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Ethics approaches BY tealx021 Ethics in Communication After reading about the ethical considerations considering interpersonal and group communication, there are many similarities. The two differ in the sense of size. This leads to more considerations in the larger of the two, group communication, where there may be many different interpersonal relationships within the small group. However, for this analysis, like the book, I will focus on ethical considerations of the small group as a whole. Interpersonal relationships are unique in themselves, as each one is different han the next.

One major ethical consideration in this context is fairness. When people are interdependent, or share mutuality, there are almost always issues of fairness or Justice that arise. These two issues are most commonly based off of individual’s feelings and relational satisfaction. In our culture, this sense of Justice or fairness can be attributed to the distribution of rewards in proportion to each partner’s contributions. Relationships are often times weighed on costs and rewards. When this cost-reward system is unbalanced in relationships, we often see issues rise.

Another major consideration in interpersonal relationships is privacy and autonomy, or openness and closeness. In communication, this comes down to self- disclosure. Issues can arise if one partner in the relationship is disclosing too much or too little about themselves, and there is an unbalance between the two relational partners. One major issue in relationships is Jealousy, which can stem from any of these ethical considerations. In small-group communication, there are a few unique ethical considerations that arise. One major issue in small groups is groupthink.

Groupthink is the practice of thinking or making decisions as a group in a way that discourages creativity or individual responsibility. Another unique ethical consideration is issues that involve symbolic convergence within in-groups and out- groups. Symbolic convergence can create or develop stereotypes or exclusion within and outside a small group setting. Small-group and interpersonal relationships do also share ethical issues in communication. One of these is the issue of responsibility, which can be constituted as individual responsibility or the other affects responsibility of the whole relationship, and each one.

In small-groups, individual responsibility can be hampered by groupthink or Symbolic convergence. In interpersonal relationships, individual responsibility can be hampered by lack of fairness, or lack of interdependence based on self-disclosure. Much or this is based on context, but interpersonal and small group communication share these same ethical considerations. Many of these ethical issues surrounding interpersonal communication can be channeled well through dialogical ethics.

Dialogical ethics involves approaching decisions by considering attitudes and behaviors, and illingness or ability of each participant to surrender ones self-interest. This involves having an open mind, and viewing you and the relational partner as equals, almost putting yourself in the other person’s shoes, setting aside your perceptual interpersonal relationships. I can attribute this to my own experience, as I feel many of the arguments I have with friends or family members would be solved if we each put ourselves in each other’s shoes. A good approach to small-group communication is the virtue ethics approach.

This approach puts a lot of emphasis on character, and oesn’t put a set of rules in place that could potentially cause ethical issues involved in groupthink or stereotypes. This approach would hold people accountable based on character, and would promote creativity and good ideas within a small group. In my own experience in small-groups, everything comes down to virtue, including responsibility, prudence, etc. Many issues could be solved with this approach in a small group context. Both mentioned approaches would fit well in both interpersonal and group relationships, but I feel that I have placed them in their best-fit places.

Discuss what the distinction between ‘linguistic competence’ and ‘linguistic performance’

Discuss what the distinction between ‘linguistic competence’ and ‘linguistic performance’.

Assessment Informa-on/Brief 1 Assessment Informa.on/Brief 2018/19 Module .tle Psychology of Language CRN 39151 Level 4 Assessment .tle Coursework 1 within module This assessment is worth 40% of the overall module mark. Submission deadline date and .me 4pm, Friday 15th March 2019 (week 7) Module Leader/Assessment set by Akis Kechagias ([email protected]) If you have ques-ons or need support, please let us know by email or in person. How to submit You should submit your assessment electronically via Turni-n on BlackBoard. A tutorial on how to submit your work electronically can be found here: hIp:// Assessment task details and instruc.ons • For this coursework you need to provide cita-ons and a combined list of references at the end. Ensure that you follow the University’s referencing style [Harvard (APA)]. • Use a 12-point font and double-spacing. • Before you submit your work, make sure that there are no missing parts/pages. It is also recommended that you convert your word document into a PDF using an online converter such as small.pdf (hIps:// • You must NOT discuss or show the answers to other students. This is your OWN work. TASK 1 (35 marks) After you critically discuss what the distinction between ‘linguistic competence’ and ‘linguistic performance’ is about and the extent to which it is justified, illustrate—using your own examples to the extent it is possible—what linguistic competence consists of. Your answer should be approximately 700 words (+/-10%) in length. Assessment Informa-on/Brief 2 TASK 2 (35 marks) Is language (in the way we have it) a trait unique to humans? In order to answer this question, you need to consider and critically discuss Hockett’s design features and language teaching experiments with animals. Your answer should be approximately 700 words (+/- 10%) in length. TASK 3 (30 marks) Consider the following three datasets/exchanges between children and adults. What conclusions can be drawn about language acquisition and the so-called learnability problem? Your answer should be approximately 500 words (+/- 10%) in length. a. CHILD: My teacher holded the baby rabbits and we patted them.

