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Ethical Theories In Human Rights Philosophy Essay

underlying the currently influential business and management theories. Ethics may be viewed as the study of human conduct with an emphasis on determination of right and wrong (Fraedrich and Ferrell, 1992). Together with this, it is the assumption that management must adhere to a narrow version of positivism that excludes any reference to intention” (Ghoshal, 2005). According to (Mallor et al., 2010), for centuries, religious and secular scholars have explored the meaning of human existence and attempted to define a “good life”. Ethical theories and principles are the foundations of ethical analysis because they are the viewpoints from which guidance can be obtained along the pathway to a decision. The four ethical theories according to the text are rights theory, justice theory, utilitarianism, and profit maximization. The rights theory covers a range of ethical philosophies that holds that certain human rights are important and must be respected by other society and her rights. Rights are also considered to be ethically correct and legitimate given that a large or ruling population endorses them. Few rights theorists are stringent deontologists, and one of the few is the 18th century philosopher by name Immanuel Kant and his theory is known as the Kantianism. Kant viewed humans as moral actors that are free to make choices and he also believed that humans are able to judge the morality of any action by applying his famous “categorical imperative”. One of his formulations of the categorical imperative is “Act only on that maxim whereby at the same time you can will that it shall become a universal law”. The meaning of it is that we judge an action by applying it universally. The most important strength of rights theory is that it protects fundamental rights, unless some greater right takes precedence. A major criticism of the rights theory deal with the near absolute yet relative value of the rights protected, making it difficult to articulate and administer a comprehensive rights theory. The Justice theory which came into limelight by John Rawls in 1971 when he published his book entitled: A theory of Justice, the philosophical underpinning for the bureaucratic welfare state. He reasoned that it was right for governments to redistribute wealth in order to assist the poor and the destitute. Furthermore, Rawls expressed this philosophy in his Greatest Equal Liberty Principle: each person has an equal right to basic rights and liberties. He further limited the principle with the Difference Principle: social inequalities are acceptable only if they cannot be eliminated without making the worst-off class even worse off. Rawls’s justice theory has application in the business context which requires decision makers to be guided by fairness and impartiality. The strength of Rawls’s justice theory lies in its basic premise, the protection of those who are least advantaged in society. The ethical dilemma for managers is to determine the fair rules and procedures for distributing outcomes to stakeholders. Managers must not give people they like bigger raises than they give to people they do not like, for example, or bend the rules to help their favorites. On the other hand, if employees want managers to act fairly toward them, then employees need to act fairly toward their companies and work hard and be loyal. Similarly, customers need to act fairly toward a company if they expect it to be fair to them-something people who illegally copy digital media should consider. The criticism that justice theory with the rights theory is that it treats equality as an absolute, without examining the costs of producing equality, including reduced incentives for innovation, entrepreneurship and production. Utilitarianism entails a decision maker to maximize utility for society as a whole. Maximizing utility means achieving the highest level of satisfactions over dissatisfactions which means that a person must consider the benefits and costs of her actions to everyone in society. A utilitarian will take action only if the benefits of the action to society outweigh the societal costs of the action. There are two types of utilitarianism, act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism. Act utilitarianism judges each act separately, assessing a single act’s benefit and its cost to society’s members. Rule utilitarianism judges actions by a rule that over the long run maximizes benefits over cost. The strength of utilitarianism as a guide for ethical conduct is that it is easy to articulate the standard of conduct; which coincides with values of most modern countries like the USA who is capitalist in nature by focusing on total social satisfactions, benefits, wealth and welfare. In general under capitalism, the interests of shareholders are put above those of employees, so production will move abroad. This is generally regarded as being an ethical choice because in the long run, the alternative, domestic production might cause the business to collapse and go bankrupt. If this happens, all