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ethical issues and potential ramifications to consider in marketing, when unhealthy products (or those that would be unhealthy when consumed in excess) are sold. Examples could include some of the advertising used for sodas and sugary drinks, alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, and high-calorie “junk food.” A particularly sensitive topic is the issue of marketing to children. Think about how perceptions of “healthy,” what business practices are socially acceptable, and where responsibilities lie have changed over time. Several articles on this subject have been identified for you in the South University Online Library and are listed below. Review those and conduct your own research on this topic. Then respond to the following: Ronald McDonald has been a staple in advertising McDonald’s fast food restaurants since the 1960s. What ethical issues do you see in using Ronald McDonald or McDonald’s new mascot, Happy, to market to children?

ethical issues and potential ramifications to consider in marketing, when unhealthy products (or those that would be unhealthy when consumed in excess) are sold. Examples could include some of the advertising used for sodas and sugary drinks, alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, and high-calorie “junk food.” A particularly sensitive topic is the issue of marketing to children. Think about how perceptions of “healthy,” what business practices are socially acceptable, and where responsibilities lie have changed over time. Several articles on this subject have been identified for you in the South University Online Library and are listed below. Review those and conduct your own research on this topic. Then respond to the following: Ronald McDonald has been a staple in advertising McDonald’s fast food restaurants since the 1960s. What ethical issues do you see in using Ronald McDonald or McDonald’s new mascot, Happy, to market to children?. Is it ethical to use either Ronald or Happy in McDonald’s charitable efforts? What issues concern you? Should McDonald’s and other food sellers do more to make their menus healthy? What changes do you think should be made to try and resolve some of these issues, and how would you go about implementing them? Be sure to cite appropriately from your reading/research in your post and responses. As you respond to your peers, debate the resolution of ethical dilemmas based upon your reading, research, and experience; consider the issues from multiple perspectives and the problems that can arise when trying to resolve these issues. You may use these references as you begin researching this assignment: Bakir, A.,ethical issues and potential ramifications to consider in marketing, when unhealthy products (or those that would be unhealthy when consumed in excess) are sold. Examples could include some of the advertising used for sodas and sugary drinks, alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, and high-calorie “junk food.” A particularly sensitive topic is the issue of marketing to children. Think about how perceptions of “healthy,” what business practices are socially acceptable, and where responsibilities lie have changed over time. Several articles on this subject have been identified for you in the South University Online Library and are listed below. Review those and conduct your own research on this topic. Then respond to the following: Ronald McDonald has been a staple in advertising McDonald’s fast food restaurants since the 1960s. What ethical issues do you see in using Ronald McDonald or McDonald’s new mascot, Happy, to market to children?
Central Michigan University Strategic Management Innovation and Leadership Paper.

This assignment includes one discussion post questions and 2 replies to peersQuestion:1. Organizational performance is the fifth aspect of the model, reflect on the question, do certain leadership behaviors improve and sustain performance at the individual, group, and organizational level? Please explain your response.2. There were two types of innovation addressed this week (product and process innovation), please note your own personal definition of these concepts and offer an example of both.Please use at least two scholarly resources in the discussion. Please ensure to use information from your readings and other sources. Use APA references and in-text citations. Length = 250 to 300 wordsProvide the two generic questions that I can use to reply peers Readings: Journal Article 2.2: Spector, B.A. (2016) ‘Carlyle, Freud, and the great man theory more fully considered’, Leadership, 12(2): 250–260. URL: https://journals.sagepub.com/stoken/rbtfl/UOAG6PEG…Journal Article 2.1: Learmonth, M. and Morrell, K. (2017) ‘Is critical leadership studies ‘critical’?’ Leadership, 13(3): 257–271. URL: https://journals.sagepub.com/stoken/rbtfl/6NZC36N6…Text book for course : organizational Leadership Edited by John Bratton (attached related PPT from text book)
Central Michigan University Strategic Management Innovation and Leadership Paper

