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Ethical Standards in Scientific Research Essay (Article)

Ethics identifies with the moral issues governing the differences between what is wrong and what is right. Ethics expresses the norms resonating with agreeable behaviours and non-agreeable behaviours in the community. Research shows that people learn ethics in schools, in homes, in religious places, and in other environmental social settings. Research ethics is characterised by the application of the ethical principles in scientific research. Shi (2007) argues that the considerations of ethics in research outcomes modernisations are critical in research findings and research project. It has been noted that healthcare industry has a number of researches in form of research enquiries that are defined by the theories involved in scientific research. There have been concerns over the application of ethical standards in defining the qualitative approaches in research work (Shi, 2007). There are diverse challenges faced by researchers in conducting the research practices in the scientific research, among them validation of results. Research is an expensive exercise and it is geared towards solving a particular problem, researchers in the recent decades has been faced with the challenges of funding research projects. Research shows that ethics maintains quality of the research, reliability of research, safeguarding subject under research and maintaining objectivity in research work (Shi, 2007). It has been noted that research objectivity is enhanced through strict adherence of research procedures, research standards and research methods. Ethical principles in research work identifies with maintaining high levels of trust and honesty in the reporting and presentation of the data. Ethical principles can also be enhanced through independent data analysis, independent interpretation of data and making sure that the data analysis has minimal errors. There are a number of other ethical models applied in research work identifying with validation of research through publications and consulting similar studies done by previous researchers on the same topic to make sure that the report is well inclusive, and not a mere repetition of work earlier researched on (Shi, 2007). Researchers acquire information from various sources: there are primary sources and secondary sources of information. Technological advancement has made the transfer of information from one person to another person efficient and fast. World Wide Web (WWW) is a search platform that has enabled availability of internet. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main challenges with the information from the internet is characterised by the data privacy, lost confidentiality, integrity of data, ethical issues and intellectual property issues. Internet sources of information are not always authentic (Shi, 2007). Research funding may be obtained from the government, foundations, private industries and professional organisations. Funding of research work is considered an ethical issue. The authenticity of funds must be verified to give a clean way of the results and findings. Funding of research work has a positive influence on the desired research outcomes (Shi, 2007). Some organisations support research work in favour of particular course, this has proved necessary to cite the sources of the money used in the research to discourage research projects politicking. Ethics in healthcare is a complex subject; this is because the medical practitioners engage patients from all over the world with diverse schools of reasoning. Research shows that issues dealing with patients must be taken seriously since human life is a gift, and at the same time should not be taken for granted. The welfare of the patients must be enhancing to cultivate patient satisfaction. This is a practice valued in the healthcare industry (Fuchs, 2010). Medical practitioners deal with circumstances and situations on daily basis that has a direct influence on the lives of people. This is the reason behind majority of the healthcare organisations in the United States being equipped with an ethics committee, procedures, policies and code of ethics to make sure that all the interests of the parties taking part are fully addressed. It has been noted that healthcare management ethics calls for confidentiality, practising active prevention of diseases deemed transmittable, engaging in controlled marketing practices, enhancing authenticity and patient welfare safeguarding among other issues that most patients and healthcare practitioners take for granted. Victor Fuchs in his article focussed on Health Care Reforms in the United States. The articles argue that the current technological changes call for reforms in the healthcare sector to conform to the global changes (Fuchs, 2010). There is a need to have a critical look at the four C’s identifying with Coverage, Control of costs, coordinated care and the Choice. Fuchs (2010) asserted that coordinated health care and the cost control are yet to be exploited. We will write a custom Article on Ethical Standards in Scientific Research specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Research indicates that the research was funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Blue Shield of California. The research was conducted as part of the FRESH (Focussed Research on Efficient Secure Health) Thinking research program and the SIEPR (Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research) (Fuchs, 2010). Ethics is a wide concept with diverse meanings, different people from different parts of the world has diverse concepts of ethics. There is a need to do more research on the basics of ethics to make researchers have a common ground on the ethical practices in research work. Research ethics revolves on trust; scientists trust the research of other researchers as valid and at the same time the society has the belief that the results are honest with high levels of accuracy and zero bias (Shi, 2007). References Fuchs, V. R. (2010). Health Care Reform. A Collection of Articles on U.S. Health Care Reform , 2-44. Shi, L. (2007). Health Services Research Methods. New York: Delmar Cengage Learning. (The article is also available in https://www.stanford.edu/)