of the company’s stakeholders will suffer-not just its employees. According to the utilitarian view, the decision that produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people is best. In this case, that means outsourcing the jobs. The criticism of utilitarianism is that it is difficult to measure one’s own pleasures, pains, satisfaction and dissatisfaction, let alone those of all of society’s members. Profit maximization as an ethical theory requires a decision maker to maximize a business’s long-run profits within the limits of the law. This has been based on the laissez faire theory of capitalism first expressed by Adam Smith in the 18th century and more recently promoted by economists such as Milton Friedman and Thomas Sowell. Profit maximization is closely related to utilitarianism, but it varies essentially in how ethical decisions are made. Profit maximization optimizes total social utility by narrowing the actor’s focus, requiring the decision maker to make a decision that merely maximizes profits for himself or his organization. The strengths of profit maximization results in ethical conduct because it requires society’s members to act within the constraints of the law and a profit maximizer, therefore, acts ethically by complying with society’s mores as expressed in its laws. The criticism of profit maximizer is that if profit maximization results in an efficient allocation of society’s resources and maximization of total social welfare, it does not concern itself with how wealth is allocated within Society. An ethical theory that was not found in the text is that of rationalism, which this ethical theory focuses mainly on norms. The moral rationalism is that in which the decisive factor of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive, and it has its major proponent in Emmanuel Kant (Llano, 2002). Mr. Kant attempted to change our everyday, clear, rational knowledge of morality into philosophical knowledge. He went after a technique of using “practical reason” to reach conclusions which are able to be useful to the world of experience. Kant is also known for his theory that there is a single moral obligation which he called the “Categorical Imperative”, and derived from the perception of duty. He further stated that these moral norms must be obeyed in all situations and circumstances if our behavior is to observe the moral law. In a way to improve corporate governance and corporate social responsibilities, according to Mallor et al., 2010, one can modify the corporate governance model to educate, motivate, and supervise executives and thereby improve corporate social responsibility. Corporate governance is the structure used to direct and manage business and affairs of the company towards enhancing prosperity and corporate accountability. Corporate critics however did propose a wide rang of cures, all of which have been implemented to some degree and with varying degrees of success. Ethical codes: Ethic codes in a way have been adopted by many large corporations and several industries to guide executives and other employees. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act required that a public company discloses whether it has adopted a code of ethics for senior financial officers, and to disclose any changes in the code or waiver of the code’s application. The codes can be viewed in two ways; one sees the codes as genuine efforts to foster ethical behavior within a firm or an industry while others view regards them as thinly disguised attempts to make the firm function better, to mislead the public into believing the firm behaves ethically, to prevent the passage of legislation that would impose stricter constraints on business, or to limit competition under the veil of ethical standards. Better ethical codes make clear that the corporation expects employees not to violate the law in a mistaken belief that loyalty to the corporation requires it. These kinds of codes work best, however, when a corporation also gives its employees an outlet for dealing with a superior’s request to do an unethical act. Ethical instruction: Some corporate organizations require their employees to enroll in classes that teach ethical decision-making. The idea is that a manager trained in ethical conduct will recognize unethical actions before they are taken and deter herself and the corporation from the unethical acts. Majority of corporations in this present day express their dedication to ethical decision-making by an ethics officer who is not only responsible for ethical instruction, but also in charge of ethical supervision. The ethics officer tends to be a mentor or sounding board for all employees who face ethical issues. Greater Shareholder Role in Corporations: As shareholders are the vital stakeholders in a corporation in a capitalist economy, several corporate critics argue that businesses should be more attuned to shareholders’ ethical values and that shareholder control of the board of directors and executives should be increased. Evidence suggests that sources of ethical dilemmas will continue to increase. To understand this assessment, it will be