, EU member states managed to control the decision making process and resulted into a weaker directive than the earlier proposals. Their main topic of debate was based on auxiliary principles, probable cost of implementation, non interference with the national policies on immigration, and a constricted treaty base. Even though, in principle, no EU member country was opposed to the new directive, a number of issues resulted to acrimonious debate for instance impact of the directive on the third country citizens15. The great support Australian accorded the proposed directive minimised opposition from the other member states who feared being compared negatively for instance Germany. Earlier declarations and unanimous reaction after election in Australia made it very perilous for any government to exhibit inconsistency in the adoption of the anti-discriminatory legislation. It should be noted that after the adoption of the directive article 13 and respect for the minority group were also included for new countries joining the European Union16. Implementation The implementation process was both well strategized and followed effective division of work between the external and internal actors. External actors were mainly the NGO’s, who provided the design for the policy and technical know-how while the internal actors were mainly the EU parliament and the commission.EU member states were given 3 years to realign their legislations with the EU directive. In mid 2004, the EU commission began proceedings for the member states who contravened the EU directive within the July 2003 directive. By the year 2007, complete implementation of the directive was still not yet achieved and additional set of formal appeals from the EU commission was sent to 14 members to fully implement the directive. Realising the serious loop holes in the implementation process, the European parliament also added its support in calling for the full implementation of the legislation17. Some of the agencies promoted by the commission in the anti discrimination campaign faced many challenges until they were restructured with a wider mandate into the EU agency for basic rights. 18United Kingdom “good fit” is regarded as the most effective piece of legislation on antidiscrimination. Several countries have also followed the same direction and in some cases surpassing the EU directive for instance France. The political situation in Germany made the implementation process very difficult, similar to Poland and Denmark thus lack of comitology in the implementation process. Controversy surrounding implementation of the directive In Germany the implementation of this directive led to higher immigration rate particularly during the electioneering period. The directive clashed with the other receptive issues such as citizenship law and gay marriages which delayed its adoption by the government in that time. The directive also faced hostility in Poland and Denmark. UK was the strongest opponent of the EU directive on racism arguing that the impasse surrounding discrimination had to be tackled at the country level. EU court of justice has offered clarification for the interpretation of the directive but the lack of proceedings relating to the racial discrimination has restricted its influence. A court can only take action when permissible violations of rights are brought to its attention by authentic actors. However, the European court of justice has put a lot of pressure on a number of member states who failed to comply with its directives. But these cases take almost forever to be heard19. Local changes among the EU member states that can be traced back the EU-level have somewhat limited. There have been a number of reforms and introduction of new laws in all EU member countries but the facts on the ground reveals that there is a broad difference with little convergence. The impact of this directive is also very difficult to isolate from other legal and policies adopted by EU and the outsiders relating to anti-discrimination20. Factors that have brought about convergence of these policies seem to be the compatibility of the directive with the social and political environment in many countries. Introduction of some legislations related to the directive have caused a lot of confusion and snarl up to the implementation process. For instance one of the requirements of this directive is the setting up of an autonomous body to encourage and promote equality, assist victims and oversee development. However, several years after this clause was added in the gender equality directive it opened arguments in many countries whether to establish a joint or separate bodies encasing several discriminatory issues. Division of the intricate issues facilitates adoption of the policy but complicates the implementation process21. Swift implementation of the EU directive left little time for the public to debate nor reflect on the consequences of the these laws at the country level. Conclusion The quest for freedom of movement and legislations that are against all forms of discrimination that affects effective exercising of this freedom have taken an historic and strenuous journey. Following intensive lobbying by the European parliament and NGO’s plus the politics in Australia, the quest for freedom of movement and the legislation against all the discriminatory elements that acts as the obstacle for the same was realised. The multi-level engagement between the NGO’s and the EU relevant divisions resulted led to daring and ground-breaking piece of legislations with high expectation and standards in the comparatively new policy areas. Despite of the limited role of the European parliament, the process was fairly democratic. This is evident in the implementation process which was not smooth due to influence from the state quarters. The directive was a break through in the social policy issues but the implementation was relatively weak and deficient. Bibliography Bell, M. ‘Beyond European labor Law? Reflection on the EU racial quality, Directive.” European law journal, vol.8, no. 8, 2002, pp. 384-399. Golynker, O. “Jobseekers’ Rights in the European Union: Challenges of hanging the Paradigm of Social Solidarity”. European Law Review vol. 30 no.1, 2005, pp. 111–22. Guild, E. The Legal Framework of EU Migration. Working Paper No. 2, Pemint, 2002 Guild E. European Community Law from a Migrant’s Perspective. Katholieke niversiteit Nijmegen, Nijmegen, 2000 Hailbronner, K. “Union Citizenship and Access to Social Benefits.” Common Market Law Review vol.42, 2005, pp. 1245–67 Hix, S. “The political system of the European Union”. UK: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005 Nanda, VP, Folsom, RH,
