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ethical-Diversity in the Nursing Workforce

ethical-Diversity in the Nursing Workforce. Can you help me understand this Nursing question?

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A group of nurse educators are having a discussion about the minority student nurses. The nurse educators believe that there are numerous barriers to minority student success in nursing education. The nurse educators want to develop strategies to increase the success rate in graduation of these students.
1. The nurse educators make a list of the barriers that exist for minority student success. What are common barriers for minority student success?
2. The group of nurse educators is acutely aware that different generations are represented in nursing today. These different generations have different attitudes and value systems, which greatly affect the settings in which they work.
a) What are the key characteristics of the four generational groups that are present in today’s workforce?
3. Analyze and describe how the different generations present in nursing today affect nursing care and the nursing workplace.
ethical-Diversity in the Nursing Workforce

The color purple is Alice Walker’s book and it talks about trials and challenges Celie who is the main character goes through in her struggle to get united with Nettie her sister. They lived separated for quite some time but still their love was permanent and it prevailed against all odds. The story is set up in the first half of the 20th century in Macon county Georgia. A major part of the story occurs in the community of the backs but we have some parts in areas dominated by the whites. The story explores the Africa American woman’s identity and how bonding with fellow women and embracing her identity affects the whole community’s health (Bates, 2005, p. 24). Alice Walker illustrates a difference between the roles of women in the black slavery and in the 20th century from the way she portrays the relationship between Albert and Celie and also through the experiences Nettie goes through in the Olinka tribe. According to Austin (1990), Celie together with other women in the story do a lot of slave-like labour that other men like Albert force them to do. Throughout the story the women have to obey whatever they are told to do by the men and whenever they deviates from this, very hash repercussions follow up (p. 67). This does not do any good to the image of the women fork. They are portrayed to be very inferior creatures who can not think on their own and therefore have to be told whatever to be done. Its like the men are the slave masters and the women are the slaves. The men are therefore considered to have an upper hand over the women. The women of the Olinka tribe in the 20th century had the same roles as women of America in the same period no matter how special or extreme they might be. Africa is described by Miss Beasley who was Nettie’s teacher as being a place full of savages with no clothes on. This statement portrays Africa as a very poor and dirty place and it foreshadows an area where people would be treated as less important. According to Hein
Difficulties encountered in performance review conversations Most managers in the contemporary human resources environment experience a challenge to failing to assess actual performance by focusing on individual and personal attributes, which may lead to a biased view in communicating performance review needs. Generally, the objective of effective performance review conversation is a common understanding between employee and employer, and as such, a manager should be honest enough when conversing with employees about issues related to goal achievement, promotion, mobility, rewards, and layoffs, among the others. The nature of communicating performance appraisal is also complicated by the fact that it is done infrequently, thus failing to address the emerging issues. According to Heinke, DVM, EA, CPA,
Introduction: Telenor is by far the highly regarded and best considered company of Norway. It shows the History of Norway and the people living there. In the last 15 years the Norway society is linked with the telecommunication and its development has marked the development of Norway. In the start of the telecommunication the Telenor was the driving towards success and it was used to embark success of Telenor. Now Norway is the largest market of telecommunication. Pioneer in mobile communications: Telenor is the first company which introduced the mobile communication. In 1966 the manual mobile communication was first time introduced in Norway it was the saviour of NMT system which was automatic and appeared in 1981. Then in 1993 the GSM was introduced which is regarded as the latest technology in Telecommunication. In 1994, Norwegian Telecom was established as a public corporation. One year later, it changed its name to Telenor. In December 2000, Telenor was partly privatized and listed on the stock exchange. …and expands internationally Telenor spread far and wide in very short time and become the leading mobile service provider It goes international and now across continent and has it services in around 12 countries. Now the vision of Telenor Vision: Telenor subsists to help out customers get the complete assistance of communication services in their daily lives. Telenor’s vision and values have a specific definition with a clear approach for all their workers and colleagues locating out how Telenor do business at Telenor. They offer a essential guide for taking complete care of their customers. Together they set the standard for how Telenor work in order to create sustainable value for their shareholders, customers, employees and partners. Mission Statement Telenor aim on, Empowering Customers Local approach – global expertise Working closely with the shareholders COMPANY information as of 2009 Type Public Founded 1855 Headquarters Fornebu, Norway Key people CEO: Jon Fredrik Baksaas, Chairman: Harald Norvik Industry Telecommunication Products Telephony and broadband Revenue â-² 92.5 billion NOK Operating income â-² 15.0 billion NOK Net income â-² 18.0 billion NOK Employees 35,800 Website http://www.telenor.comValues: Telenor’s values are a constant reminder to them of how Telenor should serve all its customers around the world. They inspire to be a driving force in modern communications and customer satisfaction. 1-Explain how applications can be screened from the pool of applications and relate this with your selected organizations procedures. (Criteria P14.1.1) Applications are shortlisted from pool of candidates based on relevant experience and area of specialization. Short-listing must be completed based on the person specification. New criterion cannot be introduced to consider the candidates at this phase as it would be unfair. It is the Manager’s liability to complete the short-listing and to make certain the process remains free of unlawful inequity. It is enviable that a second person from the board also participates in the short-listing process. This may include the following. Tests include: Attitude Test Common personality test Emotional stability test(Psychological Interviews) Telenor is one of the leading recruiters in recent past. The candidates are recommended to create a profile on the website of Telenor. Then the relevant posts are recommended to the candidate’s sp that they can apply online. Telenor provides a facility to the candidates to subscribe an email notification for the relevant area of interest. So whenever any situation is vacant an automatic email is generated to the candidate so he may apply online. After the applications are received, The HR members of Telenor start sorting out the candidates. The profiles of the managers get the list of candidates who have applied for some specific post. First of they shortlist the candidates by eliminating the candidates with some non relevant area of specialization, after that they pick out the most relevant members and shortlist them. This is the most latest and impressive way of short listing candidates from a pool of candidate. 02-Explain the methods for selection when recruiting employees for organization and relate this with your selected organizations procedures and Explain what selection process is following by your company. (Criteria P14.1.2) and (Criteria P14.1.2) Methods for Selection: Following are some of the methods of Selection that most of the organizations use during recruitment process. Preliminary Interview Selection Tests Employment Interview Reference and Background Analysis Physical Examination Job Offer Employment Contract Most of the organizations review there current job opening and then design selection process in order to keep the flow. Following points are usually assessed before designing a selection process. • Make sure that there is a need for that job in the organization and organization have proper funding for it. • Job description must be updated and have all the issues covered for future requirement. • The person hired must have all the necessary requirements for its job • Proper selection process followed • Fair and square short listing should be done. • Validate references, qualifications and security clearances Managers hold the liability for makes sure this agenda is followed. HR is accessible for advice and will assist in general administration of the recruitment process. Selection Method for Telenor Telenor is a big organization and they have a regular need for employees. Sometimes they have ample time to follow complete selection process but most of the time they have to quickly go through selection process. They have an online portal system which help them speed up the process of selection. They usually announce there posts online and then short list the candidates those who fullfill the criteria and then call them for the interview. If the position is of some important nature then a test is conducted and if there would not be any need for the test then two panel interviews are conducted by the members of the organization HR Team. Hence after that a medical test is being conducted to make sure emotion and physical stability of employees. In this way the selection at Telenor is done. 03-Explain what are the Legal, Regulatory and Ethical, considerations to be considered during the selection process and relate this with your selected organizations procedures. (Criteria P14.1.3) Every organization has its own roles and procedures to follow to make the