Advantages and Disadvantages of Ombudsman Country and Non-Ombudsman Country – Malaysia

Advantages and Disadvantages of Ombudsman Country and Non-Ombudsman Country – Malaysia. This research is based on the advantages and disadvantages of ombudsman and non-ombudsman Asian countries. This paper will make a comparison between those countries and find out whether the ombudsman and non-ombudsman countries get any benefits that the other country. The reason behind choosing Malaysia is because Malaysia is an active member of Asian Ombudsman Association but does not implement ombudsman in its country. So the purpose of this research is to compare one of the ombudsman countries in Asia with Malaysia in order to find the advantages and disadvantages of ombudsman and non-ombudsman countries. This paper will describe whether it is important for Malaysia to implement ombudsman in the country or not. Significance of the Study The ombudsman institute has played a great role as a pillar of democracy in the world as an effective instrument to resolve conflicts between two or more countries. Ombudsman can play a great role to as a contributor to good governance. Besides that, ombudsman has many other roles such as resolving legal issues, different executive policies and many more. The major objective of ombudsman is to improve the performance of the public administration and the enhancement of government accountability to its people. Thus ombudsman is very important to maintain a sustainable and peaceful democracy. And that is why this topic is very important to study. Research Objectives Major objectives of this research are: To identify the advantages of ombudsman To analyze the disadvantage of ombudsman To investigate the impact of ombudsman on the public administration a country. To investigate the importance of ombudsman in Malaysia. Research Question The research questions are given below: What is the impact of ombudsman on the public administration of a country? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the ombudsman? How important it is for Malaysia to implement ombudsman? According to Dunser, (2009), ombudsman is an official appointed to investigate individuals’ complaints against maladministration, especially that of public authorities. It has been flourished and played a significant role in democracy for more than 50 years all around the world. So the existence of ombudsman has a great influence on the overall public administration of many countries. The landscape of public administration in the context of ombudsman covers a wide range of sectors including jurisdiction, social, economic and politics. This means that ombudsman have been playing a significant role in the resolution of several conflicts and issues in many countries. According to Gottehrer, (2009), the main advantage of ombudsman is that it is independent from government of any country. Being a self-regulatory organization ombudsman has always been fair to any countries that implemented it. There are several other benefits of not being influenced by the government. One of the main benefit of that comes to light when resolving any resolution based on political interest. If the issue is resolved by ombudsman, then it is likely that no political influence will be there when resolving the issue. So being a self-regulatory entity and also being independent from the government, ombudsman is very reliable to implement. According to Hubeau, (2009), the countries in Asia that are actively implementing ombudsman is Thailand, Philippine and Indonesia. They are called ombudsman country. There are several other countries that non-ombudsman country as they did not implement ombudsman in their jurisdiction. Malaysia is another country that did not implement ombudsman in its jurisdiction although the country has been an active member of the Asian Ombudsman Association. The purpose of this research is to investigate the benefits and disadvantages that Malaysia is facing for not implementing ombudsman. The purpose is to recommend whether they should implement ombudsman. According to Hubeau, (2009), the ombudsman can be very slow in resolving complex problems and it doesn’t focus on the specific issues a particular problem and that is why the complains sometimes has no impact on the investigation done in ombudsman. This can impact badly on the public sector of a country as well. Figure: Theoretical Framework (Robertson, 1993) Research Philosophy Most researches put a great deal of emphasis into developing appropriate research philosophies before devising appropriate methodologies for conducting the research. Before scientific methods were exclusively used in conducting research, the researchers conducted were largely based on ideologies and philosophies. Research was more concerned about the environment of the research and the ideological outcome that may be derived. Those can be considered as approaches based mainly on ideas. Those ideas have also been carried forward to modern research. At present, research philosophy deals with the environment of the research and the basic questions that will be answered through the research. Research Approaches Research approach involves laying out the different plans and procedures of conducting the main research (Singleton Jr., Straits and Straits, 1993). The broad assumptions of the research and the steps involved are also discussed elaborately. The detailed methods of data collection, analysis and interpretation are also dealt with. Several decisions are considered regarding research approaches. The primary decision deals with setting the source of the data and the methods that will be used for collecting it. This will provide the necessary information for