Get help from the best in academic writing.

Ethical Arguments on Child Labour

Ethical Arguments on Child Labour. The ethical arguments concerning organizations using suppliers which employ children. For the time being, the number of child labourers exceeds 250 million worldwide. In fact, child labour is defined by the International Labour Organization (2008) as types of work performed by children under 18. In most cases, however, child labour assumes full-time work done by children under the age of 15 that assumes health hazards and virtually excludes obtaining education. The entire situation is worsened by the fact that many suppliers hiring children blatantly disregard international UN conventions on children rights as well as the provisions of applicable national legislations. By ignoring national laws that prohibit child labour under the age of 14, the contracted factories and local suppliers in poor countries actively apply children aged 11-14 to work in sweatshops to manufacture items for such brand names as Primark, Gap, Nike, Wal-mart, Target, Hanes etc for mere 6.5 c. per item (Gorgemans, n.d). The internationally acclaimed clothing retailers conventionally build up their global businesses on contracting factories and suppliers in the developing countries. Therein, local employers apply unethical and illegal practices to the workforce while benefiting the abovementioned global retailers. For a number of times, these organizations were reported as such that are exploiting child labour disregarding set ethical norms and legal regulations. In all cases, the traditional response from the corporate management is limited to the lack of awareness of such unfair instances and injustice applications. This indicates that despite the impacts of pressure groups and advocacy organizations these global brands are unwilling to bear either ethical or legal responsibility for their dishonest employment practices. Fortunately, owing to the enormous efforts of various international pressure groups, the companies like these have recently taken adequate measures to cease unethical applications, particularly those associated with child labour (Gorgemans, n.d). By placing such enforcements, pressure organizations invaluably contribute to the expansion of civil society based on ethical principles of respect, justice and human right priority. In such a way, various pressure groups, media, and youth rights groups are fighting against dishonest companies and their suppliers to protect children from illegal exploitation. Fact is, it is almost impossible to reveal the truth since suppliers are operating in the areas that are difficult to monitor, which enables the latter to conspire their unethical and illegal practices. Whenever the unethical scandals addressing child labour exploitation are revealed, the corporate managers tend to deny their awareness of such illegal happenings allowed in the contracted factories or suppliers. For example, Primark have been a subject to BBC news reports after the detection of child labour use in the clothing manufacturing, which made the company to conduct a follow-up investigation on their suppliers. In most cases, therefore, pressure groups cannot prove the rightness of their claims due to the insufficiency of actual evidence, and therefore lose lawsuits. This provokes the situation where nobody is ethically responsible, while millions of unprotected child labourers are daily exploited worldwide. Even the US boycotting of the exports of Nepalese carpets manufactured by children in early 90’s did not provide adequate solution to the child labour problem since this measure caused 7,000 Nepalese children taking up prostitution (UNICEF, 2008). Ostensibly, the global problem of child labour is immense and in most instances falls beyond any reasonable ethical or legal control of the responsible authorities. Considering this, it is a common knowledge that legal regulations have always been based on the ethical principles reflecting social morale. Therefore, primarily it is a question of ones ethics and morale to intentionally accept and apply child labour for low pay and in appalling conditions. Nevertheless, in practical terms it seems that many suppliers actually do not mind unethical and illegal exploitation of child labour solely caring about enlarging their profits, expanding consumer markets and winning competitive advantages owing to cheap workforce that consists of ethically and legally unprotected children from Mali, Bangladesh, India, Cambodia, Liberia, Pakistan and many other destinations worldwide. To this end, according to International Labour Organization and the United Nations, the child labour is considered exploitative (UN General Assembly, 1989). Nonetheless, nearly half of all children labourers are traditionally engaged in the agricultural sector, though during the last two decades child labour has been actively applied by multinational corporations (Nike, GAP etc) and smaller companies in manufacturing as the effective means to save on this virtually costless and easily operative workforce. Largely, the underdeveloped socio-economic situation in many world countries provokes parents to agree to their children exploiting in hazardous works that involve physical tensions and the use of complicated machinery and devices difficult to operate. Consequently, the reasons of child labour in poor countries are purely economic driven by poverty concerns, and for the time being there is no single international convention that is declaring child labour illegal (Hindman and Smith, 1999). The main ethical issue in due respect is that under the umbrella of world renowned brands, local suppliers are unethically applying child labour considering house-to-house poverty and the devastating domestic conditions in Africa and East Asia wherein most families often regard their offspring as the sole source of income (Hindman and Smith, 1999). Considering this, it is rather difficult to say where the issue of ethics should begin. Hence, the analysis of relevant theoretical approaches is necessary to fully comprehend the seriousness of the issue. In essence, ethical theories are based on the core foundations, i.e. principles predetermining common goals intended to be achieved by every ethical theory, including but not limited to: least harm, beneficence, justice, and autonomy (Ridley, 1998; Penslar, 1995). In fact the exploitation of child labour does not comply with either of the abovementioned ethical principles. Neither does it produce a positive effect on children in accordance with the ethical principle of beneficence. According to the ethical principle of least harm, it is apparent that while companies are managing their short-term exporting and business concerns at the cost of the developing world, they are crippling millions of children by depriving them of the right for better future. In such a way employers show total disrespect for children autonomy, including their concerns, preferences and actual motivations (Hindman and Smith, 1999). Finally, child labour is a true example of injustice practice which assumes overall adverse affects to child labourers and economy on the whole. This indicates that the global economy will continue to shrink since the gap