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Data analysis is the systematic organization and synthesis of research data and testing of research hypothesis using those data. Interpretation is the process of making sense of the result and examining their implication (Polit, 2004). Analysis is the method of rendering qualitative data meaningful and providing intelligible information, so that the research problem can be studied and tested, including the relationship between the variables. The study was conducted among children with wheezing to compare the effectiveness of nebulization with oxygen and without oxygen in improving their respiratory status. The data was collected, assembled, analyzed and tested and the findings based on the analysis are presented in this chapter. 4.1 Demographic Variables of Children with Wheezing: The age of the children with wheezing ranged between one month to five years. Out of this, 8 (16%) children were between the age group of one month to one year, 17 (34%) were between 1-3 years and 25 (50%) were between the age group of 3-5 years. Majority of the children were males (62%) and female children were 38%. 34 (68%) children belonged to nuclear family whereas 16 (32%) children belonged to joint family. LPG was used as the cooking fuel in all (100%) the houses (Table 4.1). 4.2 Family History of Smoking Habits: In nebulization with oxygen group, 5(20%) children had the family history of smoking habit. For majority (4) of children, grandfather was the person who smokes and for one child father was the smoking person. In nebulization without oxygen group, fathers of 3(12%) children smoke in the family (Table 4.2). 4.3 Family History of Respiratory Diseases: 5 (20%) children in the nebulization with oxygen group had a family history of asthma, out of which one person is on regular treatment. In nebulization without oxygen group, 5(20%) children had a family history of asthma and 3(12%) had a family history of COPD, out of which one person is on regular treatment (Table4.3). 4.4 History of Respiratory Diseases in Children: With regard to previous history of respiratory diseases, majority (64%) of children had wheeze associated lower respiratory infection (WALRI) in nebulization with oxygen group whereas in nebulization without oxygen group, 15 (60%) children had WALRI, .6 (24%) children had hyper reactive airway disease (HRAD) and 3 (12%) children had asthma in nebulization with oxygen group , whereas in nebulization without oxygen group,7 (28%) children had asthma and 3 (12%) had HRAD (Table.4.4). About the onset of respiratory diseases, 14 (56%) children developed respiratory diseases before 1year of age and 5 (20%) children developed between the age group of 1-2 years in nebulization with oxygen group whereas in nebulization without oxygen group, 10 (40%) children developed before 1year of age and 7 (28%) children developed between 1-2 years of age (Table.4.4). Regarding the duration of the disease, 14 (56%) children had the duration of disease less than a year and 6 (24%) had the duration between1-2 years in nebulization with oxygen group whereas in nebulization without oxygen group, 11 (44%) children had duration of less than 1 year and 8 (32%) had the duration between 1-2 years (Table.4.4). With regard to the regularity of the treatment, 3(12%) children in the nebulization with oxygen group and 6 (24%) children in the nebulization without oxygen group were on regular treatment. All these children were using inhalers. Majority of the children (66.66%) were using a combination of salbutamol -fluticosone inhaler in both groups and the rest (33.33%) were using asthalin alone (Table.4.4). 4.5 Immunization History: All the children (100%) in both groups were completely immunized. 4.6 Pre assessment of Respiratory Parameters in Nebulization with Oxygen Group: The initial assessment of respiratory rate of children in nebulization with oxygen group showed that 6 (24%) children were in mild distress, 6 (24%) children were in moderate distress and 13 (52%) children were in severe distress. In the assessment of oxygen saturation, 20 (80%) children had mild desaturation (95-97% in room air) and 5 (20%) children had moderate desaturation (90-94%in room air).In the initial assessment of wheezing, 12 (48%) children were having wheezing on terminal expiration and 13 (52%) children were having wheezing on entire expiration.The assessment of retraction showed that 16 (64%) children were normal, 8(32%) children had intercostal retractions and 1 (4%) child had intercostal and substernal retractions..In the initial dyspnoea assessment, 5 (20%) children were having mild dyspnoea and 20 (80%) children were normal (Table 4.5). 