carrying out the research. This will help the researched in deciding whether to set up grounded theories in the beginning or start with hypothesis testing. It also lets to decide on whether to use quantitative or qualitative data. There are mainly two basic research approaches. These are inductive research and deductive research. These approaches have been discussed in the following section. In the case of this research, I have used deductive research as there are already a few theories present that are related to the main purpose of this research. Even though no specific studies have been conducted, here are certain relevant theories that fit the purpose of the research. Types of Investigation There are mainly three different types of investigations in research. These are descriptive, comparative and experimental. Descriptive investigation is concerned with providing relevant details and discussions on a number of related topics of the research. They also allow for the proper classification of the topics. Comparative investigation is related to the observation of the subject matter in a number of different situations. Experimental investigation deals with undertaking certain investigations for the purpose of producing results related to the degrees of certain relationships in the investigation. Experimental investigations are used to understand the degrees of influence of certain independent variables on the study. For this particular study, I have used both descriptive and comparative investigations in order to understand how the different telecom operators use social media and how the customers respond to their efforts and how this affects customer loyalty. Research Design The design of the research, along with the different types of research investigation allow for a proper understanding of the different types of phenomena and the actual occurrences that take place. The main types of research design are explanatory, descriptive and exploratory. Short descriptions of the mentioned research design types and the one that has been applied for this research have been provided below. The nature of my research is exploratory. For this, both quantitative and qualitative form of data have been analyzed. As there are different types of data involved, the number of relevant factors are also multiple. Data Collection This research is based on secondary data. This data has been collected from blogs, magazines, journal articles and past studies conducted in the area. Data and information obtained from these sources work to paint a relevant picture related to the subject matter of the study. The nature of the data is both quantitative and qualitative in nature. Different quantitative statistics have been used and there are also many qualitative factors, such as customer loyalty. It is necessary to use both forms of data as applying only one form will lead to errors and misleading information. Appropriate methods have been used for the collection of the data and the data has been carefully analyzed for maximum accuracy of results. Below, brief descriptions of both quantitative and qualitative data have been provided. Accessibility Issues Accessibility to relevant and useful data sources is one of the main concerns of any research at the time of conducting a study. In many cases, it is denied access to many reliable data sources that may have been valuable for his research. In such cases, it is required to cover up using primary data instead. Such information would have made the understanding of certain aspects of the research easier. Despite the lack of accessibility to such useful data, I have used available data sources to extract valuable information that has simplified the research in many ways. Ethical Consideration Ethics is an important consideration in all forms of studies. It is important to be careful about the different ethical considerations and implications at the time of conducting the research. The ethical considerations may involve factors related to the company or industry that is being studied, the respondents of the research and the methods or techniques that have been applied for conducting the research. It is important to consider all three of the factors. So, it is important to ensure that the data collected are not damaged in any way and that the actual findings are presented in the research with proper justification. Data and information must not be altered in any way. References Abedin, N. (2010). The Ombudsman in developing democracies: the Commonwealth Caribbean experience. International Journal of Public Sector Management , 23 (3), 221-253. Aufrecht, S. E.,Advantages and Disadvantages of Ombudsman Country and Non-Ombudsman Country – Malaysia

Technology and Organizational Behavior Issues

research paper help Introduction Organizational behavior issues include management and choices made in training, motivation, remuneration, and value system/culture. Coaching is a significant issue in many organizations which has a considerable impact on the company’s work culture. Training and development help determine the level of employee competence as studies show that poorly trained employees output is reduced as they are unable to perform assigned tasks due to lack of proper training. Organizations can facilitate employee training in several different ways through coaching, providing educational opportunities through formal schooling, and also by delivering on job training or outsourcing the training (Atrizadeh, 2015). The main challenge with coaching is that productive time is lost when employees are unavailable as they attend training sessions. The Culture Motivation is the driving force for employees completing work-related tasks. The motivation for employees differs as motivation levels are based on many factors, some of which are a positive work environment and attitude towards the job while other factors include a lack of satisfaction in their current role. (Du Plessis, 2011). Departments, where employees are highly motivated, help