useful to look at four categories of conditions influencing ethical behavior: global, social, organizational and individual. Global: A variety of global conditions affect our lives and our society; many are well-known to all of us. They include the increasing influence of cultural values substantially different from those of our Anglo-Saxon heritage; impacts of a complex global economy on local economic structures; and our rapidly increasing technological capacity to communicate and interact with the global community. Within the past few years we have watched the beginning of the development of a new world order that will be substantially different from our sense of world order developed over the last half century. Among the implications resulting from this picture, two are especially important: (1) we as a people no longer have a secure sense of our role in the world or our control over it; and (2) it has become increasingly acceptable, and even logical, to admit that we simply “don’t know what the appropriate response is.” This era of rapid change has an indirect but important influence on our sense of ethical appropriateness. Social: A more direct source of ethical conflicts is social change. Change has been so rapid that some have argued that we have lost our sense of values or that we must seek better mechanisms to resolve value conflicts. This line of reasoning is incorrect for several reasons. First, value conflicts (and, therefore, ethical dilemmas) reflect our social and cultural fabric. Second, “stakeholders” have a relatively easy time gaining access to our policy making system; therefore, value conflicts are very visible and, frequently, cause our problem-solving process to forge slow, painful compromises. These processes continue to represent one of the great comparative advantages of our society and should not be changed without sober reflection. Organizational: Thirdly, we are witnessing rapid change in the nature and role of the public organization and concepts about administrative behavior. Organizational values are vital influence on the majority of us; thus far our organizational lives are becoming increasingly participatory, open, communicative and interactive. While I believe that the decline of organization hierarchy is among the more positive aspects of our society, it also signals a decline in another source of behavioral guidelines. Individual judgment, group dynamics and social interactions are replacing traditional rules of behavior dictated by the organization. We are also facing increasing conflicts between the “bureaucratic ethos” and the “democratic ethos” (Hejka-Ekins, 1998). The bureaucratic ethos includes such traditional organizational standards as efficiency, competence, loyalty and accountability. Individual: lastly, ethical anxieties are caused by changes at the individual level. In particular, individualism and materialism are at the present celebrated within major social institutions and have become a dominate ethos of the “baby bust generation.” Self-indulgence, greed, self-interest, and privatism are accepted components of the ethos of this generation (Frederickson, 1982). In order to improve the ethical climate of an organization, management must effectively communicate proper ethical behavior throughout the organization. Wimbush and Shephard (1984: 637-647) reported that businesses annually spend an estimated $40 billion on the ethical behavior problems. Thus, pointing to the fact that ethical dimension of employees’ behavior has a clear impact on the profitability of the company. It is generally accepted that customer satisfaction is one of the most important factors in successful business strategy. Although a company must continue to develop, alter and adapt products to keep pace with customers’ changing desires and preferences. It must also seek to develop long-term relationships with customers and its stakeholders. By focusing on customer satisfaction, a company continually deepens the customer’s dependence on the company, and as the customer’s confidence grows, the firm gains a better understanding of how to serve the customer so the relationship may endure. Successful businesses provide an opportunity for customer feedback, which can engage the customer in a cooperative problem solving. As is often pointed out, a happy customer will come back, but a disgruntled customer will tell others about his or her dissatisfaction with a company and discourage friends from dealing with it. When an organization has a strong ethical environment, it usually focuses on the core value of placing customers’ interest first. An ethical culture that focuses on customers incorporates the interests of all employees, suppliers, and other interested parties in decisions and actions. Employees working in an ethical environment support and contribute to the process of understanding customers’ demands and concerns. Ethical conduct towards customers builds a strong competitive position that has been shown to affect business performance and product innovation positively.
MacMurray College Challenges Faced by Organizations in Data Cleaning Discussion.