work better and goo looking. The legal, regulatory and Ethical issues always remain a concern for the HR members of the organization. So a good recruitment policy must follow following points in order to bring a good ethical recruitment policy. A good recruitment policy Complies with government policies Provides job security Provides employee development opportunities Is ethically fair Ensures its employees long-term employment opportunities Cost effective for the organization Recruitment and selection procedures must comply with the Telenor’s Diversity Policy. According to the international labour laws and organization rules and procedures act. Some specific laws are defined to make sure a smooth flow of the work progress in which every employee gets equal opportunity to grow. This procedure incorporates compliance with the following legislation: • The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 • The Race Relations Act 1976, along with the Race Relations Act 1976 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 • The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 • The Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003 • The Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations 2003 Additional legislation that requires observance during the recruitment and selection process is: • The Asylum and Immigration Act 1996 • The Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974 (Exemptions Order 1975 and Amendment Orders 1986) • The Data Protection Act 1998 Ethical Issues: Ethically this is the responsibility of any organization to make sure that the applicants must be handled without any favouritism and they must be given opportunity to show there strength before making the final decision. There must be no personal grudges while doing the recruitment for some post and every cast is given full support. Telenor’s Point of View Telenor Pakistan acts responsibly and respectfully towards the people and authorities in different societies and aims to contribute to social and economic development in the local market. This is the essence of our commitment to Corporate Responsibility. 04- Define knowledge, skills and experience and Explain why mix of knowledge, skills and experience is important for a team to fulfil its functions. (Criteria P14.2.1) Knowledge – Is a body of information applied directly to the performance of a function. Skill – Is an observable competence to perform a learned professional act. Experience – Is competence to perform an observable behavior or a behavior that results in an observable product. Knowledge Skill and Experience are three main factors that help any organization to fulfil its functional needs. It is a common belief that when these three factors are satisfied then we say that the organization is progressing and the employees are suitable fort the growth of organization. A KSE, or Knowledge, Skills, and Experience, is a series of narrative statements that are required when applying to Federal government job openings. KSE’s are used to determine, along with resumes, who the best applicants are when several candidates qualify for a job. The knowledge, skills and Experience (KSE’s) necessary for the successful performance of a position are contained on each job vacancy announcement. 05-Explain the methods of motivating the team members and why it is important (Criteria P14.2.2) Following are the features that are being used by Telenor to keep there employees and team members motivated. Meanwhile these are the main factors that every big organization uses to keep there employees motivated. A strong team builder There are different programmes for the team building which then gives the employees an opportunity to grow as a future leader. The employees feel confident and manage day to day activities according to the desired demands of management. In this way the employees get there own values and results which help them make the way easy. People management Telenor development process gives and opportunity to employees to become leader in life they help them learn how to manage people and make some changes in there style of living so that they can adapt the changes of different working environment easily which then provides a proper outcome. Global perspective of Motivation: In all the big organizations there are some of the common features which are adopted by managers to keep their employees motivated, some of them are as follows. Telling consequences, making sure they are having pleasure at work, give them performance incentives. Along-with this they must give those detailed instructions and the short and long term goals are mentioned with deadlines. There must be a team spirit and goal must be recognized. Top management must have trust and respect in their employees and time to time create challenges so the people be creative and constructive criticism should be there to demand improvement – 06-Explain the importance of team member’s relationship and how your selected organizations team member’s relationship helps the organization to achieve their goals. (Criteria P14.2.3) Every team must have some common interest in there goals so that they may have self assessment to find out there strength and weaknesses. A team may go aboard on a process of assessing to estimate its success and improve its performance. In order to do this the team members must have a constant link between there different levels so that they could find out there strengths and weakness. The relationship between different team members must be developed so that they may bring out best out of them and keen to work in a friendly environment. The organization must develop a mechanism to make sure that he team members help them eliminate the mistakes and bring best out of them. Only a relationship building can bring some best outcomes from a team. Telenor have a keen interest to work in team building and they show there interest so that the assessment is done fair and without any mishaps. A prepared teambuilding sketch is a good tool to execute team bonding and thus, team awareness. This is cone in Telenor because of internal assessment of the employees. It is in the vision and Mission of Telenor to bring best outcome through working in team and relating the goals with the incentives. This helps them promote the culture of friendly relationship among employees. 07-How the team members can be motivated to develop their roles during the team assignment and relate this with your selected organizations procedures. (Criteria P14.2.4) In recent past there was a lot of research being undertaken to make sure how the best possible can be bring out of the employees. The members think that the organizations always pass through five different stages to make their employees motivated. Stage 1 – First stage is about the team formation and the employees think of some common features among different team members. In this stage the employees cam to know about different challenges and opportunities in the task ahead. Some goals are set and the ambition is defined to make them achieve. In this stage the leader is role model and works with the team for some type of training to keep them motivated. Stage 2 – when they start working in the team there is some time taken to understand different corners of the mindset. This is the stage where some conflicts develop and the team members think of some way to find out the similarities among them. Stage 3 – Third stage is the most important where each member try to convey the best message to the others some mutual understanding is developed and the goals are defined with some vision and a purpose of task ahead bring to picture. Stage 4 – this stage is after effect of self assessment and the team motivation the employees bring some unique features and help themselves to assess the negatives and bring positive out of them. This help the team members to make some progress towards their goal and make some interdependence in behavior. Stage 5 – This is the final stage of team building where the employees ripe the fruit of their success and this is the time where the performance is measured and the continuous achievement is rewarded. This is the time to celebrate the outcome of the common goals and bring fresh changes to the employees to bring best out of them.. Time and attempt are required to move through the various team expansion stages. Every team will go through all the stages. However the timeline of each stage may be different for each team depending on the person member and their skill levels, the work the team is expected to complete, and team leadership during each stage. In all the big organizations there are some of the common features which are adopted by managers to keep their employees motivated, some of them are as follows. Telling consequences, making sure they are having pleasure at work, give them performance incentives. Along-with this they must give those detailed instructions and the short and long term goals are mentioned with deadlines. There must be a team spirit and goal must be recognized. Top management must have trust and respect in their employees and time to time create challenges so the people be creative and constructive criticism should be there to demand improvement 08-Define the empowering concept and explain why empowering the team members is important to develop their own way which enables them to work independently. Empowerment refers to enlargement of an employee’s job responsibility by giving him the authority of decision making about his own job without approval of his immediate supervisor. It is multi-dimensional in that it occurs within sociological, psychological, economic, and other dimensions. Empowerment also occurs at various levels, such as individual, group, and community. Social process, since it occurs in relationship to others. Empowerment is a process that is similar to a path or journey, one that develops as we work through it. Empowering employees is not only important for any organizations progress but also it is necessary to impart them effect of employee’s personal capabilities on the success of organization. It is the strategy which follows the rules of management and philosophy that enables employees to make decisions about their jobs. Employee empowerment brings out of employees to own their work and take responsibility for their results and helps employees serve customers at the level of the organization where the customer interface exists. Georgia Power Company Explain the important leadership styles