The marketing fundamentals divided into strategic plans (long term) helps in searching and determine the market segment and tactical plans (short term) starting the implementation and evaluation this fundamentals cannot be separated each of them complete the other one The Strategic: firstly, what do customers need? Customer’s needs are an important element in marketing as the customers is the heart or core of our benefit as a business and it is the first point we must take in to account. In general view the basic needs for people includes food, clothing, safety, education and others. This needs motivated and directed by something comes from inside each individuals affected by different factor and as we know in now days we are not living just to satisfy the basic human needs we are beyond this .so, This needs becomes wants if it is influenced by cultures , individuals and directed to specific object in order to satisfy the needs, for example the food needs everyone in the world own this need but in different way based on the kind of the food that they eat , Bahraini people will not be similar to American. In addition Wants becomes demand toward a product if the customers have the ability to pay for this specific want and needs. In order to identify the customer’s needs we have to conduct a marketing research to determine what are the real needs. The research can be based on primary data not available, costly and take time or secondary data available ,lower cost and faster and these data can be obtained by different methods such as qualitative and quantitative survey observation ,questionnaire , interviews, phone calls, using the internet and can be by mail. The aim behind collecting the data is to know how to serve the customers using our products and services Secondly ,Segmentation(SWOT analysis) once we identify the customers and their needs that means we are now familiar with our customers and we have to describe the market segment so that can we starting to fulfill their needs and segment our customer and market by categorize customers into segment and groups based on certain characteristics(percent of sales , wants , the use of the product, reach channels price sensitivity) and what product or service they are willing to buy .also focusing on the benefit provided to our customer more than the features of the products. In order to segment and target the market we can apply the SWOT analysis to study the market. SWOT SWOT looking into the strength weaknesses, opportunities and threats so firstly, we have to assess our strengths and weaknesses for each condition such as (resources, customer service infrastructure, quality, and competitive advantages) things that related to company itself from the insides and basics internal factors. Secondly, assess the opportunities and threats for each segment which is related to the environment or the market and what affect the company from outside such as (new products and external factors Thirdly, Targeting: after us segmenting the market and assessing the SWOT, then we have to target our valuable market segment by determine the opportunities in a segment where we have strength and more profitable in which that we can strongly stand there and eliminating the weaknesses and the others are weak. Choosing among different segments we must take into account the size, growth rate, competition, brand loyalty, sales potential, breakeven and profit. Competition and competitive advantages ( uniqueness of the product and services): competition it’s a reality that exist everywhere and anywhere, competitor are those who you are competing with them in order to gain the higher benefits and profit or to achieve a goal that cannot be for two over them in a certain market segment this lead us to identify a competitive advantage that makes the product or services unique in different from others even for the same product or service in the target market which is an important element to achieve the goals. Products channels to reach customers What are you offering to target market? Amount to charged to products Increase Awareness of productThe second part of the fundaments is the tactical plans: after we gather the information and choose the target segment now tactical plans appears starting with positioning that considers as a competitive advantages and helps to create the company image by communicating with customers and reach the in different way to build up strong relationships in target market and try to be in the mind of the customers. Then the concept of marketing mix (4Ps), this is refers to all activities that the can be controlled by the company in order to produce the response it wants from the target market and these activities can be divided into four groups: Now we come up with two important aspects of tactical plans are the implementation and evaluations. The implementation of the marketing activities such as placing advertisement, create web site, broachers and using the social networks in the internet. Finally the evaluation in this part the company starts comparing the actual results with the objects to identify the successes and the failure for future considerations Customer value: customer value is the difference between what they get as benefit from the product or service and what are they gowning to pay to get