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You are a data mining consultant hired by your organization to implement a data mining process. What challenges does your organization face in ensuring that the data mining models are receiving clean data?Your assignment must adhere to APA guidelines. There should be at least one scholarly source listed on the reference page. Per APA, the paper should use a 12-point Time New Roman font, should be double spaced throughout, and the first sentence of each paragraph should be indented .5 inches. Your paper should be 2-3 pages in length.
MacMurray College Challenges Faced by Organizations in Data Cleaning Discussion

PS 498 Purdue University Global Functional Behavior Assessment Parent Report.

Assignment DetailsFunctional Behavior AssessmentPlease review previous coursework regarding conducting the Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA), which can be found in the following courses:PS360: Applied Behavior Analysis IPS365: Applied Behavior Analysis IIPS410: Screening and AssessmentAfter you met with Jeanette (the client’s mother from the Unit 3 Assignment), you learned the following:The family consists of a mother, father, and older sister; and they are 2nd – and 3rd -generation Americans whose grandparents were originally from Mexico.Axel, the son, was diagnosed with Autism 3-months ago. He is a very active 4-year-old; he takes no prescription medications; and he has Occupational Therapy (OT) once per week.The three behaviors that Jeannette listed as “concerns” were tantrum behaviors, rigidity, and non-compliance.Conduct a Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)Apply the single-subject research design to this FBA.Employ Indirect Assessment with those who are familiar with Axel: Prepare an interview form for the indirect assessment.Choose one, or more, data collection/behavior measurement forms for your direct observation from the list below (Forms can be found and downloaded in Course Documents). Using “creative license,” fabricate data for use in this Assignment.Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence Form (Hint: you must identify the antecedents and consequences before you can hypothesize the function of the behavior(s). Behavior plans based upon the probable function of the behavior(s) are more effective.)Frequency Data SheetInterval Recording FormDuration Recording FormLatency Recording FormBased upon information gathered during the indirect assessment, schedule direct observation visits at the times, and in the environments, in which the target behaviors are likely to occur.Develop operational definitions of the target behaviorsCollect direct observation data using the forms (listed above) that are most appropriate for the behavior and setting.Choose one of the three target behaviors (tantrums, rigidity, or non-compliance) and create a line graph of the data. (In your Unit 9 Assignment, you will be designing a behavior intervention plan (BIP) based upon the target behavior you select in this Assignment.)Explain your choice.Summarize the considerations you must take into account when selecting a target behavior when a client exhibits multiple interfering behaviors.Based upon the visual analysis of the line graph, identify the probable function of the target behavior.Summarize the information collected during the indirect assessment and direct assessment in the Functional Behavior Assessment Report for Parents (FBARP) for Axel’s parents in understandable terms. Include in the FBARP, projected positive outcomes of addressing the target behavior with a behavior intervention plan (BIP). (The Functional Behavior Assessment Report for Parents (FBARP) can be downloaded in Course Documents.)The FBARP should be 2–6 pages. You must use at least two academic references to support your assertions in the FBARP. Provide in-text citations in APA format. For this assignment, you will provide title and reference pages in APA format, and on a Word document.Your paper will be organized in the following order:Title pageFBARPA-B-C Data Form for the selected Target BehaviorInterview Form(s)Line Graph of Baseline Data of Target BehaviorReference PageThis project should follow the conventions of Standard English with writing that is well ordered, logical and unified, as well as original and insightful. Your work should display superior content, organization, style, and mechanics. You should use correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation. Your work should be free of typographical errors. Contact the Writing Center for help with APA formatting.The following Course Outcomes will be assessed with this Assignment:BSABA-2 Research Methods: Apply basic methodology in psychology including research design, data analysis, and the interpretation and evaluation of findings.BSABA-6 Information and Technological Skills: Communicate psychological principles and concepts effectively in diverse social and professional settings.BSABA-7 Global Awareness: Explain how academic and applied psychology can improve interpersonal relationships across cultural and national boundaries.Reading and ResourcesUnit 6 focuses on the Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA). The purpose of this assessment approach, which includes indirect and descriptive assessment, is to identify the antecedent(s) that prompts/triggers the behavior of interest and the consequence(s) that maintains it. The identification of these variables does more than allow you to hypothesize the function of the target behavior, it provides a means of modifying the target behavior by modifying the identified antecedent and/or consequence. Identification of the reinforcer that is maintaining the target behavior provides you with a possible reinforcer that can be used to maintain a functionally equivalent alternative behavior.Indirect and descriptive assessment approaches will be reviewed, as well as dimensions of behavior and the data collection devices that are appropriate for use with specific dimensions of behavior.Attention will also be given to the ethical requirement to present assessment findings in language that clients can understand, while insuring that your reports are conceptually systematic.As you approach the Unit 6 Assignment, you will want to reflect on the information you have covered in previous courses. Textbooks and supplemental readings/materials from the following courses that may be helpful include the following:PS340: Exceptional Needs ChildrenPS360: Applied Behavior Analysis IPS365: Applied Behavior Analysis IIPS410: Screening and AssessmentPS430: Program Design and Evaluation
PS 498 Purdue University Global Functional Behavior Assessment Parent Report

Fixed Income Asset Managers — Need for Capital Traditionally asset managers which simply manage other investors money but don’t

Fixed Income Asset Managers — Need for Capital Traditionally asset managers which simply manage other investors money but don’t take positions themselves (e.g. Fidelity, Vanguard, the life insurance sections of insurance companies) have been able to function reasonably well with minimal equity. One of the regulatory thrusts since the financial crisis is to push for these companies to hold much more equity. Much to its displeasure, MET Life has been designated a systemically important financial institution (SIFI) which carries with the designation the requirement to carry more capital along with other enhanced regulatory requirements. What are your thoughts concerning the reliance on equity to reduce/eliminate future risks.

TOPIC-Introduction to graduate studies

custom writing service TOPIC-Introduction to graduate studies.