and identify the leadership style of Georgia Power Company. (Criteria P14.3.1) Managers often show some unique attitudes which result in their management styles and on the basis of these the researchers have developed these 6different management styles. Coercive Style It is the mostly used style in which managers have control over there subordinates. This seems to be simple and the management uses it to lead the team because there is only one path to follow in this. Due to lack of autonomy the managers who are new to the system and are not much confident about there senior’s attitude often fails. The most common and obvious drawback of this style is that the managers fail to motivate their subordinates and hence the employees and workers don’t give desired output this style is only applicable where juniors don’t have much knowledge and decision power. Authoritative Style This one is the bureaucratic style of leadership most of the researchers don’t like it but this seems to be very effective in some cases as this yields very fruitful results in some situations. The leader often asks its subordinates to come with him and do what is to be achieved and hence in this way the employee gets some advantage to take his own path towards goal. Affiliation Style This type of leadership style shows the affiliation in work. Mostly this type of leadership styles fails as the work is sidelined and the negatives are not mentioned which then leads to the poor results and outcomes. The affiliations just show that the work is right in order to motivate employees and not the wrong side of the picture which leads in poor command and control. The Democratic Style The research shows that the style is not the same as the name shows like it means some time of democratic nature. This gives workers authority to bring there own views and ideas and shows some flexibility to get the better results just as the democratic leaders do. This has negative effect that the employees feel that there is no clear direction and become confused moreover it would also lead to mix of attitudes from the employees. The Pace setting Style Pace setting is unique style in which the leader becomes Example for his colleagues and then shows them the direction to come up with self motivation and thus yield better result. There is a bad thing that the employees would be overwhelmed by the attitude of the leader and would not give his 100%. Coaching Style In this type of style everyone is the leader of his own self. This style is by far the best one in which the thing which the employees would have to perform would be defined and they get training to do that tasks. Hence the leader would just have to look after the work and bring positive out of his employees. The Georgia Power Company has the mix of the leadership styles in 1995 when they first time introduced teams and then tried to make it the part of winning team they tried to develop relationship building in there teams hence they used mix of democratic and Coaching style along with the goal setting theory. The managers tried to make the pace of the work in limit but ensure that the work is done in best interest of the organization. This management team took a key development step in 1996 by setting expectations for their behaviour and presenting them to their organizations during reviews of the 1996 plant strategic plan. Putting these expectations “on the record” built incentives to act accordingly. Hence they set the goals for there employees which in turn provide them best output to bring out the best results. 10-Explain the importance of communicating the Visions, Goals and Values to colleagues and how Georgia Power Company apply this concept to achieve their objective? (Criteria P14.3.2) It would be very difficult for everyone in a carpool to make a decision on whether to turn right, left or go straight at the next intersection if each was headed for a different destination. If they’re all going to the same place, they may have different ideas on which way to turn and exactly how to get to where they’re going. Hence the Visions, Goals ad Values are important for any organization to provide a framework to its employees to relate their path with there goal. This is similar to the one may like the scenic route, another knows about road construction that should be avoided, a third may want to take a shortcut and arrive early, a fourth may need to run an errand along the way. Since their destination is the same, even though there is diversity in their ideas, they should be able to reach a consensus decision on the route to take based on information provided by each. Likewise in a business it’s difficult or impossible to agree on strategic or even tactical decisions if everyone in the business ∼ owners, managers, family members, employees ∼ are not all headed in the same direction, toward the same mission and vision. If a family, a business, or a team doesn’t have a common direction ∼ mission, vision and core values ∼ arguments will occur surrounding nearly every decision and agreements may be impossible. Developing shared mission, vision and values is the first step in laying a foundation for making strategic and tactical decisions that will move the business forward. Having them in place won’t eliminate arguments and disagreements, but at least the disagreement will be about how to best get to the same endpoint as opposed to heading in opposite directions. At the Georgia Power Company as the plant mangers considered the requirements for the future, he determined that the structure, processes, and the culture of the plant would need to change. Therefore, top management must change how it operated, hence they started to conveying there mission goals and values to broaden capabilities at all levels. Processes were needed to manage decision-making risk and gain consensus on direction. A new organizational structure was one of the early steps in their transformation. The structure provided an “outside in” focus – identifying the operations function as the primary internal customer, and grouped plant activities into several functional areas. 11-Explain how Georgia Power Company teams motivates their colleagues? (Criteria P14.3.3) In 1995 when Georgia Company started thinking towards team building there main purpose was to make sure that he teams are designed in such a way that they get motivation which would then lead them in future goal setting. The plan managers though that changing the boxes on the organization chart were not sufficient for real change. Then they took the step towards becoming a team when they came together at a facilitated off-site meeting. They clarified individual roles and responsibilities on this new team and began developing teams relationships this was their first step towards employee motivation and hence increasing the relationship among teams. Then they agreed that the role of each leadership-team member should be one of “shared responsibilities with a functional focus”. The top management role was reduced due to this new era of change management. In fact, managers were required to consider the impact of their decisions-not only on the total plant but also on the total operating system of the southern Company. Hence to motivate the employees each member was given the responsibility to champion specific transformation activities for the leadership team. The team began to have regular one-day session meetings where they discussed and made decisions on the strategic and operational issues. This management team took a key development step in 1996 by setting expectations for their behaviour and presenting them to their organizations during reviews of the 1996 plant strategic plan. Hence it was another step towards building a team and then making them realize there importance in goal setting which in turn helps the get motivated. 12-Elaborate the importance of changes within the organization and how Georgia Power Company implements the change? (Criteria P14.3.4) The parent organization, Sothern Company, implemented a transformation process to improve the plant’s ability to complete the goals. This transformation process required an emphasis on business results at all levels and creation of an organization culture that could deal with uncertainty and competition. Following were the steps in the process of change at Georgia Power Company. The structure, processes, and the culture of the plant would need to change. A new organizational structure was one of the early steps in their transformation Identifying the operations function as the primary internal customer, and grouped plant activities into several functional areas. To improve the capabilities of the management team Thy determined that the structure, processes, and the culture of the plant would need to change. Which shows the main focus was on the future success, for this purpose they formed different teams under the supervision of 9 top managers. These processes were needed to manage decision-making risk and gain consensus on direction. A new organizational structure was one of the early steps in their transformation. They clarified individual roles and responsibilities on this new team and began developing team’s relationships. They agreed that the role of each leadership-team member should be one of “shared responsibilities with a functional focus”. Top managers at the plant could no longer make decisions from only their own departments’ view. In fact, managers were required to consider the impact of their decisions-not only on the total plant but also on the total operating system of the southern Company. Each member took on the responsibility to champion specific transformation activities for the leadership team. The team began to have regular one-day session meetings where they discussed and made decisions on the strategic and operational issues. This management team took a key development step in 1996 by setting expectations for their behaviour and presenting them to their organizations during reviews of the 1996 plant strategic plan. Putting these expectations “on the record” built incentives to act accordingly. Hence the team building brought positive changes as they found out in 1996 that the performance of these teams were fruitful and they maintained a positive approach towards the future planning. For the assessment of the changes the team also used various assessment instruments to understand and deal with the different individual styles of team members. Each team member discussed his or her assessment in an open forum. Each team member also formulated his or her own development plan based on these and other assessment. These steps made the way for improving team performance and hence they found out positive results. 