4.7 Pre assessment of Respiratory Parameters in Nebulization without Oxygen Group: The initial respiratory rate assessment of children in nebulization without oxygen group showed that 10 (40%) children were in mild distress, 8 (32%) children were in moderate distress and 7 (28%) children were in severe distress. In the assessment of oxygen saturation, 22 (88%) children had mild desaturation (95-97% in room air) and 3 (12%) children had moderate desaturation (90-94%in room air). In the initial assessment of wheezing, 17 (68%) children were having wheezing on terminal expiration and 8 (32%) children were having wheezing on entire expiration. Initial retraction assessment showed that 18 (72%) children had intercostal retractions and 7 (28%) children had intercostal and substernal retractions. In the assessment of dyspnoea, 5 (20%) children were having mild dyspnoea and 20 (80%) children were normal (Table 4.6). 4.8 Implementation of Therapies among Children with Wheezing: 4.8.1 Administration of nebulization with oxygen: Nebulization with oxygen was provided to 25 children with wheezing who were prescribed for Combimist nebulization in the OPD. Nebulization was provided by the staff nurse for a period of 15-20 minutes. Children who were on treatment prior to the nebulization were not included in the study. Assessment was done before and after nebulization with oxygen. 4.8.2 Administration of nebulization without oxygen: Nebulization without oxygen was provided by the staff nurse to 25 children with wheezing who were prescribed with Combimist (Salbutamol Ipravent) nebulization in the OPD. Nebulization was provided for a period of 15-20 minutes. Children who were on treatment prior to the nebulization were not included in the study. Assessment was done before and after nebulization with oxygen. 4.9: Post assessment of Respiratory Parameters in Nebulization with Oxygen Group: 4.9.1 Post Assessment at 5 Minutes: In the post 5 minutes assessment of respiratory rate of children in nebulization with oxygen group,1 (4%) child reached normal ,7 (28%) children were in mild distress,5 (20%) children were in moderate distress and 12 (48%) were in severe distress. In the assessment of oxygen saturation, 4 (16%) children reached normal saturation, 17 (68%) children had mild desaturation (95-97% in room air) and 4 (16%) children had moderate desaturation (90-94%in room air). Wheeze assessment showed that 1 (4%) child became normal, 13 (52%) children were having wheezing on terminal expiration and 11 (44%) children were having wheezing on entire expiration. In the assessment of retraction, 16 (64%) children were normal, 8 (32%) children had intercostal retractions and 1 (4%) child had intercostal and substernal retractions.In the dyspnoea assessment, 5 (20%) children were having mild dyspnoea and 20 (80%) children were normal (Table 4.5). 4.9.2 Post Assessment at 10 Minutes: In the post 10 minutes assessment of respiratory rate of children,1 (4%) child reached normal ,8 (32%) children were in mild distress,7 (28%) children were in moderate distress and 9 (36%) were in severe distress. Assessment of oxygen saturation revealed that 13 (52%) children were having normal saturation, 11 (44%) children had mild desaturation (95-97% in room air) and 1 (4%) child had moderate desaturation (90-94%in room air). In the assessment of wheezing, 10 (40%) children were relieved from wheezing, 11 (44%) children were having wheezing on terminal expiration and 4 (16%) children were having wheezing on entire expiration. Assessment of retractions showed that 21 (84%) children became normal, 4 (16%) children had intercostal retractions.In the dyspnoea assessment, 22 (88%) children were having no dyspnoea and 3 (12%) children were having mild dyspnoea (Table 4.5). 4.9.3 Post Assessment at 15 Minutes: Post 15 minutes assessment of respiratory rate showed that 5 (20%) child reached normal ,5 (20%) children were in mild distress,9 (36%) children were in moderate distress and 6 (24%) were in severe distress. In the assessment of oxygen saturation, 17 (68%) children reached normal saturation, 8 (32%) children had mild desaturation (95-97% in room air). In the assessment of wheezing, 12 (48%) children were relieved from wheezing, 12 (48%) children were having wheezing on terminal expiration and 1(4%) child was having wheezing on entire expiration. The assessment of retractions revealed that 23 (92%) children became normal, 2 (8%) children had intercostal retractions.Dyspnoea assessment showed that 23 (92%) children became normal and 2 (8%) children were having mild dyspnoea (Table 4.5). 4.9.4 Post Assessment at 30 Minutes: Post 30 assessment of respiratory rate showed that 11 (44%) child reached normal, 7 (28%) children were in mild distress, and 4 (16%) children were in moderate distress and 3 (12%) were in severe distress. In the assessment of oxygen saturation, 19 (76%) children reached normal saturation, 5 (20%) children had mild desaturation (95-97% in room air) and 1 (4%) child had moderate desaturation. In the assessment of wheezing, 14 (56%) children were relieved from wheezing, 11 (44%) children were having wheezing on terminal expiration. The assessment of retractions showed that 24 (96%) children became normal, 1 (4%) children had intercostal retractions. Dyspnoea assessment revealed that 23 (92%) children reached normal and 2 (8%) children were having mild dyspnoea (Table 4.5). 