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Ethical Considerations in Psychological Research Essay

Ethical considerations of an experiment are the “difficult issues” raised by it that need to be taken into account since nowadays “researchers are bound by both law and conscience to treat their participants ethically” (Kalat, 2014, p. 46). To define the term “ethical treatment,” organizations that are concerned with research (for example, APA) provide relevant guidelines. Also, if a study is carried out in a college, it requires the approval of an Institutional Review Board (Kalat, 2014). As Kalat (2014) points out, psychological research is typically related to minimum risks, but it still needs to take into account certain concerns (p. 46). Possible risks need to be predicted, the confidentiality must be ensured, and all the information about the study must be provided to the participants as the informed consent document. The procedure of obtaining consent from children or mentally impaired people involves both the permission of a guardian and the assent of the participant (whenever possible). Both documents need to be written in the language that a person can understand (Myers, 2011, p. 38-39). To sum up, everything must be done to make sure that participants learn and realize what is going to happen during the study, what their rights are, and how they are going to be protected. If the research is not a high-risk one, a properly written informed consent is the key to avoiding ethical controversy. For more difficult and controversial issues, the intervention of a Board and the case-specific guidelines should be used. It is noteworthy that the development of ethical research guidelines was a gradual one and the research of the past used to be much less thought-out. An example is the notorious Monster Study, a speech pathology research, in which the subjects (orphan children) were exposed to very different treatment: the members of one group received positive comments on their talks and were praised for achievements, and those in the other one were blamed and belittled for any defect or mistake (LeVay, 2014). The study took place in 1939, and it has been compared to the Wolrd War II experiments that were carried out in concentration camps, which were technically crimes committed in the name of science. It is not difficult to understand that experiments like the Monster Study should have never been carried out, but other ethical considerations can be more subtle. For example, nowadays it is considered necessary to explain the purpose of the research to the participants (Myers
Table of Contents The object of Outpatient Checkup and Primary Analysis Subjective Data Analysis Chief Complaints History of Present Illness Review of Systems Primary and Secondary Diagnoses Treatment Plan Conclusion References The comprehensive assessment and prevention of women’s diseases are mandatory medical practices maintained in most healthcare facilities. Such illnesses are complicated by the fact that their consequences may be extremely dangerous, and other systems of the body, as a rule, are also threatened. Infertility is one of the risks that can occur if particular attention is not paid to a certain disease in time. Based on the analysis of the woman’s visit to a medical specialist, it is possible to consider how clinical testing of the body condition occurs, what symptoms manifest, and what treatment plan may be required. The object of Outpatient Checkup and Primary Analysis A 32-year-old woman applies for an appointment with a gynecologist in a public clinic. The main complaints are redness in the vaginal area and occasional bleeding. The patient denies any type of pain but argues that she is concerned about too frequent excreta that does not depend on her menstrual cycle. Despite the absence of obvious symptoms, the woman confirms that she experiences discomfort after sex acts, in particular, itching. She also denies taking any hormonal drugs and mechanical damage to her problem area. According to her, the last time, she was on a gynecological examination about six months ago, and no pathologies were found. Based on the results of the initial examination, a deeper assessment is required for the key cause of the problem to be identified. Subjective Data Analysis Subjective data analysis will be the initial stage of the patient’s comprehensive assessment and subsequent intervention. Based on the information obtained during the survey, the overall picture will be compiled, and further evaluation will be based on the words of the woman. To obtain all the necessary