13-Explain the importance of empowering, and how Georgia Power Company empower their staffs to achieve the organization objectives? (Criteria P14.3.5) Empowering employees is not only important for any organizations progress but also it is necessary to impart them effect of employee’s personal capabilities on the success of organization. It is the strategy which follows the rules of management and philosophy that enables employees to make decisions about their jobs. Employee empowerment brings out of employees to own their work and take responsibility for their results and helps employees serve customers at the level of the organization where the customer interface exists. However, at Georgia Power Company plant management knew that simply changing the boxes on the organization chart was not sufficient for real change. In the summer of 1995, the plant manager and nine other employees took their first step toward becoming a team when they came together at a facilitated off-site meeting this was done to bring such changes in the organization which in turn empower the employees and give them decision taking power. They clarified individual roles and responsibilities on this new team and began developing team’s relationships. They agreed that the role of each leadership-team member should be one of “shared responsibilities with a functional focus”. Top managers at the plant could no longer make decisions from only their own departments’ view. In fact, managers were required to consider the impact of their decisions-not only on the total plant but also on the total operating system of the southern Company. Hence in this way the management got the advantage of the empowerment and enabled employees to make decisions in the best interest of the organizations. 14-Explain how objective setting techniques and process help to plan or analyse work activities. (Criteria P14.4.1) Management by Objectives (MBO) is a process of defining objectives within an organization so that management and employees agree to the objectives and understand what they are in the organization. The purpose of objective setting is to determine key achievement results, desired by an enterprise or other group in support of its vision and/or mission, to determine key achievement results for a change project to measure progress and/or to evaluate accomplishments, and to facilitate goal setting. The benefit of objective setting is that common objectives facilitate consensus and provide a focus for taking action. Objectives also provide a way to measure progress (“…if you do not know where you are going, how do you know when or if you got there…”). The more wider the participation in setting the objectives, the greater the commitment and motivation to achieve them. Accountability to the objectives’ measures is also enhanced. At the Georgia Power Company each member took on the re

The Defence Medical Services Organisational Change Programme Economics Essay

In 2005 the Defence Medical Services embarked on a number of transactional strategic development change programmes to introduce the new Defence Medical Information Capability Programme (DMiCP) [1] as an innovation enhancement to the Egton Medical Information System (EMIS) which had been in use for some 10 years. These Information Technology (IT) systems will be further referred to as Health Information Technology (HIT) for the purposes of this assignment. There is a general consensus that changes in IT capability are primarily driven by the expectations of improved capability, reduced operating costs and increased flexibility (Boer

Polycrystalline Ceramics: Sub Grain Structure

best assignment help Polycrystalline Ceramics: Sub Grain Structure. Pure un-doped zirconia is a polymorph which has three allotropes namely: Monoclinic, Tetragonal and finally Cubic. These phases tend to transform into each other when exposed to certain temperature ranges and such transformation is important for the processing and mechanical properties of zirconia. The monoclinic phase of pure un-doped zirconia is stable at room temperature and remains so up to about 11700C, where it then transforms into tetragonal phase. It becomes stable tetragonal at this temperature and remains so up to 23700C, where it turns to cubic. The cubic phase occurs up to the melting temperature of 26800C. Monoclinic phase The monoclinic form also referred to as baddeleyite, is a thermodynamically stable phase at a temperature range between room temperature and approximately 9500C. It contains four ZrO2 molecules per unit cell and has a space group of P21/c. Figure 2.1 shows the lattice parameter of monoclinic form. Its structure is described as a distorted fluorite (CaF2 structure). It is difficult to define the crystal structure of monoclinic zirconia because of its complexity as well as the problem of making a monoclinic single crystal with the satisfactory qualities due to: micro-cracking, low purity, twinning and disproportionate solid solution formation. Tetragonal phase This is a high temperature phase (t) firstly discovered by a group of scientist during its transformation from the lower temperature monoclinic phase over a temperature of about 11500C. Figure 2.1 shows the lattice parameter of tetragonal form. The structure is similar to that of monoclinic polymorph in the sense that it is also distorted CaF2 structure. Hence, tetragonal zirconia (t-ZrO2) can be described using the face centred tetragonal Bravais lattice as oppose to the body centred tetragonal lattice, that contains a unit cell with volume twice the size of the primitive cell. (3) Figure 2.2b shows a simple schematic of a tetragonal unit cell. Its structure comprises of eight oxygen ions surrounding a zirconium ion, with half at a distance of 0.2455nm forming an elongated tetrahedron and the remaining four are at a distance of 0.2065 forming a flattened tetrahedron (the elongated and flattened tetrahedron are rotated 900 to each other). The transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic can start (Ts) and finish (Ts) over a range of temperatures. This reaction can be measured using the following experimental techniques: DTA, XRD and dilatometry. (3) Cubic phase Unlike the other structures, the cubic polymorph is quite easy to explain as it has a fluorite structure (CaF2). Figure 2.2c shows a simple schematic of a tetragonal unit cell. It has a lattice parameter of the order 0.508nm (this however depends on the temperature purity of zirconia that is partially stabilised zirconia at room temperature or pure zirconia at elevated temperature) and a crystal symmetry of Fm3m. The martensitic transformation For a martensitic transformation to occur, a change in shape is required which must also produce a plane that does not change during transformation. This is so that it is common to the phase produced as well as the parent phase. The phase transformation in zirconia involves a change in volume of between 4 to 5%. The matrix inhibits the transformed particle of zirconia causing a partial shape change. However, the transformation creates a strain which is held in the monoclinic and its surrounding grains. As a result of this, researchers have come up with the idea that transformation stresses are relieved by deformation twinning. When this happens, most of the lattice strain is then restricted to the monoclinic/matrix interface. Micro-cracks can be formed at this matrix/monolithic interface or in the monoclinic particle if this lattice strain increases. The twinning found in monoclinic is caused by deformation twinning, as the researchers have observed using TEM that a section of the strain related with the transformation happens as a result of a mechanism known as slip. (3) The phase transformation particularly from tetragonal to monoclinic is of great importance, as it attributes the zirconia’s excellent properties. [from fulltext.pdf] It was firstly discovered by Garvie et al that the transformation of metastable tetragonal phase to monoclinic phase acts as a toughnening mechanism to crack propagation resistance in zirconia. The transformation is quick and results in a 4 to 5 percent increase in volume which leads to formation of micro-cracks and eventually macro-cracks in the material. This process induces compressive stresses and thus toughens the materials. Gupta et al backed this theory up. Studies showed that the transformation mechanism is highly dependent on grain size and by doping the ceramic material with stabilisers. Examples of stabilisers are yttria (Y2O3), magnesia (MgO), calcia (CaO), etc. Y-TZP ceramics is in the family of these toughened materials. Tetragonal zirconia doped with Yttria (Y-TZP) has great strength of over 1000MPa and toughness weighing between 6 and 10 MPa.m1/2. This makes it an ideal contender in medical applications, particularly in hip joints. ZrO2 – Y2O3 The phase diagram shown in figure 3 was firstly discovered by Scott (1975), this study was agreed and used by many more researchers. The tetragonal phase field is the main aspect of figure 3. It shows that up to about 2.5mol% of Yttria can be produced in solid solution in addition with the low eutectoid temperature leading to the formation of a fully tetragonal ceramic, this will happen as long as the grain is of an appropriate size. The theory of transformation toughening produced some excitement in the materials industry however this excitement came to a halt when Kobayashi et al discovered a flaw in Y-TZP ceramics. Y-TZPs undergoes low temperature degradation during ageing at temperatures ranging from 100 to 4000C, this is particularly enhanced when it is exposed to water or is in humid environments. This degradation is due to the formation of flaws such as micro-cracks and macro-cracks (mentioned earlier) at the surface which gradually goes into the bulk of the material. These flaws are due to the spontaneous transformation from tetragonal phase to monoclinic phase. Material scientists have documented literature regarding the degradation however there have been contradictory views as to the mechanism of this phenomenon. Figure 4 is a graphshowing the low temperature degradation of different types of TZPs. Figure 5 shows ageing temperature against surface monoclinic levels. Some of these researchers focused on the interaction between water (or water