to create a positive work environment. These departments tend to include employees who have undergone extensive training in understanding their work requirement. Behavioral issues arising with respect motivation include the need to impart skills necessary to not only make employees understand and like their work, but make them satisfied. Remuneration is also a major organizational behavior issue. Employees do not receive the same salary. Some employees earn more wages than others. The difference arises from the level of skills and output. Those who are highly skilled and work in specific departments that perform well receive higher wages. However, others working in other departments receive a lower salary which impacts their morale The Appropriate Systems Easy availability of a reliable internet connection means that workers are just a text or an email away. Future workplaces will consist of a global melting pot, which will directly impact the work culture of an organization. The most appropriate systems to introduce into the organization include those that facilitate the flow of information within the organization. Informal appraisal systems are directly linked to a cultural shift from a traditional workplace setting Steven Widen Forbes.com. In particular, systems that appropriate are those that promote knowledge acquisition, knowledge transfer, knowledge sharing, knowledge interpretation, and organization memory. Knowledge acquisition systems are those systems that help acquire facts, through monitoring of the environment to obtain data stored for other purposes. Business intelligence systems are an excellent example of methods that are used to receive information from the environment (Wheeler and Burt, 2014). These systems perpetually scan the background to collect new data to use data to formulate strategies. Other methods that are appropriate to introduce into the organization are knowledge transfer systems. Knowledge transfer systems are systems that help pass knowledge from one stakeholder to another. The main stakeholders are employees but might include other external stakeholders such as creditors, suppliers, and partners. For internal stakeholders, a local area network consisting of a few computers connected via the internet or intranet can be used to transfer knowledge from one employee to another (Wheeler and Burt, 2014). Employees utilize the email platform to send and receive communication to their coworkers, immediate supervisors, and managers, as well as to receive important company communication or even other forms of messages to update their colleagues or superiors. Knowledge transfer occurs between an organization and external stakeholders such as partners through the use of the internet (Atrizadeh, 2015). The medium is used to update partners in a horizontal or vertical arrangement. Knowledge sharing systems are systems which help employees’ access knowledge together. These are systems which facilitate learning as a group. Google learning is one system which creates an environment of a class where one employee can learn with others. The one who knows becomes a lecturer who teaches other employees. Any employee can instruct others hence promote knowledge sharing. Finally, knowledge memory is another essential learning system. Knowledge memory enables knowledge gained from the environment to be store; such knowledge is used to create a culture as it helps an organization acquire an identity. Systems with the Greatest Impact The systems that which have the most significant impact on an organization include knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing, and organizational memory. The knowledge acquisition system has one of the most significant effects on an organization. This system helps businesses to continually scan the industry to gain an understanding of new competence areas (Du Plessis, 2011). This system helps our organization to have a competitive advantage by getting to know to change macroeconomic and microeconomic dimensions. For instance, our business intelligence system continually searches for new ideas and also new knowledge which could be of importance to the organization if every employee embraced the ideas. If the plans are adopted and imparted to employees early enough, the organization will motivate employees who like to ahead of others in understanding a concept. These employees respond by doing their work faster and more accurately. Organizational memory is the most important outcome of organizational learning. It will help our company to form a pool of ideas, and consequently values. New ideas and perspectives of issues are stored and with time form a part of the organization (Atrizadeh, 2015). This creates a certain culture in the long-run. The formation of a culture and acquisition of identity is vital as it creates a positive behavior. In as much as employees might have different jobs or work in various departments, the most crucial issue is their capacity to have one culture or behavior which helps them to have one goal. An example of systems that facilitate knowledge memory includes databases which use advanced IT technology and logic to store information about an organization over a long period. Knowledge sharing will also help our organization acquire a culture of understanding concepts together. Under knowledge sharing, different employees can act as instructors of other employees as they learn an idea and share it with others through the use of information systems. References Atrizadeh, S.T.. 2015. Employee behavior Issues and Digital Technology. Wiley and sons. Du Plessis, T. 2011. “Technology and Organizational Behavior management at South African law firms.” Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal. 14 (4): 233-258. https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbesagencycouncil/2017/10/05/how-technology-impacts-work-culture/#5bff1d78721a Wheeler, A.M., and Burt B.M. 2014. Technology and the Behavior A Guide to Behavioral and Ethical Practice. Wiley.