4.10 Post assessment of Respiratory Parameters in Nebulization without Oxygen Group: 4.10.1 Post Assessment at 5 Minutes: Post assessment of respiratory rate showed that 11 (44%) children were in mild distress, 8 (32%) children were in moderate distress and 6 (24%) were in severe distress. In the assessment of oxygen saturation, 1 (4%) child reached normal, 21 (84%) children had mild desaturation (95-97% in room air) and 3 (12%) children had moderate desaturation (90-94%in room air).Assessment of wheezing showed that 2 (8%) children became normal, 15 (60%) children were having wheezing on terminal expiration and 8 (32%) children were having wheezing on entire expiration. In the assessment of retraction, 19 (76%) children had intercostal retractions and 6 (24%) children had intercostal and substernal retractions. Dyspnoea assessment showed that 5 (20%) children were having mild dyspnoea and 20 (80%) children were normal (Table 4.6). 4.10.2 Post Assessment at 10 Minutes: Post 10 minutes assessment of respiratory rate revealed that 4 (16%) children reached normal rate, 10 (40%) children were in mild distress,7 (28%) children were in moderate distress and 4 (16%) were in severe distress. In the assessment of oxygen saturation, 7 (28%) children reached normal, 15 (60%) children had mild desaturation (95-97% in room air) and 3 (12%) children had moderate desaturation (90-94%in room air). Assessment of wheezing showed that 16 (64%) children became normal, 4 (16%) children were having wheezing on terminal expiration and 5 (20%) children were having wheezing on entire expiration. In the assessment of retraction, 22 (88%) children became normal and 3 (12%) children had intercostal retractions. Dyspnoea assessment revealed that, 3 (12%) children were having mild dyspnoea and 22 (88%) children became normal (Table 4.6). 4.10.3 Post Assessment at 15 Minutes: In the post assessment of respiratory rate,9 (36%) children reached to normal rate, 7 (28%) children were in mild distress, 5 (20%) children were in moderate distress and 4 (16%) were in severe distress. The post assessment of oxygen saturation showed that 10 (40%) children reached normal, 13 (52%) children had mild desaturation (95-97% in room air) and 2 (8%) children had moderate desaturation (90-94%in room air). Wheeze assessment at 15 minutes showed that 19 (76%) children became normal, 6 (24%) children were having wheezing on terminal expiration. In the assessment of retraction, 24 (96%) children became normal, 1 (4%) children had intercostal retractions. Evaluation of dyspnoea revealed that 2 (8%) children were having mild dyspnoea and 23 (92%) children were normal (Table 4.6). 4.10.4 Post Assessment at 30 Minutes: Post assessment of respiratory rate showed that 13 (52%) children reached normal rate, 7 (28%) children were in mild distress, 2 (8%) children were in moderate distress and 3 (12%) were in severe distress. In the assessment of oxygen saturation, 10 (40%) child reached normal, 13 (52%) children had mild desaturation (95-97% in room air) and 2 (8%) children had moderate desaturation (90-94%in room air). In the assessment of wheezing, 19 (76%) children became normal, 6 (24%) children were having wheezing on terminal expiration. Assessment of retraction revealed that 24 (96%) children had no retractions, 1 (4%) children had intercostal retractions.Dyspnoea assessment showed that1 (4%) child was having mild dyspnoea and 24 (96%) children became normal (Table 4.6). 4.11 Comparison of Mean Difference of Pre and Post Assessment of Respiratory Parameters in Nebulization with Oxygen Group and Nebulization without Oxygen Group: 4.11.1 Mean Difference of Respiratory Rate in Nebulization with Oxygen Group and Nebulization without Oxygen Group: In nebulization with oxygen group, the pre mean values of respiratory rate was 41.68 and post mean value at 5 minutes was 40.4.Post mean values at 10 minutes was 37.76, at 15 minutes was 35.6 and at 30 minutes was 32.8. The mean difference between pre and post respiratory rate at 30 minutes was 8.88. This shows a significant reduction in respiratory rate after nebulization with oxygen. The pre mean value of respiratory rate in nebulization without oxygen group was 36.64 .The post mean value of respiratory rate at 5 minute was 36, at 10 minutes was 34.32, at 15 minutes was 32.48 and at 30 minutes was 30.96. The mean difference between pre and post respiratory rate at 30 minutes was 5.68. This shows a reduction in respiratory rate after nebulization without oxygen. Therefore, it can be inferred that the mean difference was high in nebulization with oxygen group comparing to nebulization without oxygen group. This showed that nebulization with oxygen is effective in reducing tachypnea among children with wheezing (Table 4.7). 