vapour) and YTZP, whilst others focused on ways to prevent this from happened. Sato et al came up with a theory where the hydroxyl group from water (H2O) reacts with zirconia from the bonds between zirconia and oxygen (that is Zr-O-Zr bonds) forming Zr-OH bonds at crack tips. This accelerates the rate at which the metastable tetragonal phase transforms to monoclinic at low temperatures. They came up with the conclusion that there is a strain which stabilizes the tetragonal phase, however under certain circumstances it is released and with the combination other pre existing flaws accelerates the transformation. The theory put forward by Yoshimura et al is similar to that of Sato et al in the sense that the Zr-OH bonds are also formed. However, the reaction process which leads to the same outcome is what differentiates the two theories. Their research showed a comparison of the transformed monoclinic phase to the untransformed tetragonal ZrO2. Hydroxyl (OH-) was in the monoclinic ZrO2 whereas there was no trace in the latter. Due to their findings, they came up with the theory that the degradation process occurred in stages: upon exposure to water, Zr-OH bonds are formed as a result of H2O being adsorbed on the YTZP surface. This creates a stress site which builds up as the OH- ions diffuse through the surface and lattice causing the formation of nucleation sites for the phase transformation. This occurs until the stress reaches crack level causing the transformation to occur at the surface leading to the formation of micro and macro cracks all the way through to the bulk. Lange et al [7] witnessed α-Y(OH)3 crystallites of about 20 – 50 nm in size forming and came up with the idea that the hydroxide formed creates a monoclinic nuclei by removing Yttria from the grains of the tetragonal phase on the surface. As Yttria is being withdrawn, growth of the nuclei continues until a critical size where it will grow spontaneuously, leading to the transformation of tetragonal grains to monoclinic. Micro cracks and macro-cracks begin to occur as the transformed grain gets large enough. This process happens over and over again as the micro and macro-cracks act as a site for water molecules to penetrate into to the grains. This process occurs only if the grains are larger than the critical size. However, if they are smaller, the transformation will be influenced by the diffusion of Yttria on the surface. Other researchers such as Winnubst and Burggraf support this theory, as they found traces of Yttria on surface layer of the YTZP specimen. Their specimen was exposed to temperature of 1770C in a nitrogen environment for over 5hrs and using an auger electron microscope, they found a yttrium rich surface layer. The listed theories were based on YTZP’s mechanism during degradation. Whalen et al identified that the reason for this degradation is the spontaneous transformation from tetragonal phase to monoclinic phase at the surface which then eventually spreads to the bulk. They came up with the idea of stabilising the tetragonal phase. This could be done by either of the following two methods: the chemical factor which is increasing the stabiliser content on the surface or the microstructural solution which is reducing the grain size at the surface. The latter was decided upon and this was done by the process of post sintering grinding followed by annealing treatment. 2.45mol% Y2O3/ZrO2 was the material involved in the research. Samples of the material were made using isostatic pressing at pressure of 275MPa and then sintered at a temperature of 15000C for a time period of 2hrs. A 2mm disk was formed of which its two sides had different surfaces treatments, One side being polished and the other being surface grounded. The phase compositions at surfaces were then examined using XRD. The XRD result indicated there was a significant difference in the phase composition of both sides. The ground side showed little transformation change whereas there was 50% increase in monoclinic phase after annealing. This provided evidence that the ground and annealed surface hindered the process of phase transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic at the surface. As a result of this, there were no micro-cracks formed at the surface and hence the expected mechanical properties were achieved. Talk and compare it to mine later (TEM as oppose to XRD, advantages of process) The aim of this project is to provide evidence (if any) of the occurrence of refined grains (recrystallization) in Y-TZP structures as a result of deformation. The ideology used to explain the concept of recrystallization in metals can be used to explain its occurrence in ceramics as this is a new phenomena in the ceramic industry. Grain refinement requires certain conditions in its exposure in polycrystalline ceramics and they are: plastically deforming the material (as a result of applying a stress) and followed by heat treatment. Deformation is basically a change in body shape which occurs as a result of an applied force. Materials may experience either elastic which is impermanent deformation that upon the release of an applied stress is recovered or plastic deformation which is permanent deformation that is non recoverable when a stress is applied. YTZP’s recrystallization behaviour can be explained by its ability to plastically deform. The stress and strain behaviour of a material is used to determine the start and the degree of plastic deformation. Figure 6 shows an example of a typical stress and strain curve. Yield tensile strength is the point at which elastic deformation ends and the material begins to plastically deformation. Most polymers and metals undergo elastic followed by plastic deformation but this is not the case for ceramics. They undergo elastic deformation followed by fracture with little or no plastic deformation. YTZP has superplasticity properties and this nature can be used to explain refinement in its microstructure. Plastic deformation is governed by the movement of large numbers of dislocations. Hindering dislocation motion will increase a material’s strength. Ceramics are inorganic materials held together by both ionic and covalent bonds. The bonding combination results in hindering the motion of dislocations, hence their high strength but brittle behaviour. Dislocation is an important factor in understanding plastic deformation and so certain elements need to be examined in order to understand the concept. Most materials comprise of an arrangement of atoms referred to as a crystal structure (these can either be single or polycrystalline that is having multiple crystals as the name suggests). This project will focus on polycrystalline zirconia, however understanding single crystals help in explaining the behaviour of polycrystalline materials. All crystal structures have flaws that distort the regular arrangement of the atoms. These flaws can either be point defect (that is they may have vacancies or interstitials), surface, line (dislocations) and volume defects. The activities and effects of all these flaws are interconnected thus the importance in the need to understand them. As the dislocations move, they tend to interact with one another however this interaction is a complex as an amount of dislocations (rephrased from pdf). The collective motion of dislocations leads to gross plastic deformation. http://composite.about.com/library/PR/2001/blmpi1.htm Dislocations can either be screw, edge or a hybrid of both. Edge dislocation: in this dislocation, the line of defect is parallel to the shear stress. The dislocation movement is similar to that of a caterpillar in the sense that the motion is in small amounts at a time. Figure 7shows a typical schematic of the motion of dislocations. A is the extra half plane of atoms. As shear stress is applied, the bond between the upper and lower part of B is broken. The extra atom plane of atom A bonds with the lower part of B converting the lower part to an extra half plane. This motion causes the top half to move with respect to the bottom half. Screw dislocation: this is similar to that of edge in the sense that it also occurs with shear stress however, the defect line is perpendicular to the shear stress as oppose to being parallel. Just like the edge dislocation only a minute fraction of bonds are broken at a given time. Although the motions are different, the overall plastic deformation for both dislocations is the same. The primary mechanism that causes plastic deformation in crystals is called slip. As dislocations move across the crystals, they shear the crystals along their planes of motion. Slip System The degree of ease of motion of dislocations is different with in all crystallographic directions and crystallographic planes of atoms. Normally dislocation motion occurs in a preferred plane and within that plane there are specific directions at also which it occurs. The combination of the plane and direction is referred to as a slip system. The plane at which this motion occurs is referred to as slip plane, and the direction is referred to as slip direction. The slip system depends on the crystal structure of the material. Slip will only occur when the value of applied the shear stress exceeds a certain critical value. The mechanism at which slip occurs is different in single crystals that of polycrystalline materials. Schmid defined the critical shear stress in single crystals as shown in figure 9: Deformation is much more complicated in polycrystalline materials as the crystallography orientations of numerous grains have to be taken into account. This orientation is random and therefore causes the direction of slip to vary from one grain to another. Its complexity extends further more to the grain boundaries which acts as barriers to dislocation motion. Twinning is another mechanism at which plastic deformation can occur. The idea of twinning in plastic deformation is to allow further slip to occur by producing changes in plane orientations. It occurs when a fraction of the crystals adopts an orientation that is correlated to the orientation of the rest of the untwined lattice in an exact proportioned way. Figure 10 shows an illustration of an un-deformed crystal with one undergoing slip and twinning. There is a clear difference between slip and twinning. The crystal orientation in a slip is the same above and below the slip plane whereas in twinning differs across the twin plane. More differences is illustrated in figure 11 Slip Twinning Where it occurs Widely spread