The Theme of Liberation from Racism in Two Plays by August Wilson Essay

Table of Contents August Wilson Fences The piano lesson Relevance Conclusion Works Cited August Wilson is a successful author who is known for proper relation of his short stories to reality. Almost all Wilson’s plays involve aspects of his life in precision to racism and issues closely related. The essay will focus in the theme of liberation from racism. Comparison in relation to effects of racism and approaches of liberation between two plays by Wilson will be made. Further, the feasibility and relevance of the short stories in the life of Wilson will be well outlined. The essay will focus on two plays namely; Fences and The Piano Lesson. The different ways perceived as possible freedom from racism will be discussed in regard to Wilson’s perceptions. Further, the essay will highlight instances where the theme of racism liberation is not well brought out in both stories. The discussion will outline the clearer way in which the author could have better presented the theme of liberty and effects of racism. Consequently, the discussion will highlight the different ways in which different characters interpret liberation from racism. August Wilson Wilson was born in a poor family that was exposed to racism. Wilson’s parents were immigrants and faced discrimination due to inferiority of black race. Poverty was due to racism as blacks were not allowed to work in better paying jobs. His life was greatly influenced by racism and the journey to become an author was subjected to many challenges including that of dropping out of school at the age of sixteen. Wilson was accused of plagiarism simply because he was black and was not expected to come up with a complicated essay. Wilson hid the issue of expulsion from his mother because he did not want her to feel disappointed. In the schools he attended before expulsion he was abused and maltreated because of his race. As a result of racism, Wilson ended up in unskilled jobs due to constant discrimination that was accorded to the black race (Little 8). Wilson differed with his mother who wanted him to become a lawyer while he dreamt of being an author. Career pressurization was a result of racial discrimination. Wilson thought that when he became an author he would be able to mitigate the effects of racism. His mother on the other hand thought that the effects of racism could only be dealt with by law career development. The conflict between Wilson and his mother resulted to disunity and Wilson was sent away from home. Wilson joined the United States army and later left it for unskilled jobs. His writing career begun shortly after his father’s death and it escalated rapidly (Little 9). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Fences Fences was written by August Wilson in 1983 and has secured so many awards ever since. The play is based on racial discrimination that black Americans survived due to existence of the gap between them and the white superior race. The essay focuses on the effects associated with racial discrimination and the approaches used in liberating the black Americans. In the play, Troy is the main character who acts as a bread winner of his family which constitutes of Rose and Cory. Troy works in the unskilled jobs industry as a garbage man since black Americans are not allowed to work in well paying jobs. The menial jobs are very similar to the situation of Wilson after he was expelled from school. Troy cannot work in a better job since black Americans are discriminated. Similarly, Wilson ended up in the menial jobs after he was discontinued from school. Plagiarism accusations were based on black race discrimination. The play illustrates how black Americans like Wilson were discriminated and approaches they used in liberating themselves from effects of racism (Wilson 12). In the play Troy participated in basketball but was unsuccessful due to racial discrimination. Troy was not allowed to play in the prominent leagues that would open up success opportunities. Racial discrimination has long term impacts as evidenced by the way Troy discourages his son from participation in football. Corey however, persists and registers with a football club. Troy’s persistence secures him a place to work as a truck driver. Troy is involved in an affair with Alberta and they bear Raynell. Alberta dies as she delivers and Troy convinces his wife Rose to accept Raynell. Rose accepts Raynell but promises that she will not be a dutiful wife. Troy sends Corey away from home in the excuse of making him responsible and independent. Corey ventures in the military career and returns home at the funeral of his father (Wilson 8). The piano lesson The play features the effects of economic instability on African American immigrants in 1930s. The black Americans were discriminated and enslaved by the white race. Enslavement involved forced labor and maltreatment in prisons. The black Americans were forced to work in the land owned by the white race and were fed in exchange of their labor. The play features Willie the main antagonist who wants to sell a family piano so as to liberate himself from slavery. Notably, racial discrimination leads to slavery which the victims want to be freed from. We will write a custom Essay on The Theme of Liberation from Racism in Two Plays by August Wilson specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The play starts with the arrival of Willie and Lymon in Charles Doaker’s home. Willie and Lymon have a track of watermelons that they want to sell. However, Willie is affected by the great gap that exists between black and white races. Willie is stigmatized and wants to sell the family piano so as to liberate himself from racial discrimination and inequity. Willie attributes racism to poverty and slavery that his ancestors endured. According to Willie the piano should be sold so as to own the land that his ancestors worked as slaves (Wilson 4). Bernice is Willie’s sister and main protagonist of the play. She believes that the piano should not be sold since it is the only existing legacy for the family. According to Bernice, the piano should remain intact so as to ensure that their ancestors are constantly with them. The blood and tears shed and rubbed on the piano by Bernice’s mother represents the suffering