4.11.2 Mean Difference of Oxygen Saturation in Nebulization with Oxygen Group and Nebulization without Oxygen Group: Oxygen saturation above 98% in room air is considered as the normal saturation level. The pre mean value of oxygen saturation in nebulization with oxygen group was 95.24. The post mean value of oxygen saturation at 5 minute was 96, at 10 minutes was 97.24, at 15 minutes was 98.08 and at 30 minutes was 98.32. The mean difference between pre and post oxygen saturation at 30 minutes was 3.08. This shows an improvement in oxygen saturation after nebulization with oxygen. The pre mean value of oxygen saturation in nebulization without oxygen group was 95.72 .The post mean value of oxygen saturation at 5 minute was 95.88, at 10 minutes was 96.68 at, 15 minutes was 97.36 and at 30 minutes was 97.08. The mean difference between pre and post respiratory rate at 30 minutes was 1.36. Therefore, it can be inferred that the mean difference was high in nebulization with oxygen group comparing to nebulization without oxygen group. This showed that nebulization with oxygen is effective in improving the oxygen saturation among children with wheezing (Table 4.7). 4.11.3 Mean Difference of Wheeze Score in Nebulization with Oxygen Group and Nebulization without Oxygen Group: Auscultation of normal vesicular breath sounds is considered as normal. The pre mean value of wheeze score in nebulization with oxygen group was 1.52. The post mean value of wheeze score at 5 minute was 1.4, at 10 minutes was 0.72, at 15 minutes was 0.56 and at 30 minutes was 0.44. The mean difference between pre and post wheeze score at 30 minutes was1.08. This showed an improvement in wheeze score after nebulization with oxygen. The pre mean value of wheeze score in nebulization without oxygen group was 1.32. The post mean value of wheeze score at 5 minute was 1.12, at 10 minutes was 0.56, at 15 minutes was 0.24 and at 30 minutes was 0.24. The mean difference between pre and post wheeze score at 30 minutes was 1.08. This showed that there was no mean difference in wheeze score in nebulization with oxygen group and nebulization without oxygen group. Hence, nebulization with oxygen and nebulization without oxygen has similar effect in reducing wheeze score among children with wheezing (Table 4.7). 4.11.4 Mean Difference of Retraction Score in Nebulization with Oxygen Group and Nebulization without Oxygen Group: Observation of normal chest movements is considered as normal. In nebulization with oxygen group, the pre mean value of retraction score was 0.4. The post mean value of retraction score at 5 minute were 0.4, at 10 minutes was 0.16, at 15 minutes was 0.08 and at 30 minutes was 0.04. The mean difference between pre and post wheeze score at 30 minutes was 0.36. This showed an improvement retraction score in nebulization with oxygen group. The pre mean value of retraction score in nebulization without oxygen group was 0.28. The post mean value of retraction score at 5 minute was 024, at 10 minutes was 0.12, at 15 minutes was 0.04 and at 30 minutes was 0.04. The mean difference between pre and post retraction score at 30 minutes was 0.24. This showed that there was no mean difference in retraction score in nebulization with oxygen group and nebulization without oxygen group. Hence, nebulization with oxygen and nebulization without oxygen has similar effect in reducing retraction score among children with wheezing (Table 4.7). 4.11.5 Mean Difference of Dyspnoea Grade in Nebulization with Oxygen Group and Nebulization without Oxygen Group: Grade 0 is regarded as absence of dyspnoea. In nebulization with oxygen group, the pre mean value of dyspnoea grade was 0.2. The post mean values of dyspnoea grade at 5 minute were 0.2, at 10 minutes was 0.12, at 15 minutes was 0.08 and at 30 minutes was 0.08. The mean difference between pre and post dyspnoea grade at 30 minutes was 0.12. This showed an improvement in dyspnoea grade in nebulization with oxygen group. The pre mean value of dyspnoea grade in nebulization without oxygen group was 0.2. The post mean values of dyspnoea grade at 5 minute was 0.2, at 10 minutes was 0.12 ,at 15 minutes was 0..08 and at 30 minutes was 0..04. The mean difference between pre and post dyspnoea grade at 30 minutes was 0.16. Hence the result highlighted that the mean difference was slightly higher in nebulization without oxygen comparing to nebulization with oxygen. This showed that nebulization with oxygen had similar effect in reducing dyspnoea grade among children with wheezing (Table 4.7). 4.12. Effectiveness of Nebulization with Oxygen in Improving the Respiratory Parameters among Children with Wheezing through Paired’t’ test Analysis: Paired ‘t’ test was used to assess the differences in pre and post assessments of respiratory parameters among nebulization with oxygen group. (Table 4.8). 4.12.1 Comparison of Pre and Post 5 Minutes, 10 Minutes, 15 Minutes and 30 Minutes Assessment of Respiratory Rate in Nebulization with Oxygen Group: Hypothesis: There will be a significant difference in pre and post assessment of respiratory rate in nebulization with oxygen group. t = t5min = =2.67 t10min = =5 t15min = =7.89 t30min= =12.94 The calculated values of ‘t’ at 5,10,15 and 30 minutes are 2.67, 5, 7.89 and 12.94 respectively which are greater than the tabulated value at p <0.05 level. This shows that there is a significant difference in pre assessment and post assessment of respiratory rate at 5, 10, 15 and 30 minutes in nebulization with oxygen group. 