planes Every plane of region is involved Occurrence On many multiple slip systems simultaneously On a particular plane for each crystal Time required Milli seconds Micro seconds Size (in terms of inter atomic distance) Multiples Fractions. ANNEALING PROCESS LEADING TO RECOVERY, RECRYSTALLIZATION AND GRAIN GROWTH Annealing is a high temperature process that causes changes in a material’s structure, leading to alterations in its properties. When a material is plastically deformed, majority of the energy is dissipated as heat, but a minute fraction is stored in the material as strain energy which is associated with a range of lattice imperfections established as a result of deformation. The deformation process as well as a number of various factors (such as temperature and rate of deformation) determines the amount of energy stored in the material. A reduction in deformation and an increase in intensity of deformation cause a vast increase in the amount of retained energy. The release of stored energy There are two main techniques of releasing the energy retained by a material due to plastic deformation and they are an-isothermal annealing and isothermal annealing. Anisothermal annealing occurs when the material is continuously heated from a lower temperature to that of a higher one (the energy discharged is determined as a function of temperature) whereas, Isothermal annealing occurs when the temperature is constant. The material’s microstructure will undergo either or maybe all of these three restoration processes: recovery, recrystallization and grain growth. The extent of plastic deformation can sometimes determine the mechanisms of recovery and recrystallization. These processes require heat treatment to cause rearrangement of grain boundaries and dislocations. Recovery It is the initial stage of annealing that takes place at the low temperature stage of annealing. As a material is plastically deformed, a minute portion of mechanical energy is stored which exists in crystals as stacking faults, point defects (such defects are interstitials and vacancies) and dislocations. When a material is plastically deformed, it is at a thermodynamically unstable state of higher energy. This is converted to lower energy states by the application of annealing leading to a change in microstructure. There are two process involved in recovery: slip annihilating and polygonization. Slip annihilation occurs when dislocations of opposite signs (that is in the case of edge dislocations, the fusion of the positive and the negative edge dislocation or in the case of screw in which the right hand screw merges with the left hand screw) merge together thereby cancelling each other out. Polygonization is the rearrangement of dislocation after annihilation recovery to a lower energy configuration. During recovery, this strain energy built up is relieved to some extent by dislocation motion, due to enhanced atomic diffusion at high temperatures. Recovery leads to physical properties like thermal and electrical conductivities being recovered to their pre worked states. [ggbk] Recrystallization After recovery, grains are not entirely strain free. That is the energy state of the grains is relatively high. New sets of strain free grains having near equal dimensions in all directions with low dislocation densities are formed. This process is known as recrystallization. This mechanism of producing new equaxed grains is driven by the difference in internal energy between the unstrained and strained material. The process of recrystallization can occur after or during deformation. The manner at which recrystallization occurs is of two kinds which vary with materials. Firstly a continuous manner, at which the microstructure gradually evolves into a recrystallized one or a discontinuous manner at which distinct new grains nucleate and grow Recrystallization after deformation is referred to as static whereas the latter is known as dynamic. The extent at which recrystallization occurs is dependent on two factors namely: time and recrystallization temperature. The temperature at which recrystallization is completed in an hour is referred to as recrystallization temperature. It is usually a third to half the materials melting temperature. The rate at which recovery process occurs is inversely proportional to time (that is it reduces with increasing time). Recrystallization has an entirely different kinetic. During the isothermal annealing, recrystallization starts very slowly then builds up gradually up to a certain point where it slows down. This can be shown in figure 13 In some cases it can be as high 0.7th the melting temperature. An illustration of the relationship between recrystallization temperature and percentage cold work is shown in figure 14. It is understood that as the percentage cold work increases, the recrystallization temperature decreases. Other factors affect the rate and occurrence of recrystallization. The annealing temperature is one of a few factors that have an effect on recrystallization. A materials recrystallization temperature reduces annealing time. The stress applied is another factor both recrystallization and temperature, an increase in stress applied means a lower temperature is required to activate the process. Also, the deformation on the material must be enough to allow nucleation and growth. A process known as grain growth occurs in a polycrystalline material after recrystallization provided the annealing temperature is maintained. The restoration mechanism does not require prior deformation or recrystallization and therefore will occur during annealing in their absence in a polycrystalline material. Grain boundary is the driving force for recovery. Stored energy produced as a result of a material being plastically deformed is released during the process of annealing causing a change in microstructure. This energy released is as a result of various mechanisms due to crystal defect interactions: A decrease in crystal defects due to their reactions with each other. Dislocations with opposite signs interacting causing their annihilation and dislocation loop shrinkage. Relocation of dislocations causing the formation of lower energy configurations such as grain boundaries with low angles. The formation of grain boundaries with high angles. These reactions occur during the restoration process of recovery. After this process, the following can occur: Dislocations as well as point defects being absorbed as a result of the migration of high angle grain boundaries. A decrease in the overall grain boundary area. These micro-structural changes occur during the restoration process of recrystallization and recovery. As a result of these micro-structural modifications, an ideal definition of recrystallization is derived: Along with the micro-structural changes, the properties of the specimen also change correspondingly. Thus, deformation and annealing are important processing methods for producing desired properties of the material by controlling its microstructures. Recrystallization mechanism The start of recrystallization is referred to as nucleation and occurs when dislocations are rearranged so as to form low dislocation density sections that have a high angle grain boundary with great mobility and thus is capable of quick movement over the strained region or recovered matrix. Recrystallization has a low driving force and high grain boundary energies; as a result of these characteristics, thermal variations cannot explain regions surrounded by high angle grain boundaries that are free from defects upon annealing. Therefore, the formation of recrystallized grains does not occur during annealing but previously exists in the deformed state. Three methods can be used to describe nucleation and they are: Movement of high angle boundaries that already exist before annealing: this happens when pre existing grain boundaries move into grains that are highly strained as illustrated in figure 16 this process requires a favourable energy balance between an increase in the overall grain boundary surface and a reduction in stored energy as a result of the removal defects triggered by the migration of the boundary. Movement of sub boundaries (that is low angle boundaries): this model is based on the theory of polygonization where stored energy is reduced during annealing as a result of rearrangement and removal of defects. It occurs when sub grain boundaries besiege regions containing low dislocation densities. Upon formation of sub grains, with the help of sub grain boundary movement, they are able to grow at the expense their neighbouring grains. Dislocations are absorbed by migrating sub boundaries and because of this, their mobility, orientation differences and energies are increased until their transformation into high angle boundaries, thus illustrating nucleation. Sub grains coalescence: this occurs when two neighbouring subgrains merge leading to their crystal lattices coinciding. It is regarded as a slow process but when compared to migration of sub grains is favoured for annealing at low temperatures. it is illustrated in figure 17. In this method, stored energy is reduced leading sub boundaries disappearing, sub grains growing and increase in orientation differences between coalescence groups and their neighbouring sub grains. These lead to the formation of high angle boundaries which move at high speeds and cause the process of recrystallization nucleation. It is vital to identify the fact that the total energy balance that takes the disappearance of sub boundaries into account with the increase and orientation difference is favourable (that is it leads to a reduction in total free energy). This mechanism is illustrated in figure 18. The occurrence of these three models is relatively diverse and they will therefore occur under different conditions. The basic requirement for the occurrence of the movement of pre existing grain boundaries that is the existence of differences in large strain between neighbouring grains is well accepted by researchers. However, there is conflict as to when the mechanisms sub grain boundaries migration and the coalescence of sub grains occur. Researchers believed the coalescence of sub grain boundaries are linked with large dispersion of sub grain angles distribution, relatively moderate strain, and reasonably low annealing temperatures. Whereas the mechanism of sub grain migration is linked with high annealing temperatures, strains that are relatively high and large dispersion in the distribution in sub grain size. Growth of recrystallized regions The basic mechanism causing recrystallization and grain growth is the migration of grain boundaries with high angles. However their driving force is what differentiates them from each other. The energy of the high angled grain boundaries is the main driving force for grain growth whether it being abnormal or normal growth. Whereas that for recrystallization is the energy stored during straining appeared as crystalline defects. In defect free regions that are encircled by boundaries with high angle, recrystallization progresses by enlargement of this nucleus over the non recrystallized medium. Grain growth and recrystallization’s migrating high angle boundary curvature signal is another important factor that differentiates the two. http://asmcommunity.asminternational.org/portal/site/www/AsmStore/ProductDetails/?vgnextoid=a75a7dcbe4e18110VgnVCM100000701e010aRCRD ASM Handbook Volume 14A, Metalworking: Bulk Forming (ASM International) http://www.accuratus.com/zirc.html http://www.totaljoints.info/ceramic_for_total_hips.htm#2 http://www.azom.com/details.asp?ArticleID=940 http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=eUZw4SgqaPYCPolycrystalline Ceramics: Sub Grain Structure