In this initial SLP, you will use the The Student Guide to Writing a High Quality Academic Paper guide to complete a sample paper in accord with the formatting requirements you will use throughout your graduate degree program.Required ReadingTo begin, please review The Student Guide to Writing a High Quality Academic Paper.In addition to reviewing The Student Guide to Writing a High Quality Academic Paper, I would like you to briefly review Dr. Drummond McNaughton’s guide for writing high-quality papers: Dr. Drumm’s Writing Tips.ASSIGNMENTComplete the Sample SLP using The Student Guide to Writing a High Quality Academic Paper.KEYS TO THE ASSIGNMENTDownload the Module 1 SLP – Formatting Exercise paper. Then, using The Student Guide to Writing a High Quality Academic Paper as a guide, do the following:Complete the Cover Page.After you have read the paper, write an introductory paragraph.Insert appropriate titled section heading where requested.Provide in-text citations where requested.Write a concluding paragraph.Properly format your end references, placing them in the correct sequence.Be sure to look for other formatting errors not noted above!Save your completed paper, and upload your assignment before the due date.Optional ReadingAPA Sample Paper. (2015). Purdue OWL. Retrieved from…SLP ASSIGNMENT EXPECTATIONSAt Trident University, your assignments will be evaluated using grading rubrics. While every assignment is assessed using one of the rubrics, grading rubrics may differ across assignments. Should you need help locating the grading rubric for this SLP, be sure to watch the following video:…
TOPIC-Introduction to graduate studies

PLS2010 Cal Poly Pomona US Government Congressional Letter

PLS2010 Cal Poly Pomona US Government Congressional Letter.

For this course you must write a letter to one of the representatives in your congressional district. In writing this letter you have several key choices to make. 1) The topic or issue you want to discuss in your letter, and 2) who and what level of government you wish to contact. You can write to either you congress person in DC or your representative at the state house.Part 1: Please provide a 1 ½ to 2 page summary (double spaced) of your district and representative. This summary should include: a) your electoral district: here you can include information about the size of the district something about its voting history if available. You can also provide any basic information about your district that might explain your choice of topics – location, special concerns, area specific problems, etc. You may want to include some statistics comparing it to national or state averages to show what issues maybe more relevant for its citizens. b) the congress person you are writing: their name, their party, how long they have been in office, do they belong to any special committees, any issues that they claim a particular connection to, etc. This can include vote history and/or bill sponsorship. With this information you want to show that you can find out the necessary information about your representatives to make an informed decision about them in future elections based on your own political views and make any necessary connections to your specific issue. c) Briefly discuss the issue you are writing on. What topic are you letting you congress person know about? Are you writing to support their position, challenge their position, or discuss aspects of their time in office (past votes, voting record, etc..). You do not need to explain why the issue is important to you in detail, but it should be clear that this is a topic that you would like your congress person to take seriously. Part 2: Please provide a 1 to 1 ½ page letter to your congress person. This letter should be formatted in proper business letter format and clearly indicate the issue and the reason why you are writing this letter. Your goal is to indicate that this is a topic that you deem as important for your district and present a clear statement of your position. Use the background information from Part 1 to support your position. Your letters will be mailed so select an issue that is important to you, demonstrate a solid understanding of the topic and state your reasons why you want your congressperson to take action with a clear and well-reasoned tone. If you are hoping for a response be sure to include your contact information. The letter should be edited carefully. Here is the information of my district in following links:…
PLS2010 Cal Poly Pomona US Government Congressional Letter

ENGL 102 West Los Angeles College Focus on Characterization Video Analysis

ENGL 102 West Los Angeles College Focus on Characterization Video Analysis.

This literary assignment is to focus on characterization.  The novel Frankenstein contains unique characters who exhibit individualized characteristics and traits that readers like or dislike, find sympathetic or disdainful, or rude. As you complete your reading of the novel, consider a character, male or female, whom you find compelling or the character who you find repulsive.  Thus, this assignment is to allow you to reflect on character development and to provide critical analysis of a character. 
DIRECTIONS: Select one character from Frankenstein  — Dr. Victor Frankenstein, the creature, Elizabeth, Henry, Justine, Alphonse, Robert Walton–and create a video analysis of their character using Adobe Spark (Adobe Spark is preferred, but you can also use Inshot or iMovie or other apps).
Your project must include basic information in regards to the character.  However, you do not have to point to everything, but you should show your character well through music, photos, and other references from text that are directly related to the character you selected. Your video should include:
1.  A picture (s) of your character (be consistent with photos)
2.  A description of the character (full name), what he/she does, personality, and other character traits.
3. Reference passages from Volume I, II, and III that reflects the character (cite appropriately)
4.  Creativity:  extra pictures, extra comments
5. Your video should be 3 minutes in length
ENGL 102 West Los Angeles College Focus on Characterization Video Analysis

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