it. http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSqnxX5mTeuiMOU8Pfurt52BqM5aJ59daaSR8–22vW2Y-mbhNH The customer value can be considers as heart of a competitive advantages for the company and long term successes sometimes ignored by companies and they must put themselves in the place of the customer although they know that they are delivering value but to understand and define the customer values by doing this as we are all customers in any way and this the reason behind giving more value in the strategies for customer values, business people definition of value is the realization that means what customer get out of their purchase compared to sacrifice .the customer value analysis provides the incentive to improve the quality of the product while still offering the customer the product priced equitably without changing the concept itself. And this help to retain the current customers (less costly way) and attract new customers that’s why companies gives more value to customer value a maintain customer satisfaction. For example better service provided , the way you are talking to your customer, maintenance, help in making decision ,how do you deliver the product or service, and if the customers satisfaction is most important to you as company. Maximizing customer value maximize the difference between the realization an scarifying http://www.realinnovation.com/library/graphics/081103_01.gif The customer value measured by four elements Realized value: is the net profit earned and used to compare the performance from period to period Business definition the amount that will be recognized from the sale of an asset less any expenses incurred from the sale. For example, a business owns a vehicle that could be sold for $10,000 after spending $1,500 on minor repairs, painting, and a sales commission. The vehicle’s net realized value is $10,000 less $1,500, or $8,500. Expected value: the expected profit an revenues that the company expected to earn from selling products by applying the up sells(selling of more quantities of related products) and cross sells(selling more than different product for the company in one time) Lifetime value: it is the total expected vale and realized value. Business definition: in marketing, the economic value of a customer during the life of the customer’s association with a business. An estimate of customer lifetime value allows a business to determine the amount of money that can be spent on acquiring and retaining a customer. For example, a high customer lifetime value may convince a credit card company to offer expensive incentives to attract new clients. Also called lifetime customer value. Potential value: this is the total of life time value in addition to future profit to be occurs by products that have yet to be marketed. “It is important that you make sure product marketing strategies are focusing on the highest value customers for that product,” McGee says Functional and emotional benefits: Benefits includes functional and emotional such as (ego, status) and quality that can be measured by (unique features, reliability expert advice, service dependability, personalized service, convenience, availability and other things). This benefit present to the product by the customers as they have something different toward this product instead of the alternative and varies from one customer to another. The functional benefits from its name something related to the product or service itself not easily can be identified or to differentiated from others as the competitor easily can copy it and mostly they rely on the emotional benefits that comes from inside their personalities and it is a self expressive related to the feelings dose I feel better when I buy this over this is means something about rewarding themselves, satisfaction. These benefits specially the emotional can retain and gain the market shares and help to build up a positive connection between the customer and the company, it can be increased by reducing the cost and the cost includes money, time- energy, psychic: perceived risk money spent on the purchase (price), plus maintenance, operating cost over the life of the product, time spent on basic service error, delay and inconvenience both tangible and intangible costs reduce values. Q2. What strategy do you believe they should be using to reduce “perceived risk” of their potential customers? Perceived risk: Customer negative unexpected cost might customer fears by making wrong decision to purchase the product or service. For example there are goods that have more perceived risk that others such as durable goods, complex, automobile computers, and a high-priced compared with for example shampoo or juice. People with high level of education and self confidence face low perceived risk and the higher the price of the goods the high the perceived risk. The customer is willing to purchase the same brand instead of purchase new or unknown brand. As the perceived risk increased the information and recommendation obtained to make the purchase decision. For example a well known car companies in Bahrain and its policy for maintaining and car repairing for Honda or Toyota. Another example is restaurants such as YUM YUM tree that provides healthy and fresh food. The perceived risk can be reduced by following certain strategies : search for information; buy their products, through the good reputation of brand-name goods to reduce the risk of feeling; build brand loyalty, repeat purchase have been satisfied with the brand to avoid possible to choose a new brand with a years of risk; experience of trial equipment and samples; options with complete return policy and service contracts to buy channels. In the other hand the company must be aware of this risk and in our point of view and in order to reduce it they must be available in different ways in the face to customer to provide him with information required, testing the product or service for example Honda motors give the customer chance for trial and testing how is the car driving, and they should concern about the department which represent the company or any employee that directly contact the customers, also advertisement are important Q3. (a) What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative research? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each? Give some examples where you will apply these two research methods in Bahrain. Qualitative research is usually used for more exploratory purposes by understanding the multi dimensional picture of the investigation. It focuses on differences in quality, rather than differences in quantity. Qualitative research has fewer participants compared to the quantitative research because the depth and richness of data that connected with the individual attitudes and behavior does not allow for large numbers of participants. The researcher interprets the date that include complete and detailed descriptions of social life, minutely interviews, novels, and information from written sources to extract its meaning and converts it to information. Advantages: Help researchers to define exactly what to focus on. The researchers have more details about each participant. Disadvantages: More prone to accusation of bias and personal subjectivity. Hard to gather the data. Small group of interviewed individuals can’t be taken as representative. Time consuming. Examples: In order to succeed in Future Schools project, we should study the Bahrain’s teachers and students capabilities. Therefore, we need to use a qualitative research on a randomly selected teachers and student in each phase separately. During the research that may last for years, we will have interviews with each participant, minutely monitored to all classes, and analysis of participant’s emotions to comprehend all the needs. Quantitative research focuses on numbers or quantity, where the results based on numeric analysis and statistics. It creates statistical models to explain events. This research uses a large sample of the population; the larger the sample of participants, the more statistical power and accurate results given by choosing a sample that closely resembles the population. The quantitative analysis allows researchers to test specific hypotheses to answer specific questions. Advantages: Can be counted and modelled statistically. The statistical analysis allows for generalization to others. Allow to study the relationship between dependent and independent variables in detail. The researchers are more objective about the findings of the research. Used to test hypotheses. Disadvantages: Doesn’t study things in a natural setting. The research can be manipulated. Uses large number of participants. The researchers don’t have the depth knowledge about each participant. Examples: To study the useful and easy to use of the e-services provided by Bahrain e-government portal. A questionnaire will be appear to the user after using the service, the user can solve it easily online by rating each question from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Then by using statistical analysis it will help to find out how easy the service was and hence to develop and enhance the services in the future. As one of the Bahrain vision 2030, Bahrain Institute of Public Administration (BIPA) become one of the trusted authority that aims to develop public administration and training in Ministries and State institutions and contribute to qualifying and training the staff of these Ministries and institutions. Therefore, after finishing each course the students will be asked to fill in the Institute questionnaire regarding the course, lecturer and the place, to insure effective and efficient provision of better public services. Q3. (b) What is the difference between probability and non-probability sample? Under what situation each one is used? Probability and non-probability sampling is the methods of how the samples of the research are chosen in order to obtain the in formations. The probability sampling is a method used and formed in a random selection in which that each sample or member in the population has an equal chance and known to be selected greater than zero and it can be accurately determined we can use it for generalization for example estimate the total income of people living in a certain area. Non-probability sampling is a method used in selecting the sample in which the unit of the population to be selected people have not equal chance to be selected than others may be less or more or zero and not accurately, in other word the personal judgment is the determinant not generalized and specific not involve random selection for example interviewing the first person you see. Although there is a difference but if there is no response in the probability this effect to turn it into non-probability. Moreover we can choose one of them based on the result required generalized or specified. In probability sampling there was traditional methods to choose randomly such as chose a number out of small hat or basket but now because of the emerge of technology we can use it to simplify the selection process. The types of probability sampling: Simple random sampling: the generalize, easiest and simplest method for selection and the objective is that to select unit of population all of them have an equal chance to be chosen by following a procedure of a table of random numbers , computer random number, or mechanical device for selection. More over it is fair way for selection and easy to be explained but not the efficient method because of the draw luck. http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQW4BsIaH2qSJeYzsT0L06GNuNwgjVv3TAej44kOdqsdtaUwwqc Stratified random sample: in this method the population categorized into independent group such as age and random selection done for each group. This method can leads to more efficient result if the variables correlated strongly to the dependent variable, maximum variability between the groups and minimum variability within the groups. The advantages over simple method are focuses on importance, and allow different sampling