The Privatization or Commodification of Water Research Paper

Introduction For a long time, ethics has been seen as the study of what comprises good and bad conduct which includes the values that influence the conduct. Generally, contemporary culture has given humans unprecedented liberty and prosperity which has necessitated the growth of the concept of ethics. Business ethics on the other hand has existed in the form of reflection on the ethical dimensions of business exchanges and institutions whereby the concept has been understood in two distinctive ways, where one group views it from the background of philosophy while the other group views it from the background of business community (Brenkert and Beauchamp 3). These two approaches are not exclusive, but the philosophical approach appears to be the broader of the two. In all cases, it becomes important to appreciate the fact that moral problems and the process of analyzing them invites different forms of useful analysis. Water forms an essential commodity that ensures continuity of life, though for a long time no systematic way has been elaborated in appreciating its value (Brown and Schmidt 3). For long, people have regarded water as a renewable commodity that has potential to develop without limit. With the larger society utilizing water in different ways such as irrigation, energy and burgeoning urban centers, the reality is now clearer that like just other renewable commodities, water is a finite resource. However, providing answers to modern water problems requires giving answers to questions of value: how should society capture, store or distribute water; at what cost; for whom; and for how long (Brown and Schmidt 4). All these questions are regarded as ethical because just like any other essential resource, determining a fair and just distribution of water has direct effects on human and nonhuman lives and also the systems that sustain them. Commodification of water Borgmann argues that the driving force of the contemporary society is the aspect of commodification which is described as, that vital structure of modern society of the market which conveys a sense of moral censure (Borgmann 143). The author, in reference to Viviana Zelizer, states that, “economic prophets have frequently warned us against global commodification and the loss of the moral-emotional fiber it brings” (Borgmann 144). Using the Marx’s concept of commodification, Borgmann first sees the concept to possess the verb to commodify, which to him is “to draw something from outside the market into the market so that it becomes available for sale and purchase” (Borgmann 144). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Marx looked at the various ways in which capitalism perceived the production of things such as wheat, shoes and clothing out of the hands and circumstances of the farmers, artisan and householders, stripped them of their context of skills and persons, of exchanges and uses and made them into commodities (goods) whose importance was reduced to their price. Moreover, Marx became critical of how labor was being converted into something that could be purchased and sold under conditions that only favored the capitalists and made the workers beggars (Borgmann 144); thus, commodification became purely and totally exploitation. The contemporary discussions continue to see the concept of commodification as contested. In such discussions, the broader agreement has remained that, certain goods such as justice should never be for sale (Borgmann 145). But other goods have continued to draw divided opinions. For a long time, goods at issue in this discussion have generally constituted those in Michael Walzer’s list of items which are subject to ‘blocked exchanges’: 1) Human beings; 2) political power and influence; 3) criminal justice; 4) freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly; 5) marriage and procreation; 6) the right to leave the political community; 7) exemptions from military service, from jury duty, and from any other form of communally imposed work; 8) political offices; 9) basic welfare services like police protection or primary and secondary schooling; 10) desperate exchanges; 11) prizes and honors of many sorts; 12) divine grace; 13) love and friendship; and 14) a long series of criminal sales (Borgmann p.145). The above list can be complete if addition of certain public goods is made. These public goods are; clean air and clean water, safety from crime, basic health care and public lands. The main argument in disfavor of commodification of public goods is that commodification may leads to social injustice, for instance, if education is totally commodified, the children of the poor will get no education or for them, inferior education will be enough (Borgmann p.145). Commodification of water: Public vs. Private debate There exist two debates that continue to dominate the lives of many people concerning the issue of water. For instance, there are arguments whether water services should remain public or go private. One of the arguments “is concerned with practical issues of efficiency and economics, and the other is about principle” (Snitow, Kaufman and Fox p.10). Privatizing water in a country like USA has been a hard venture to undertake. Those opposed to such move include personalities such as Barlow of the Council of Canadians and Tony Clarke of Canada’s Polaris Institute (Snitow, Kaufman and Fox 10). The two have opposed the move to privatize water in principle and they are convinced that private companies should only get involved in narrow areas of infrastructure development but not allowed to have ownership, control or delivery of the basic service. We will write a custom Research Paper on The Privatization or Commodification of Water specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To them, the process or actions of commodifying water is generally wrong in terms of ethics, environmental and social (Snitow, Kaufman and Fox p.10). They are on the view that the process will, “insure that decisions regarding the allocation of water would center on commercial, not environmental or social justice considerations; privatization means that management of water resources is based on principles of scarcity and profit maximization rather than long-term sustainability” (Snitow, Kaufman and Fox 10). Contrary to this position, there is a divergent view which has been adopted by Peter Cook of the National Association of Water Companies who is convinced that if market principles are applicable to other products in the market, then water as a commodity cannot be exceptional. Cook sees nothing wrong or unethical in making profits from water since the money which has been pumped into the business by the investors is used to benefit customers and provide them with services. Cook sums up his position by quoting the bible by stating that, the bible and especially the Ten Commandments have no provision that prohibits people from making profits, and utilities need to be operated as enterprises (Snitow, Kaufman and Fox pp.10-11). To this extent, “the practical debate over who can provide water better focuses on the issues of transparency, efficiency, rates, and sustainability” (Snitow, Kaufman and Fox pp.11).. Indeed, most of these values are possible in public controlled enterprises but far more difficult in private owned enterprises or corporations. Ethical dilemma The essence of water being a commodity that sustains life has drawn conflicting debates and reactions on whether it is ethical to commodify and therefore subject it to market competition principles. This particular confusion has been precipitated by the actions of United Nations to declare that water is a human right that should be accessible to everyone. The question that arises is; are their moral consequences that arise as a result of commodifying water and hence its availability and accessibility largely become determined by market mechanisms? Ethical lapse In most cases, ethical lapse can be categorized into three groups: deception, stealing and harming (Howard and Korver 13). There exists many variants to these but the mentioned three have come out as the most wrongdoings which people commit. Lying has been described in many ways that include: doctor, cover up, overstate, understate, misinform, misguide or stretch the truth (Howard and Korver p.14). additionally, the act of lying has psychological costs, for example, when individuals lie there is always a clash between their values and who they are; lying also creates barriers in relationships and soils self-image of an individual (Howard and Korver p.15). Not sure if you can write a paper on The Privatization or Commodification of Water by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moral reasoning The contemporary society is faced with a situation where people are facing dilemma on various ethical decisions and as a result there have been numerous methods of moral reasoning. Moral reasoning has taken center stage in various social issues as people continue to debate on what is right and what is wrong or what ought to be or not be done. In most cases many people are convinced that it is not necessary the principles which determine what is right or wrong, but the consequences