endured by the black Americans during slavery. Since her parents always played the piano Bernice felt that the legacy of their family should be maintained. However, Bernice did not want to play the piano any more after the death of her parents to avoid waking the spirits. The Sutter ghost is mentioned throughout the play and it represents the white man who owned Charles’s family during slavery. Despite the advice of selling the piano to stop haunt of spirits, Bernice still refuses to sell it (Wilson 10). Willie is persistent on selling the piano and moves on to find a potential buyer. Charles Doarker and Bernice warn Willie that the urge to sell the piano is a trap set by the spirit of Sutter so as to kill him. Willie disregards the advice and attempts to move the piano. The ghost of Sutter appears and blessings by Avery Brown are fruitless. Bernice rushes and plays the piano as a way calling for help from her ancestors. As Bernice plays the piano the spirit of Sutter disappears and Willie leaves (Wilson 11). Relevance The two short stories are crucial in eliciting effects of racism and different approaches used to mitigate them. In all scenarios racial discrimination led to conflicts and hostility among the black Americans. Wilson differed with his mother when he wanted him to become a lawyer and was sent away from home. In Fences, Troy sent Corey away from home since he wanted to venture into football, which was against his father’s wish. In the Piano lesson, Bernice differed with Willie on the approaches of liberating themselves from discrimination (Little 8). Poverty was a common effect of racial discrimination that had black race on the receiving end. The parents of Wilson were poor since they were only allowed to work in unskilled jobs. Wilson worked in menial jobs because he could not be allowed to work in high rank jobs. Troy worked as a garbage man for a long time since black Americans could not work in better jobs. Willie was poor because he worked in farms that did not belong to him. The parents of Bernice and Willie lived in slavery which made them poor (Wilson 13). The victims had different perceptions as far as coping with effects of racial discrimination was concerned. Wilson wanted to become an author because he thought that it was the best way to deal with racial discrimination. On the other hand, his mother wanted him to become a lawyer. Not sure if you can write a paper on The Theme of Liberation from Racism in Two Plays by August Wilson by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More His mother associated freedom from discrimination with the career of law. In fences, Troy sent Cory away from home due to his persistence in playing football. Troy asked the referee of the football team to stop Cory from playing. Troy actions are based on his experiences of racial discrimination. The author fails to elaborate on this point intensely. Wilson should have highlighted the interpretation of the different victims who were subjected to racial discrimination. For example, he could have explained the reason for the persistent discouragement of Troy on the participation of his son in football club. Troy could have wanted Cory to adopt a career that would liberate them from effects of racial discrimination (Spradley and Mccurdy 11). Stigmatization was also an impact of racial discrimination and had the black Americans as the victims. Wilson felt stigmatized due to the fact that he was expelled from school and accused of plagiarism. Due to stigmatization Wilson hid the expulsion from his mother and instead opted to work in the menial jobs. Further, his family was forced out of a house where they lived together with the white race. Wilson studied in three different schools all of which he was maltreated because of his race. In Fences Troy was irritated and stigmatized by the fact that black Americans cannot work in better jobs. Further, Tory was devastated when he was denied the opportunity to participate in prominent basketball leagues. One reason why Troy discouraged Cory from participation in football team and club was to prevent him from experience of stigma that he underwent during his youth (Little 12). In Piano lesson, Willie feels stigmatized by the slavery and is determined to be equal with the white race. According to Willie, racial equity would only be established if he owns land like the white race. Maltreatment is an effect of racial discrimination. In the two stories Wilson talks of the ways in which the black Americans were maltreated. Wilson left one of the schools because he was being abused. Troy worked as a garbage man because that was the job offered to black Americans. In Piano lessons, slavery is the main theme. Willie was imprisoned to work in a farm that was owned by a white person. The spirit of Sutter shows how the white race restricted and maltreated the black race. Bernice refuses to sell the piano because she feels that it would be like throwing away the legacy that her parents had labored for, all their years in slavery (Burbank 119). Conclusion The effects of discrimination and coping strategies adopted by black Americans are well scrutinized in the short stories done by Wilson. As a matter of fact, the stories depict the experiences of Wilson in his journey to become an author who was free from racial discrimination. The short stories play a significant role in reduction of racial discrimination. The negative impacts associated with racial discrimination have been outlined so as to discourage its spread. The success by the victims in the end of his stories encourages those who are subjected to any form of racial discrimination. Determination of the victims helped them realize their set goal. Efforts should be directed towards reducing the margin that exists between races. Works Cited Burbank, Surgei. “The shattered mirror: what August Wilson means and willed to mean.” College Literature 36.2 (2009): 117-129. EBSCOhost. Web. Little, Johnathan. Twentieth-Century American Dramatists: Second Series. Detroit, Michigan: Gale publishers, 2000. Print. Spradley, James, and David Mccurdy. Conformity and Conflict: Readings In Cultural Anthropology. New York: Pearson Education press, 2009. Print. Wilson, August. Fences: A Play. New York: Plume, 1986. Print. Wilson, August. The Piano Lesson. New York: Plume, 1991. Print.