ADULT: Did you say your teacher held the baby rabbits? CHILD: Yes. ADULT: What did you say she did? CHILD: She holded the baby rabbits and we patted them. ADULT: Did you say she held them tightly? CHILD: No, she holded them loosely. b. CHILD: Nobody don’t like me. ADULT: No, say “Nobody likes me”. CHILD: Nobody don’t like me. ADULT: Now, listen carefully; say “Nobody likes me.” CHILD: Oh, nobody don’t likes me. c. ADULT: He’s going out. CHILD: He go out. ADULT: Where can I put them? CHILD: Where I can put them? END OF COURSEWORK 1 Assessed intended learning outcomes On successful comple-on the student will be able to: 1. Appreciate the dis-nc-ve proper-es of the human language and explain how it differs from other communica-on systems. 2. Recognize and describe core sub-areas of psycholinguis-cs, including the biological basis of language and language acquisi-on. 3. Describe and compare theore-cal approaches in the study of the psychology of language. 4. Become familiar with a variety of empirical tools used by psycholinguists to study language learning, comprehension and produc-on. Transferable/Key Skills: On comple-on the student will have had the opportunity to: Assessment Informa-on/Brief 3 5. Develop their wriIen communica-on skills synthesizing new informa-on into coherent and logical arguments. 6. Iden-fy and locate key resources and use basic search skills to retrieve relevant informa-on. 7. Develop their problem solving and analy-cal skills. 8. Recognise how to avoid plagiarism through correct referencing. 9. Develop their -me management and study skill (working to deadlines; preparing assignments) Feedback arrangements You can expect to receive feedback 15 working days aeer the submission deadline. Support arrangements You can obtain support for this assessment in various ways: -In discussions in class about the assessments (we will spend dedicated -me in class on both the assignment briefs and the assessment criteria, so you understand them fully). -In tutor office hours (see Blackboard site for these). -Via email to tutors (emails will be responded to within 3 working days). askUS The University offers a range of support services for students through askUS. Good Academic Conduct and Academic Misconduct Students are expected to learn and demonstrate skills associated with good academic conduct (academic integrity). Good academic conduct includes the use of clear and correct referencing of source materials. Here is a link to where you can find out more about the skills which students require hIp:// Academic Misconduct is an ac.on which may give you an unfair advantage in your academic work. This includes plagiarism, asking someone else to write your assessment for you or taking notes into an exam. The University takes all forms of academic misconduct seriously. You can find out how to avoid academic misconduct here hps:// Assessment Informa.on If you have any ques-ons about assessment rules, you can find out more here. Personal Circumstances If personal mi-ga-ng circumstances may have affected your ability to complete this assessment, you can find more informa-on about personal mi-ga-ng circumstances procedure here. Personal Tutor/Student Progression Administrator If you have any concerns about your studies, contact your Personal Tutor or your Student Progression Administrator. Assessment Informa-on/Brief 4 Assessment Criteria Marks for your assessment will be allocated based on • Completeness of answers with an ability to synthesize and engage in cri-cal discussions; •

Clear presenta-on; logical and clear argumenta-on; • Inclusion of appropriate defini-ons of technical terms used; • Use of examples when possible/necessary; • Ability to use appropriate primary and secondary sources; • Appropriate wri-ng style (compact, systema-c and formal enough) and good use of language and punctua-on; • Appropriate and well-formed references and cita-ons. You may want to take a look at the complete set of the marking criteria and grade descriptors on the module’s site on Blackboard: hIps:// 19/MarkDescriptorsEnglishLanguage.pdf In Year Retrieval Scheme Your assessment is NOT eligible for in year retrieval. Reassessment If you fail your assessment, and are eligible for reassessment, you will need to resubmit before 4pm, Friday 16 August 2019. For students with accepted personal mi-ga-ng circumstances, this will be your replacement assessment aIempt. Students should be aware that there is no late submission period at reassessment (this includes those students who have an accepted PMC request from a previous aIempt). If you need to be re-assessed, you can expect a very similar set of tasks, but not iden-cal. 

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