information, the patient’s chief complaints will be heard, and the history of the present illness will be studied. Chief Complaints The patient’s chief complaints are related to suspected problems in the genital area. The woman does not confirm any type of pain; however, she argues that periodic bleeding scares her. Her menstrual cycle is not affected, but during the past few months, she has noted a shift in its schedule. According to the patient, slight redness is observed on the surface of the genitals, and slight itching is felt after sex acts. History of Present Illness For the first time, the woman noticed suspicious bleeding a few weeks ago. According to her, she thought that it was the beginning of her menstrual cycle. Although bleeding did not coincide with the menstruation schedule, the woman did not experience anxiety since she had had shifts before. However, in a few days, the situation repeated, and she felt nervous. Also, the patient remarks that two weeks ago, there was discomfort after a sex act, and slight redness appeared in the genital area. The woman notes that she was examined by a gynecologist about six months ago. Also, she denies casual unprotected sex and argues that she has a husband. Review of Systems Based on the conversation with the patient, she does not complain of discomfort in other systems of the body besides the urogenital. She has no problems with digestion and denies problems with sleep. The woman also notes that she does not experience any weakness that occurs during menstruation. When reviewing her appearance, there is no suspicion of hormonal disruptions, endocrine disorders, or the manifestations of autoimmune diseases. Primary and Secondary Diagnoses After conducting a physical assessment and making relevant tests, it is possible to talk about the problem. Based on the results obtained during clinical tests, the primary diagnosis is cervical ectopia. As Mitchell, King, Brillhart, and Goldstein (2017) note, the typical symptoms of this disease are “discharge, vulvovaginal discomfort, and dyspareunia” (p. e212). Also, according to the woman’s previous checks, no congenital abnormalities were detected. The instability of the menstrual cycle is often a frequent attendant problem. Although in this case, treatment will be simple, it is necessary to take appropriate measures immediately. According to the guideline presented by Parekh, Donohue, Men, Corbelli, and Jarlenski (2017), inaction can lead to cervical cancer, which is a significantly more serious problem. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The secondary diagnosis that is less likely is cervical erosion. In its classic version, infection occurs after any interventions that may damage vaginal tissues. Moreover, the physical examination did not reveal serious inflammation, which is typical for this disease. The woman denies having abortions or surgeries in the area of the uterus. Therefore, despite similar symptoms, the probability of erosion is significantly higher and is proved by tests. Treatment Plan According to the observations, the patient’s ectopia is not dangerous. According to Cotarcea et al. (2016), in this case, after conducting ultrasound monitoring, it is necessary to perform colposcopy and cytology tests. As diagnostic procedures, the vaginal area of ​​the cervix may be stained with preparations containing iodine. Places with pathology remain not colored, and healthy zones become brown. In case of potential complications, laser vaporization can be applied, which, as Younus and Awazli (2018) note, is the effective method of preventing the spread of infection. Further observation is necessary to monitor the state of the disease and the progress of recovery. Conclusion Based on examinations and clinical testing, the patient has acquired cervical ectropia. The tests performed to confirm that the disease does not have a dangerous form. Cervical erosion may be considered a secondary diagnosis due to similar symptoms. As a treatment plan, colposcopy and cytology tests should be performed. Also, the diagnosis may consist of staining the healthy area of the vagina with iodine to isolate the zone of infection. Ultrasound monitoring is an important procedure for determining the severity of the disease and eliminating more dangerous problems, for instance, cervical cancer. References Cotarcea, S., Stefanescu, C., Adam, G., Voicu, C., Cara, M., Comanescu, A.,… Pană, R. (2016). The importance of ultrasound monitoring of the normal and lesional cervical ectropion treatment. Current Health Sciences Journal, 42(2), 188-196. Web. Mitchell, L., King, M., Brillhart, H.,