Tata steel and the global steel industry

1.0.1 Introduction of Tata Steel: The growth of an organization is invariably determined not just by its strategy, but on how quickly it responds to the challenges it may encounters. Over the decades, Tata Steel has successfully countered several challenges that have come its way with innovative responses and continuous improvement that have enabled it to remain stable and even convert some of these challenges into opportunities. It is this culture of survival that has accorded Tata Steel the insight and focus to deal with the current economic environment. Drawing from its inner strength and attitude, Tata Steel responded by launching several initiatives across all its operations in various geographies that are helping the Group to achieve sustainable competitive edge even in the current times. It is also this very culture that will propel Tata Steel to continue on its growth in the coming years. Tata Steel, formerly known as TISCO and Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited, is the world’s sixth largest steel company, with an annual crude steel capacity of 31 million tonnes. Ranked 258th on Fortune Global 500, it is based in Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India. According to an annual survey conducted by Brand Finance and The Economic Times in 2010, Tata steel is in the 8th most valuable brand. Tata Steel is also India’s second largest private sector steel company in India in term of domestic production and second most profitable company with consolidated revenues of Rs 1,32,110 crore and net profit of over Rs 12,350 crore during the year ended March 31, 2008. Its main plant is located in Jamshedpur, Jharkhand. The Jamshedpur plant contains the DCS supplied by Honeywell and the registered office of Tata Steel is in Mumbai. World Steel Dynamics also recognized the company as the world’s best steel producer in 2005. Since then, Tata Steel has not limited its operations and businesses within India but has built an imposing presence around the globe as well. The Tata Steel Group believed that mutual benefit of countries, corporations and communities is the most effective route to growth. With the acquisition of Corus in 2007 leading to commencement of Tata Steel’s European operations, the Company today is the tenth largest steel producer in the world with employee strength of above 81,000 across five continents. During the financial year 2009-10, the Group recorded deliveries of 24 million tonnes against 28 million tonnes in the previous year, the decline being a reflection of the global economic slowdown mainly in the UK and European operations. The Group recorded a turnover of Rs.102, 393 Crores in 2009 – 2010. The Company has always had significant impact on the economic development in India and now seeks to strengthen its position of pre-eminence in international domain by continuing to lead by example of responsibility and trust. Then again, Tata Steel’s overseas ventures and investments in global companies have helped the Company create a manufacturing and marketing network in Europe, South East Asia and the Pacific-rim countries. The Group’s South East Asian operations comprise of Tata Steel Thailand, in which it has 67.1% equity and Nat Steel Holdings, which is one of the largest steel producers in the Asia Pacific with presence across seven countries. 1.0.2 Global steel industry: The biggest boom in history of steel industry is that of the 1950s and 1960s, when the post-War boom in the developed world drove the steel industry. Now, the current boom is being led by the growth in the developing country such as China, India and Brazil. However, china has now become the engine that has driven steel consumption in the Asian region. The demand expectations for steel products are rapidly growing for coming years. The shares of steel industries are also in a high pace. The steel industry is enjoying its 6th consecutive years of growth in supply and demand. Then, there is more merger and acquisitions which overall maintained the industry and showed some good results. The subprime crisis has lead to the recession in economy of different countries, which may lead to have a negative effect on whole steel industry in forthcoming years. However, the steel production and consumption will be supported by continuous economic growth. The crude steel production for 66 countries reporting to the World Steel Association was 1220 million metric tonnes for calendar year 2009, lower by 8% against that of 2008. Hit by the economic downturn, the drop in production was nearly in all steel producing countries barring positive growth recorded in China, India and the Middle East. In most countries including the developed steel markets of the EU, the U.S.A., Japan, Brazil, CIS deterioration in the economy resulted in a sharp decline of demand in key steel using sectors. Look at table appendix 1.0.1, page showing the top ten steel producing nations. As a result of the strong growth in China in sharp contrast to the decline in major parts of the globe, Chinese companies are dominance at the list of the top ten steel producing companies during the year 2009. Look at table appendix 1.0.2, page showing the Chinese companies dominating the steel production. 