techniques. The disadvantages, requires selection for relevant variables can be difficult, not useful if there no homogeneous subgroup and costly. http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRRwBEuUa1Xm9TVBbImcKxMRve-7urm9sC4vtpCLEnMWWvQOHHE Cluster (area) sample: in this method the population divided into groups such as blocks countries and then randomly select of each group. Cheaper and it can reduce travel and the indirect cost and it contains two stages called multi sampling: areas are chosen in the first stage then sample within those areas selected. Multistage sampling: is complex form of cluster sampling fist stage set the cluster, the second randomly selecting. The main problem is when we have a sample for a wide geographic area and you have to reach every unit in the sample that’s why this method cannot considers as real result. http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR74nW9qI1g_uHNtA864oLHlRs2i7wgVSAaSfS48CRt4hr4TB1lmQhttp://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT9OZp5kADnKpyKkSmEgfpaZDvtPaJ8tw298bQAX7-XkdOO_bvjFg Non- probability methods includes: Convenience sample: in this method the population selected by the more accessible members and easily available Judgment sample: in this method population selected based on which will provide accurate information those who have experience. Quota sample: in this method the population interviewed the helpful and a prescribed number of people of each group. For example the interview may have instruction a specific number of one out of the total Q4. (a) Refer to figure 2.3 (page 85 of text book). What is strategic planning gap? Explain how companies bridge such gap by perusing different strategies? What are forward and backward integration strategies why companies use them? http://img.docstoccdn.com/thumb/orig/3616748.png The Strategic Planning Gap (http://www.docstoc.com/docs/3616748/The-Strategic-Planning-Gap) What is strategic planning gap? The company’s plans for existing business allow it to project total sales/ profits over time period. If the projected sales
US Constitution and Three Post Civil War Amendments Discussion
US Constitution and Three Post Civil War Amendments Discussion.
the U.S. Constitution after the Civil War was a fundamentally different document than it was before the War. The Fourteenth Amendment shifted the balance within the federal system and expanded the rights of people in new ways. Along with the Thirteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, it was intended to end the slave system upon which the country had been founded and to incorporate freed slaves into political society. Through violence, political compromises, and Supreme Court decisions, the new Constitution failed to guarantee freedom not only to African Americans, but also to women of all colors. [Note to students: your essay should state, in your own words, the meaning of the provisions in all three amendments (first clause only for 14th) Do not simply reproduce the text of the Amendments].
US Constitution and Three Post Civil War Amendments Discussion
NUR 4828 UCF Effective Leadership and Management in Nursing Discussion Response
write my term paper NUR 4828 UCF Effective Leadership and Management in Nursing Discussion Response.
I’m working on a nursing discussion question and need an explanation to help me learn.
Evaluate your own problem-solving skills rating your ability to carry out the following: approaching problems that ambiguous or involve risk and participating in group problem solving. Based on findings, identify goals and strategies to improve your problem-solving skills using the information presented in the text.Problem solving techniques vary according to the problem and the degree of risk and uncertainty in the situation. According to Sullivan, most critical decision making in organizations is done under conditions of uncertainty (Sullivan 2018). In a risk situation, the availability of each alternative, potential successes, and costs are all associated with probability estimates (Sullivan 2018). The key element in decision making under conditions of risk is to determine the probabilities of each alternative as accurately as possible. Nurse managers use objective and subjective probably to determine risk in a situation. Objective probability is based on facts and reliable information and subjective probability is based on a manager’s personal judgment and beliefs. It is always better to reduce risk in a situation by using facts, but if facts are unavailable, your manager may give his or her advise based on her best judgement.Group problem solving can be positive, providing more information and knowledge than an individual but it can also be negative if it generates disruptive conflict or groupthink. As a nursing student, I really love groupthink because it uses everyones knowledge to come up with the best solution. Those who participate in group problem solving need to be aware of their strengths and weaknesses and be kind to others. When working in a group environment, group members assume different roles based on their personality. Typically, I fall into the organizer, the member who keeps group members on tract and promotes efficiency of the group meeting. For problems involving ambiguity and modification of known and well-defined alternative solutions, grids or tables can be used to compare outcomes of alternative solutions. In order to solve ambiguous problems, I can create a large table on a white board or large sheet of paper to display various solutions to the problem. For those who are visual learners, presenting a visual representation of solutions would work well.Resources: Sullivan, E. J. (2018). Effective leadership and management in nursing. New York, NY: PearsonRequirements: 1.5 paragraph
NUR 4828 UCF Effective Leadership and Management in Nursing Discussion Response
Larkin School of Nursing Effectiveness of Physical Exercise in Arthritis Pain Paper
Larkin School of Nursing Effectiveness of Physical Exercise in Arthritis Pain Paper.