4.12.2 Comparison of Pre and Post 5 Minutes, 10 Minutes, 15 Minutes and 30 Minutes Assessment of Oxygen saturation in Nebulization with Oxygen Group: Hypothesis: There will be a significant difference in pre and post assessment of oxygen saturation in nebulization with oxygen group. t = t5min = =3.8 t10min= =9.52 t15min= =15.77 t30min = =15.24 The calculated values of ‘t’ at 5,10,15 and 30 minutes are 3.8, 9.52, 15.77 and 15.24 respectively which are greater than the tabulated value at p <0.05 level. This shows that there is a significant difference in pre assessment and post assessment of oxygen saturation at 5, 10, 15 and 30 minutes in nebulization with oxygen group. 4.12.3 Comparison of Pre and Post 5 Minutes, 10 Minutes, 15 Minutes and 30 Minutes Assessment of Wheeze Score in Nebulization with Oxygen Group: Hypothesis: There will be a significant difference in pre and post assessment of wheeze score in nebulization with oxygen group. t = t5min = =1.71 t10min= =10 t15min= =24 t30min = =18 The calculated values of ‘t’ at 5 minutes is 1.71which is less than the tabulated value at p <0.05 level. This shows that there is no significant difference in pre assessment and post assessment of wheeze score at 5 minutes in nebulization with oxygen group. The t value at 10, 15 and 30 minutes are 10, 24 and 18 respectively which are greater than the tabulated value at p <0.05 level. This shows that there is a significant difference in pre assessment and post assessment of wheeze score at 10, 15 and 30 minutes in nebulization with oxygen group. 4.12.4 Comparison of Pre and Post 5 Minutes, 10 Minutes, 15 Minutes and 30 Minutes Assessment of Retraction Score in Nebulization with Oxygen Group: Hypothesis: There will be a significant difference in pre and post assessment of retraction score in nebulization with oxygen group. t = t5min = =1 t10min = =2.5 t15min = =3.37 t30min= =3.27 Using paired ‘t’ test the t value at 5 minutes is 1 which is less than the tabulated value at p= <0.05 level. This shows that there is no significant difference in pre assessment and post assessment of retraction score at 5 minutes in nebulization with oxygen group. The ‘t’ value at 10, 15 and 30 minutes are 2.5, 3.37 and 3.27 respectively which are greater than the tabulated value at p <0.05 level. This shows that there is a significant difference in pre assessment and post assessment of retraction score at 10, 15 and 30 minutes in nebulization with oxygen group. 4.12.5 Comparison of Pre and Post 5 Minutes, 10 Minutes, 15 Minutes and 30 Minutes Assessment of Dyspnoea Grade in Nebulization with Oxygen Group: Hypothesis: There will be a significant difference in pre and post assessment of dyspnoea grade in nebulization with oxygen group. t = t5min= = 0 t10min= =1.14 t15min = =1.71 t30min = =1.71 Using paired’t’ test the t value at 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes and 30 minutes are 0, 1.14, 1.71 and 1.71 respectively, which are less than the tabulated value at p <0.05 level This shows that there is no significant difference in pre assessment and post assessment at 5, 10, 15 and 30 minutes of dyspnoea grade in nebulization with oxygen group 4.13. Effectiveness of Nebulization without Oxygen in Improving the Respiratory Parameters among Children with Wheezing through Paired’t’ test Analysis: Paired ‘t’ test was used to assess the difference in pre and post assessments of respiratory parameters among nebulization without oxygen group children.( Table 4.9) 4.13.1 Comparison of Pre and Post 5 Minutes, 10 Minutes, 15 Minutes and 30 Minutes Assessment of Respiratory Rate in Nebulization without Oxygen Group: Hypothesis: There will be a significant difference in pre and post assessment of respiratory rate in nebulization without oxygen group. t = t5min= =1.45 t10min = = 5.39 t15min = =10.18 t30min= =13.8 Using paired ‘t’ test the t value at 5 minutes is 1.45 which is less than the tabulated value at p <0.05 level. This shows that there is no significant difference in pre assessment and post assessment of respiratory rate at 5 minutes in nebulization without oxygen group. The ‘t’ value at 10, 15 and 30 minutes are 5.39, 10.18 and 13.8 respectively which are greater than the tabulated value at p <0.05 level. This shows that there is a significant difference in pre assessment and post assessment of respiratory rate at 10, 15 and 30 minutes in nebulization without oxygen group. 4.13.2 Comparison of Pre and Post 5 Minutes, 10 Minutes, 15 Minutes and 30 Minutes Assessment of Oxygen saturation in Nebulization without Oxygen Group: Hyothesis: There will be a significant difference in pre and post assessment of oxygen saturation in nebulization without oxygen group. t = t5min= =1.23 t10min= =6.25 t15min= =7.45 t30min= =6.18 Using paired ‘t’ test the t value at 5 minutes is 1.23 which is less than the tabulated value at p <0.05 level. This shows that there is no significant difference in pre assessment and post assessment of oxygen saturation at 5 minutes in nebulization without oxygen group. The ‘t’ value at 10, 15 and 30 minutes are 6.25, 7.45 and 6.18 respectively which are greater than the tabulated value at p <0.05 level. This shows that there is a significant difference in pre assessment and post assessment of oxygen saturation at 10, 15 and 30 minutes in nebulization without oxygen group. 