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A combination of fifty students and lecturers were asked to evaluate the ethical issues on privacy in life. A survey has been made to make a comparison of each individual response towards the privacy issues. This is to determine the ethical impact relates to accessibility or inaccessibility and the manipulation of information. Certain kind of information about individuals, which was once difficult to find is now readily accessible and collectible through the use of automated search facilities on the Internet. This facility is called search engines. The results of the survey conducted indicate the ethical ssues on privacy in life regarding the networking issues. All students and lecturers from difference gender, age, are being selected randomly in this survey. The results are discussed and the implications of study regarding privacy issues are being outlined. Introduction Although technology has a major impact on the gathering, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information its main ethical impact relates to accessibility/inaccessibility and the manipulation of information. It creates the possibility of wider as well as simultaneous access to information.

By implication, it becomes easier to access a person’s private information by more people. Being Watched: Ethical Issues on Privacy in Life 1 The problems include examples such as electronic monitoring, the interception and reading of E-mail messages, the merging of databases which contains personal information. Certain kind of information about individuals, which was once difficult to find is now readily accessible and collectible through the use of automated search facilities on the Internet. This facility is called search engines.

With its convenience, a user can now easily enter a keyword that he or she wants to obtain information of, and get various results within a matter of seconds. Now, this is probably mankind greatest inventions that serve a lot of people and help gaining information easier without having to put much effort but it sure does raise a critical question which is, can this very means of convenience be turned against a user? Or how can we ensure whether or not there exists malicious intent of some individuals that would turn one of the greatest creations of humanity into something that could give him or her leverage to fulfil their intentions?

Since we know that Internet is not one network but rather, many, it is safe to assume that gaining information about an individual is highly likely given the fact that a lot of people in this day and age have at least enclosed their personal information on the internet whether deliberately or unintentionally. Also, of course the internet is global and once you have agreed or unintentionally agreed to share your information into the world web, it is considered to be in your own risk but how does one ensure that all of his private details stays private while browsing the internet?

Can we absolutely be sure, after all the countermeasures have been taken to protect our private detail, that we are safe from acts of privacy intrusion? According to Eric Schmidt, Google Chief Executive of Operations, he quoted that “Internet Privacy is an Illusion” which attracts many opinions contradicting of Schmidt? s. Some say that Schmidt? s logic is flawed and he has incorrectly presumed that privacy? s only function is obscure to law-breaking. Others agree with Schmidt, with a classic quote of “If you have done nothing wrong, you have nothing to hide” which is again, draws many computer professionals outrage.

Toby Stevens, Enterprise Privacy group, states that the said quote is built upon false assumption and these assumptions are never questioned whenever it is brought up as an argument to determine whether it is acceptable. Being Watched: Ethical Issues on Privacy in Life 2 Literature Review In this section review the literature on ethical issues on privacy in life followed by studies done pertaining to this area of privacy related study. Mason (1986) lists four ethical issues of the information age: privacy, accuracy, property and accessibility (PAPA).

The growth of the information technologies with their capacity for control, communication, information processing, storage and retrieval; and the increased value of information in decision-making might lead decision makers to try to acquire our personal information by invading our privacy. Accuracy is related to the correctness of information delivered through ICTs. Information might be used to mismanage people? s lives particularly when the party using inaccurate information has more power and authority (Mason, 1986). Finding from research revealed that even ICT professionals are not aware of the definition from computer ethic.

However, they all agreed on a consensus regarding the importance of obeying ethical conducts with computers and the Internet. The concept of computer ethics such as resorting to unethical computer using behaviour such as using unlicensed software, copying files or programs without authorization, showing disrespect to people? s work, accessing secret or personal information of individuals and publishing this on the Internet without authorization, showing disrespect while communicating on the Internet, unauthorized reading or download of others? iles and e-mails, visiting adult web sites, video-recording individuals? sexual lives, publishing these records on the Internet, hacking and sending viruses. Facebook as social network service is tends to privacy threats. Speci? c privacy concerns of online social networking include inadvertent disclosure of personal information, damaged reputation due to rumors and gossip, unwanted contact and harassment or stalking, surveillance-like structures due to backtracking functions, use of personal data by thirdparties, and hacking and identity theft (boyd& Ellison, 2008).

Facebook features such as news feed made Facebook users felt exposed and deprived of their sense of control over their information (boyd, 2008). The implementation of third-party created program such as games and application leads to users? behavior tracking and make use of the information for targeted advertising, and also data mining, phishing, and other malicious purposes. Additional concerns are about links between Facebook with government agencies such as the police and the CIA (central intelligence agency). Being Watched: Ethical Issues on Privacy in Life 3

Location-based tracking systems use a variety of technologies to track and record the location of a person or object. Previous studies have described on how LTS threaten the privacy of the individuals. For example, LTS collect one? s location information without knowing, permission or even the individual awareness. LTS threaten individual because they aggregate that information, when the aggregate information is combined with personal identifiers, resulting a potential privacy violation. Privacy issues may become less of a concern if MCOs voluntarily choose to limit the amount of personal health information they collect.

Several providers and behavioral health care firms mentioned in our interviews that they have observed a trend toward MCOs requesting less detailed information within the last few years. MCOs expected to recover the costs incurred in these processes through reduced utilization. However, there is some evidence that review processes may not result in a significant decrease in utilization, particularly for outpatient care. Hennessy and Green-Hennessy noted that, in a nationally representative study of individuals undergoing outpatient behavioural health treatment, 72% had seven or fewer sessions, and 85% had fourteen or fewer sessions (1997).

This was the same for both fee-for-service and managed care, indicating that most patients voluntarily terminated treatment after a small number of sessions and those MCO efforts to limit utilization do not appear to have had a significant effect. Another study examining individuals covered by United Behavioural Health who had terminated outpatient mental health treatment found that only 5% of persons surveyed indicated that their treatment was discontinued due to a denial of care from the MBHO; and only 3% of the participants’ providers had noted the denial as the cause of the discontinuation in the medical file.

The majority of patients and their providers indicated that treatment was discontinued because treatment goals were met or because the patient voluntarily discontinued treatment (Cuffel et al. , 2000). Since the utilization review process can be very expensive, and may not result in significant decreases in utilization, MCOs may begin to change their administrative processes to be more cost-effective, and curtail intensive management of outpatient behavioural health care. Being Watched: Ethical Issues on Privacy in Life 4

Program Proposal

Program Proposal.


All applicants are required to upload a program proposal of approximately 5 pages, double-spaced (not including title page and references). The program proposal must be written in an academic format (APA or other) and include references. Within the proposal: Introduce yourself. Specify and briefly discuss a substantive area of interest relating to the specialization topic you are applying. Discuss how your educational goals and career expectations relate to your chosen specialization topic and your area of interest (include both personal and academic rationales)

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