1.0.3 India steel industry: India has traditionally been one of the major producers of steel in the world. Till the 1990s the steel industry of India was regulated and controlled by government policies. Since its independence, India has experienced steadily growth in the steel industry; the governments have supported the industry and pushed its robust development. Further illustrating this plan is the fact that a number of steel plants were established in India, with technological assistance and investments by foreign countries. In 1991, the Indian government introduced a substantial number of economic reforms. One of the economic reforms allowed no licenses to be required for capacity creation, except for some geographical areas. These reforms boosted the development process of a number of steel industries in India. Yet another reform for India’s steel industry came in 1992, when every type of control over the pricing and distribution system was removed, making the modern Indian Steel Industry extremely efficient, as well as competitive. Additionally, a number of other government measures have stimulated the growth of the steel industry, coming in the form of an unrestricted external trade, low import duties and an easy tax structure. Over the years, India continually posts phenomenal growth records in steel production. In 1992, India produced 14.33 million tons of finished carbon steels and 1.59 million tons of pig iron. The total consumption of finished steel was 14.84 million tones in the year 1992. The country’s production of crude steel in 2005-06 stood at 42.1 million tonnes, reflecting an increase of 7.1 per cent over the previous fiscal. On the other hand, the consumption of steel during the year was pegged at 41.43 million tonnes, a massive growth of 13.88 per cent when compared with the 2004-05 figures. In 2008, India produced nearly 46.575 million tons of finished steels and 4.393 million tons of pig iron. Look at graph appendix 1.0.3, page showing the evidence of Indian steel production. Both primary and secondary producers contributed their share to this phenomenal development, while these increases have pushed up the demand for finished steel at a very stable rate. The total amount of domestic steel consumption was 43.925 million tones in the year 2008. With the increased demand in the national market, a huge part of the international market is also served by this industry. Powered by an increased demand for steel from neighbouring China, which has been clocking a 15 per cent sectorial growth annually on account of construction projects in preparation for the Olympics. The steel industry in India is also being competitive over the past two years and has grown about 10 per cent compared with the global growth rate of about 6 per cent a year. Eventually, India has set it vision to become an economically developed nation by 2020. The steel industry in India has a very high growth potential and is expected to play a major role in India’s economic development in the coming decades. On top, India is also projected to emerge as a strong force in the global steel market in the future. 2.0 Conducting strategic Position Analysis: 2.0.1: Application of Position Analysis to TATA Steel (1): Porter 5 forces model Backed by robust volumes as well as realizations, steel Industry has registered a phenomenal growth across the world over the past few years. The situation in the domestic industry was no exception. In fact, it enjoyed a double-digit growth rate backed by a robust growing economy. However, the current financial crisis seems to have created medium term hiccups. Using Michael Porter’s five-force model, I will analyzed the domestic steel sectors to understand the competitiveness of the sector as well as pointed out the initiatives taken by Tata Steel to safeguard its position from all the five forces of threats, namely: Threats of new entrants. Intensity of rivalry among existing competitors. The bargaining power of suppliers. The threat of substitute products. The bargaining power of buyers. > Entry barriers: High In term of Capital Requirement: Tata Steel had made sufficient efforts to safeguard itself in this regard. Its has a lineup of Greenfield projects which it plans to establish not only in domestic markets (Jharkhand, Orissa