4.13.3 Comparison of Pre and Post 5 Minutes, 10 Minutes, 15 Minutes and 30 Minutes Assessment of Wheeze Score in Nebulization without Oxygen Group: Hypothesis: There will be a significant difference in pre and post assessment of wheeze score in nebulization without oxygen group. t = t5min = =2.5 t10min= =7.6 t15min= =18 t30min= =18 Using paired ‘t’ test the t value at 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes and 30 minutes are 2.5, 7.6, 18 and 18 respectively, which are greater than the tabulated value at p <0.05 level This shows that there is a significant difference in pre assessment and post assessment at 5, 10, 15 and 30 minutes of wheeze score in nebulization without oxygen group. 4.13.4 Comparison of Pre and Post 5 Minutes, 10 Minutes, 15 Minutes and 30Minutes Assessment of Retraction Score in Nebulization without Oxygen Group: Hypothesis: There will be a significant difference in pre and post assessment of retraction score in nebulization without oxygen group. t = t5min = =1 t10min = =2.29 t15min= =2.67 t30min = =2.67 Using paired ‘t’ test the t value at 5 minutes is 1 which is less than the tabulated value at p <0.05 level. This shows that there is no significant difference in pre assessment and post assessment of retraction score at 5 minutes in nebulization without oxygen group. The ‘t’ value at 10, 15 and 30 minutes are 2.29, 2.67 and 2.67 respectively which are greater than the tabulated value at p <0.05 level. This shows that there is a significant difference in pre assessment and post assessment of retraction score at 10, 15 and 30 minutes in nebulization without oxygen group. 4.13.5 Comparison of Pre and Post 5 Minutes, 10 Minutes, 15 Minutes and 30 Minutes Assessment of Dyspnoea Grade in Nebulization without Oxygen Group: Hypothesis: There will be a significant difference in pre and post assessment of dyspnoea grade in nebulization without oxygen group. t = t5min = =0 t10min = =1.14 t15min = =1.71 t30min = =2.29 The calculated values of ‘t’ at 5 minutes, 10 minutes and 15 minutes are 0 , 1.14 and 1.71 respectively, which are less than the tabulated value at p <0.05 level This shows that there is no significant difference in pre assessment and post assessment at 5, 10 and 15 minutes of dyspnoea grade in nebulization without oxygen group. The ‘t’ value at 30 minutes is 2.29 which is greater than the tabulated value at p <0.05 level. This shows that there is a significant difference in pre assessment and post assessment of dyspnoea grade at 30 minutes in nebulization without oxygen group. 4.14. Comparison of Respiratory Parameters Between Nebulization with Oxygen Group and Nebulization without Oxygen Group through ‘Z ‘Test Analysis: ‘Z ‘test was used to assess the difference in respiratory parameters between nebulization with oxygen and nebulization without oxygen group. 4.14.1 Comparison of Respiratory Rate after 5 Minutes of Nebulization in Nebulization with Oxygen Group and Nebulization without Oxygen Group: Hypothesis: There will be a significant difference in respiratory rate between nebulization with oxygen group and nebulization without oxygen group. = 40.4 = 36 SD = 8.63 Z =1.81 Using ‘Z’ test, the calculated value of ‘Z’ is 1.81 which is less than the tabulated value at p <0.05 level. This shows that there is no significant difference in respiratory rate after 5 minutes of nebulization in nebulization with oxygen group and nebulization without oxygen group. (Table 4.10) 4.14.2 Comparison of Oxygen Saturation after 5 Minutes of Nebulization in Nebulization with Oxygen Group and Nebulization without Oxygen Group: Hypothesis: There will be a significant difference in oxygen saturation between nebulization with oxygen group and nebulization without oxygen group. = 96 = 95.88 SD= 1.59 Z=0.27 Using ‘Z’ test, the calculated value of ‘Z’ is 0.27 which is less than the tabulated value at p <0.05 level. This shows that there is no significant difference in oxygen saturation after 5 minutes of nebulization in nebulization with oxygen group and nebulization without oxygen group. (Table 4.10) 4.14.3 Comparison of Wheeze Score after 5 Minutes of Nebulization in Nebulization with Oxygen Group and Nebulization without Oxygen Group: Hypothesis: There will be a significant difference in wheeze score between nebulization with oxygen group and nebulization without oxygen group. = 1.4 = 1.12 SD= 0.55 Z=1.87 Using ‘Z’ test, the calculated value of ‘Z’ is 1.87 which is less than the tabulated value at p <0.05 level. This shows that there is no significant difference in wheeze score after 5 minutes of nebulization in nebulization with oxygen group and nebulization without oxygen group. (Table 4.10) 4.14.4 Comparison of Retraction Score after 5 Minutes of Nebulization in Nebulization with Oxygen Group and Nebulization without Oxygen Group: Hypothesis: There will be a significant difference in retraction score between nebulization with oxygen group and nebulization without oxygen g Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