This is the last part of the EBP assignment. This part of the assignment includesParts I, II, and III. Description of similarities and differences among the studies you selected for your report in assignment part IIDiscuss the practical or clinical significance of the findings to the evidence-based practice of nursing. Provide an answer to the PICO question, or describe why you are not able to definitively answer the question.The outcome should be a scholarly paper in APA formatYour next assignment will be a power point presentation of your final projectRubricEBP Part VEBP Part VCriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSignificance of problem, purpose of the report, and research question clearly stated35.0 ptsComplete, well-developed, successfully accomplished28.0 ptsMostly accomplished, with minimal errors21.0 ptsSomewhat accomplished, with substantial errors14.0 ptsAttempted, lacks depth or clarity, substantial errors present0.0 ptsNot attempted35.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSummary of the major findings and conclusions for each original research article35.0 ptsComplete, well-developed, successfully accomplished28.0 ptsMostly accomplished, with minimal errors21.0 ptsSomewhat accomplished, with substantial errors14.0 ptsAttempted, lacks depth or clarity, substantial errors present0.0 ptsNot attempted35.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWriting mechanics – appropriate grammar, spelling, punctuation, clarity and professional style of writing. Page length appropriate15.0 ptsComplete, well-developed, successfully accomplished12.0 ptsMostly accomplished, with minimal errors9.0 ptsSomewhat accomplished, with substantial errors6.0 ptsAttempted, lacks depth of clarity, substantial errors present0.0 ptsNot attempted15.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAPA formatting – title, running head, pages5.0 ptsComplete, well-developed, successfully accomplished4.0 ptsMostly accomplished, with minimal errors3.0 ptsSomewhat accomplished, with substantial errors2.0 ptsAttempted, lacks depth or clarity, substantial errors present0.0 ptsNot attempted5.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAPA formatting – In-text citations5.0 ptsComplete, well-developed, successfully accomplished4.0 ptsMostly accomplished, with minimal errors3.0 ptsSomewhat accomplished, with substantial errors2.0 ptsAttempted, lacks depth or clarity, substantial errors present0.0 ptsNot attempted5.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAPA formatting – reference page5.0 ptsComplete, well-developed, successfully accomplished4.0 ptsMostly accomplished, with minimal errors3.0 ptsSomewaht accomplished, with substantial errors2.0 ptsAttempted, lacks depth or clarity, substantial errors present0.0 ptsNot attempted5.0 ptsTotal Points: 100.0
Larkin School of Nursing Effectiveness of Physical Exercise in Arthritis Pain Paper
Critical Thinking W12-1 Operations Management
Critical Thinking W12-1 Operations Management.
Consider a recent project that you have worked on. This could be for a company or organization with which you are familiar, or even a personal project such as purchasing a home or planning a party.After your opening paragraph, which includes your thesis statement, identify your selected company or organization in no more than three paragraphs. Then, complete the following:*Note: for the charts/diagrams, use MS Word, Excel, Google Docs or Google Sheets. You may also use any other suitable project-based software. A free Project management software called Libre is also available for download here https://sourceforge.net/projects/projectlibre/Create either a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) of the project or Gantt Chart for planning and scheduling the project. Discuss why you used the type of chart you did. Determine and document both probabilistic (t0, tp, and tm) and deterministic time estimates. Discuss how you arrived at these time estimates.Using MS Word, Google Docs, or similar software, create a PERT network diagram with the Critical Path (CP) identified.Calculate the slack time for each activity. Discuss the ramifications of slack in the CP for the activities and the project as a whole.Develop the network diagram from the probability estimates. Discuss which path you would take and why.For each activity, determine hypothetical costs in a table. Include budgeted costs, percent complete, actual/projected cost, and over/under budget (and total). Discuss the rationale for how you derived these costs.Crash an activity on the Critical Path. Discuss the ramifications of crashing the activity you crashed.Formatting requirements:Your essay is required to be 5-6 pages in length, which does not include the title page and reference pages, which are never a part of the content minimum requirements.Charts/diagrams should be labeled and can be added within the body of your paper.
Critical Thinking W12-1 Operations Management