number of students with learning disabilities have difficulty in reading. Describe evidenced-based instructional strategies that can be used to improve the reading abilities of older students with mild to moderate disabilities. Support your essay with current literature.

number of students with learning disabilities have difficulty in reading. Describe evidenced-based instructional strategies that can be used to improve the reading abilities of older students with mild to moderate disabilities. Support your essay with current literature.. The paper needs to be in APA format, Times New Roman, with 12 point font. The candidate must develop a reference list (see the latest APA guideline) consisting of at least 10 current sources for each question. The sources must be used and cited in the text of your exam. The sources should be of a quality nature (e.g., peer-reviewed journals) but avoid using sources from text books, the popular press, and websites. The candidate must embed the question in his or her response.number of students with learning disabilities have difficulty in reading. Describe evidenced-based instructional strategies that can be used to improve the reading abilities of older students with mild to moderate disabilities. Support your essay with current literature.

Psychology Essays – Parents Corporal Punishment

custom essay Psychology Essays – Parents Corporal Punishment. Parents Corporal Punishment There has been controversy in Australia regarding whether parents should be allowed to use smacking or other forms of corporal punishment (corporal punishment) as a means of behavioural management of children. There have not only been concerns that corporal punishment can be harmful, but also relating to the effectiveness of such a punishment as a means of managing and changing children’s behaviour. Although corporal punishment may be used to produce immediate compliance from the child, there are a number of provisions which must be met in order for compliance to be achieved (e.g., Holden, 2002). Principles of learning can be used to explain the effectiveness of corporal punishment, which involves operant conditioning. However, it is proposed that greater parental education is required to enable parents to facilitate safe and long-lasting behavioural change through the use of alternative disciplinary methods. Firstly it is necessary to define corporal punishment. According to Straus (2001, p.4, as cited in MulvaneyPsychology Essays – Parents Corporal Punishment

Social Work homework help

Social Work homework help. This is a paper that requires the student to focus in Preparation of an Income Statement for The Serious Reader Company. The paper also provides additional information to use in the writing of the assignment.,Preparation of an Income Statement for The Serious Reader Company,Assignment Overview, Preparation of an Income Statement for The Serious Reader Company,The first case of this course provides an opportunity to prepare a segmented variable costing (contribution margin, behavioral) income statement and analyze the information. This is a very small company and the information may seem simplistic at first glance. Don’t forget that numbers and hands-on practice best illustrate many basic accounting concepts.,The Serious Reader Company is a small online retailer operating out of a garage apartment. The owner buys books at garage sales, thrift shops, library sales, and whenever an opportunity arises. The company classifies all books into five categories based on cost of acquisition and estimated sales price. See below for details about books purchased and sold during the last year (20XX).,Price Categories, A B C D E, Units Sold 4,000 1,000 500 400 400, Unites Purchased 6,000 1,200 1,000 1,000 1,000, Resale Price $4.00 $12.00 $20.00 $45.00 $60.00, Cost $0.50 $4.00 $10.00 $20.00 $20.00, In addition to purchasing inventory (used books), the company incurs some operating expenses.,Variable Operating Expenses, Shipping per book $1.50, Common fixed expenses, Internet-related costs $10,000, Travel, etc. $4,000, Advertising $1,000, Other overhead $5,000, Case Assignment, Required:,Computations (use Excel),Firstly, prepare a segmented variable costing (behavioral) income statement for the company in good format., Secondly, prepare a second variable costing statement assuming 90% of all the books in each category purchased were actually sold., Thirdly, prepare a third ,variable costing statement, assuming that the price is increased by 50% for all five categories (use original sales information)., The owner enjoys the used-book business. Any suggestions as how to turn this into a full-time business venture so the owner can quit his other job? Prepare another income statement to support your idea., Memo (use Word),Fourthly, interpret the results from the computations and explain how the information is useful. Write a 4- or 5-paragraph memo to the owner of the business. Start with an introduction and also end with a recommendation. Each of the four or five paragraphs should have a heading.,Short essay to comment on the questions below (use Word). Start with an introduction and also end with a summary or conclusion. Use headings. Maximum length of two pages.,Why do many organizations make the effort to prepare a different type of income statement for internal purposes?, Variable costing is not just about preparing income statements. Provide at least three scenarios in which understanding how costs behave is useful., Assignment Expectations, Each submission should include two files: (1) An Excel file; and (2) A Word document. The Word document shows the  memo first and short essay last. Assume a  knowledgeable business audience and also use required format and length. Individuals in business are busy and want information presented in an organized and also concise manner.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Social Work homework help