Assistance with discussion posts

Assistance with discussion posts.

Hello, I need assistance with my discussion posts. Please follow the directions and answer as instructed! No plagiarism what so ever!! Answer in complete sentences and be sure to use the correct grammar and punctuation! This must be completed by Thursday 2/1/18 no later!!!Here is the the discussion postIn this post, discuss at least five different stakeholders that you are. For each type of stakeholder: 1) describe its type (market or nonmarket; and internal or external), 2) describe your interests as this type of stakeholder, and 3) describe the base(s) of power that you have as this type of stakeholder. The textbook discussion on pages 10-17 will help you with these questions. (200 words)
Assistance with discussion posts

Quiz 1 in parenting toda1

essay writing help Quiz 1 in parenting toda1.

The short answer questions can be answered in one paragraph (approximately 5 sentences). The short essay can be answered in 2 paragraphs (5 sentences each paragraph. Students must support their responses by citing their sources in the body of the response.(either the text or other reading and learning materials provided in the modules.) Include a reference page for sources cited. 1. Give an example of four of the six fundamental parenting tasks presented in Chapter 1. How are child-rearing practices changing over time, or in what ways do parents differ from one another? What are the sources of those changes or differences? 10 pts 2. Why is the current study of parenting practices described as heterogeneous? 5 pts 3. Select 3 of the major theories of parent child relationships and discuss the strengthens and/or weaknesses of each (10 pts.) 4. What is the definition of a competent child? What characteristics of children make them more resilient so they remain on positive trajectories-despite problems around them? 10 pts 5. Describe the three types of roles parents can have with their children’s developmental trajectories. Give an example of each. 10 pts 6. Identify three central parental characteristics that are related to child rearing. Provide an example of each. 5 pts 7. Identify the four well documented stable child characteristics that are determinants of parenting. 5 pts 8. Discuss some of the factors involved in transitioning to parenthood? Why might marital satisfaction tend to decrease after the birth of a child. What family processes are at work? (10pts) 9. Where does America rank among other nations in with regards to infant mortality? What accounts for that ranking and how can it be reduced. 5 pts 10. What can parents do to promote their child’s brain development? Provide two examples at each age period. Finally, name the three key brain processes. 5pts 11. Discuss some of the behaviors involved in forming healthy attachments with a child. 5 pts 12. Identify three family characteristics that increase the risk of child behavior problems. 5 pts.. 13. Describe how parents act to ensure their child’s academic success 5 pts 14. Are all children negatively affected by marital conflicts? What behavior changes can occur after a divorce? What are some of the variable that reduce or exacerbate the effects on children (10 pts)
Quiz 1 in parenting toda1

Miami Dade College For The Elderly Being Heard About Lifes End Questions

Miami Dade College For The Elderly Being Heard About Lifes End Questions.

It has been said, that the cost to Medicare and even to society in general of healthcare of the elderly in this country is “way out of line”. The actual spending of healthcare on the elderly constitutes approximately 1/3 of the total healthcare expenditures on less than 20% of the population. This would imply that more money is spent on time taking care of the elderly than any other age group.Instructions:Read the article, ‘For the Elderly, Being Heard About Life’s End’ (Link listed below)Answer the questions as thoroughly and concisely as possible:Is the myth of the elderly true?Are all the elderly sick, all the time, or are the physicians taking advantage of a government-run system in order to make more money?Is this a warning to all of us before the great gray surge becomes worse that healthcare will be impossible to provide to all of the elderly?https://learn-us-east-1-prod-fleet02-xythos.conten…
Miami Dade College For The Elderly Being Heard About Lifes End Questions

Econ (Macro) 300 Word Discussion

Econ (Macro) 300 Word Discussion. I’m stuck on a Economics question and need an explanation.

Government Price Controls

Please respond to the following prompt:
In chapter 4 we learn about price floors and price ceilings. In the labor market, the minimum wage is a price floor. Like every price floor, the minimum wage causes a surplus. A surplus in the labor market is called “unemployment”. Those who are unemployed as a result of the minimum wage are represented on the supply curve (workers are sellers in the labor market) just to the left of the equilibrium quantity. Because of the price ceiling, this equilibrium is never reached…
Like any price floor, the minimum wage benefits the sellers in the market (the workers in this case). This can be seen as increased producer’s surplus. The price floor is bad for the employers because they are required to pay a higher price for labor. Higher labor costs are then passed on to customers.
So it seems that there are some significant trade-offs associated with our minimum wage laws. Basically we are trading efficiency (losing surplus/ creating dead weight loss) for equity (higher wages for the working poor.) We know that optimal decisions are made at the margin (from chapter 1), so let’s do some marginal analysis:
Marginal Benefit of Minimum Wage Laws:

Low skilled workers get paid more than they otherwise would.

Marginal Costs of Minimum Wage Laws:

Additional unemployment is created because employers hire fewer people (due to increased labor costs.)
Consumers pay higher prices than they otherwise would (due to increased labor costs.)
Firm owners are clearly worse-off.

So, is it worth it? Should we have minimum wage laws? Please take a position on the issue and support it with internet research (post a link to at least one article or website that passes the (Links to an external site.)CRAAP Test (Links to an external site.)). Then, please respond to the position of at least two classmates, and use research evidence to try to convince the individual (and the class) that you are correct.
Econ (Macro) 300 Word Discussion