produced by the actions in question (Rae p.81). When a particular course of action or decision produces the best set of consequences, then to majority such actions need to be allowed and accepted. In other words the action(s) that produces the greatest balance of benefits over harms is the one that is considered as the most moral. Generally actions considered right or wrong (morality) should depend on the situation and also on what the cultural consensus of right and wrong is at that time. In the case of commodifying water, if the society and hence culture reaches consensus that water commodification is wrong then it would be morally wrong to commodify or privatize water. Ethical approaches Utilitarianism ethics Utilitarianism ethics postulate that morality of an act is determined by the end result. From this observation, utilitarianism conviction is that the moral choice is the one that produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people or at the same time the moral choice is the course of action that produces more good consequences than harmful ones. Utilitarianism sometimes is regarded as consequentialism ethics due to its emphasis on the consequences of an action. Jeremy Bentham, one of the philosophers credited to utilitarianism believed in hedonistic utilitarianism which postulates that “the most moral acts are those that maximize pleasure and minimize pain” (Rae p.85). On the other hand John Mill, another believer of utilitarianism ethics established his approach which differed from that of Bentham which was general concept of maximizing the general happiness, or what he termed as the greatest good for the greatest number. Hence ethics can be seen as the art of directing the actions of people so as to bring about the greatest possible happiness to all those who are concerned with these actions. As a result, Bentham observed that the interests of the community are simply the sum of the interests of its members. In sum the utilitarianism principle hold that, “an action is right from an ethical point of view if and only if the sum total of utilities produced by that act is greater than the sum total of utilities produced by any other act the agent could have performed in its place” (Fernando p.34). Water commodification can be analyzed within the precepts of utilitarianism ethics where business principles can take a backseat to consequences, if on balance, commodification of water provides more beneficial consequences for more people then utilitarianism ethics consider it to be the most moral choice. Evaluation of actions needs to be made on the basis of benefits or harms the action(s) will bring upon human beings. The morality of the theory is that, individual or an organization performing particular actions need to impartially take into account interests of everyone on equal basis. Kantian ethics Kant was convinced that morality should be derived from recognition that people share a common human condition and what makes humans valuable and special is their ability to reason and that moral rules based on reason should govern human behavior. To Kant moral rules need to be based on tradition, intuition, desire, conscience, emotion and sympathy and that free will among humans comes from their ability to reason and prompts them to develop rules for moral behavior which in turn can be applicable universally disregarding utilitarianism consequences. The moral rules established needs to recognize the fact that all people have a certain human dignity and therefore they should be accorded respect as autonomous beings (Fernando p.35). According to Kant moral ethics, an action is only moral for an individual in a certain situation if, and only if, the individual’s reason for carrying out the action is one that he or she would be willing to have every person act on in any similar situation. At the same time moral worth would not be attached to an action motivated singularly to promote individual interests or for pleasure and that if an action is wrong for other people, it is wrong for any one person. For Kant an action is regarded morally worth if it reflects a good will and it is only when individuals act from duty that their actions are regarded to be moral worth. As a result Kant believes that ethics should be grounded in reason alone and not on human nature (Fernando p.35). Ethicality in commodifying water On November 27 2002, United Nation declared water to be a human right for the first time and went a head to require states to adopt key legal mechanisms that would ensure this fundamental right is achieved (Sierra Club par. 1). From UN observation, the conviction was that privatizing water could not be achieved since it is impossible to marry the profit motive of a private enterprise and the necessity and importance of a commodity like water which many people require in order to survive (utilitarianism). The conclusion is that the issue of rendering water as a private thing should be done away from the market place since water belongs to earth, to all species, to the future generation and in this regard no one has the right to commodify water for personal (deontological) or corporate gain (Sierra Club par. 1). On advancing this claim, the Cochabamba Declaration of December 8, 2000, which brought together interested parties aimed at ensuring the privatization of water, was not achieved (welfare concern). To cement and solidify their claim the group came up with key points to be observed which turned out to constitute the Cochabamba Declaration (Sierra Club par. 4). To the group access to water is the fundamental right of every human and all humans are required to respect nature as they use water given by the earth. The three main points formulated were: Water was described to belong to the earth and also to all species of the world and that water need to be regarded as sacred to life, and from this view the water of the world needs to be conserved, reclaimed and put under adequate protection in order to ensure the future generation is safe; Water was described as fundamental human right and also as a public trust that needs to be guarded by all structures of the government and as a result it should not be commodified, privatized or commercially traded; lastly Water can be best protected by local communities and people and who must be given equal respect as partners of various governments in the process of protecting and regulating water (Sierra Club par. 5). Conclusion Water ethic has developed in many societies as a result of continued efforts by enterprises and corporation to commodifying water. As a result, in most societies specifically the developed ones, water ethics commodification and privatization with marginalized access to water continue to raise key questions such as: Can water be sustainably managed while the global financial institutions and transnational corporations possess the means to do so? How can the empowerment of public and rights of people over water be restored? How can global skills, capital and user practices are reconciled with the need and desire for control over water of local people? Such questions give an impression of how fundamental ethics has become essential in addressing the issue of water commodification. Ethical reasoning in regards to water will ensure proper, efficient and sustainable use of water despite its scarcity in nature. Works Cited Borgmann, Albert. Real American ethics: taking responsibility for our country. IL, University of Chicago Press. 2006. Web. Brenkert, George G. and Beauchamp, Tom L. The Oxford Handbook of Business Ethics. NY, Oxford University Press US. 2009. Web. Brown, Peter G. and Schmidt, Jeremy J. Water Ethics: Foundational Readings for Students and Professionals. NW, Island Press. 2010. Web. Fernando, A. C. Business Ethics: An Indian Perspective. New Delhi, Pearson Education India, 2009. Web. Howard, Ronald A. and Korver, Clinton D. Ethics for the real world: creating a personal code to guide decisions in work and life. MA, Harvard Business Press. 2008. Web. Rae, Scott B. Moral Choices: An Introduction to Ethics. MI, Zondervan, 2000. Web. Sierra Club. Corporate Water Privatization: Water is a Human Right not a Commodity. 2008. Web. Snitow, Allan, Kaufman, Deborah and Fox, Michael. Thirst: fighting the corporate theft of our water. C. A., John Wiley and Sons. 2007. Web.

History homework help

History homework help. The principal goal for this unit is to come up with a solid topic for your research paper. This means first studying your primary source (The Tragedy of Othello, The Moor of Venice), then thinking of a question that examines the work of literature,Come up with a solid topic for your research paper,The principal goal for this unit is to come up with a solid topic for your research paper. This means first studying your primary source (The Tragedy of Othello, The Moor of Venice), then thinking of a question that examines the work of literature and offers an interpretation. You should do some preliminary research to make certain the topic question is viable, i.e., that you will have enough secondary sources (at least two) to write the paper.,A good topic question will propose a theme interpretation and provoke a more complex appreciation of a text., The question may present as a series of questions that examine a theme or character.,Some examples include:, What is the role of race in the play?,Is Othello fully responsible for his deeds?,What is the role of women in the play?,Does Desdemona have choices?,Why does she seem to accept her fate so willingly?,What is the nature of love in this play?,How do Iago’s manipulations work?,Try to preface and develop your question.,If your theme focuses on Othello’s character, ask something like “Considering Othello’s military discipline, and controlled thinking (he requires evidence before he is convinced by Iago), what is the root of the play’s tragedy?,What exactly is Othello’s tragic flaw, The unit is all about finding sources and reading them carefully. You should Bergen Community College Library’s, Literature Guide/Shakespeare, or J-Stor Literature, to find scholarly articles that are relevant to your analysis of, The Tragedy of Othello: The Moor of Venice. You should read and annotate the sources, selecting and underlining parts of the text that you will quote or paraphrase.,You should have at least two secondary sources, both of which will be cited in the Works Cited section of the paper.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,History homework help