between rich and poor is rapidly expanding, and hardly any organization needs uneducated and/or unhealthy employees either today or in the future. The application of ethical theories in case of child abuse practices is a rather delicate issue which necessitates addressing previous experiences of child labour applications by commodity suppliers. While illegally exploiting child labour, the suppliers preliminarily trespass the deontological theory and do so intentionally for the sake of companies’ profits (Ridley, 1998; Penslar, 1995). For instance, since 1990s the international producer of sportswear Nike has been continually criticized by various right protection and activist groups (e.g. The International Labor Rights Fund; Vietnam Labour Watch etc) and media (e.g. BBC; Australian Channel 7 News etc) for exploiting forced labour practices, including women and child labour in Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Pakistan, China, Cambodia, and Mexico. In various contracted factories (e.g. in Vietnam, 1996), Nike was reported to violate overtime laws and minimum wage requirements. At that, the company provided employees with indecent working conditions while exploiting cheap overseas workforce within free trade zones to manufacture their commodities (Harsono, 1996). Worse than that, in the course of 1990s, Nike followed the unethical and unsanctioned practice of child labour exploitation in Pakistan and Cambodia while contracting the domestic factories to manufacture footballs. Even now, despite numerous anti-sweatshop (e.g. United Students against Sweatshops) and anti-globalization campaigns, Nike continue to exploit child labour in the areas wherein monitoring or legal regulations are inadequate, which has ensured the company unprecedented profits over the last decade (Boggan, 2001). Considering such unethical and illegal practices, it is obvious that Nile is also breaching the ethical principles of utilitarianism, the rights ethical theory,the casuist ethical theory, the virtue ethical theory an/or their various combinations considering the circumstances. Since the law should be given the highest priority within the rights theory, Nike’s practices should be regarded both unethical and illegal (Boggan, 2001; Harsono, 1996). The similar unethical applications have been reported to be used by Gap. In May 2006, Gap’s supplier in Jordan known as Western, applied unpaid overtime and excessive child labour, and other unethical practices. In 2007, Gap’s Indian factories contracted by Gap were reported to vastly apply child labour. The majority of claims from the pressure organizations concerned unsafe working conditions, unpaid off the clock hours, forced abortion policies, which made the company to reconsider its employment practices. At that, feeling ethical and moral liability before the workforce, the Gap has been praised by advocacy and pressure groups (Verite, Labour behind the Label, Social Accountability International etc) for managing to resolve unethical abuses of employees’ rights in accordance with the internally applied global social accountability standard assuming decent working conditions SA8000. To this end, the company does not employ children under 14 anymore, provides regular and transparent wage payment, and prohibits any physical or moral abuse on its contracted factories (Guardian 2007). Considering this, in 2007 the company has become a genuine example of ethical practices application rewarded by the national industry media (e.g. Ethisphere Magazine; CRO Magazine; Business Ethics Magazine etc). The aforesaid examples indicate that the business companies operating in the global competitive environment should consider ethical principles in addition to caring about profit-making. For this purpose, multinational companies establish internal codes of ethics and release social responsibility reports on annual basis to underline their ethical responsibility before general public and relevant communities (Hindman and Smith, 1999). Nonetheless, as is seen, there are numerous conflicts between the theoretically-declared ethical norms and empirical applications which confront each other. To this end, in the US child labour is banned by law as well as the policies of the US firms, whereas child labour is allowed in Pakistan and inspires domestic benefits therein. Thus, depending on the respective cultural and ethical norms, child labour is differently perceived in various countries (Hall, n.d.). At that, ethical theories should be applied to provide moral reasoning while responding to conflict situations like child exploitation. Utilitarianism ethical theory intends to maximize happiness in line with the limits of moral choice, whereas the deontological method seeks moral rules to choose the most relevant one to determine the moral action to be taken. In due sense, the utilitarian method is in favour of child labour since due to the gaining of extra income children maximize their own happiness as well as the delight of their parents who know that labour saves their children from street crime and/or prostitution. Conversely, the deontological method indicates that the practice of child labour violates moral norms and therefore child labour would need an alternative solution. For example, there are companies promoting educational programs for children by paying their families for being able to use their labour since they are 14 years old. This approach seems well-balanced, however, from the ethical perspective, the current dilemma indicate the non-coincidence of cultural relativism and ethical universalism (Adler, n.d). The discussed issue is currently unsolved considering the ethical viewpoint under which the importance of ethical and moral norms and values differs from culture to culture, and so there is no way to the application of universal norms able to guide moral choices. Human rights are based on moral and ethical norms; however fail to serve as a universal panacea to solve many problems concerning the protection of individual freedom. Therefore the universal formalization and legalization of child labour would require enormous contribution to be made by the international community, civil society and active pressure groups to solve the issue on the global agenda. To be genuinely effective ethical theory should be backed up by firm action and sustainable degree of individual responsibility for using child labour (Ridley, 1998; Penslar, 1995). Ethical theories based on relevant principles should be widely applied as the effective decision-making tools, though only their relevant combination seems most effective while coping with the child labour dilemma. Utilitarian ethics grounded on the casuistic theory may be used to objectively compare different viewpoints on child labour issue and offer the most appropriate choice of action. Ethical theories in various combinations help to analyze and manage critical situations in unbiased and constructive manner to come with the most correct solution from the ethical perspective. Thus, the abovementioned ethical theories can serve as a reliable framework to settle international child labour issues in the foreseeable future (Ridley, 1998; Penslar, 1995). List of References Adler, N. n.d., International Dimensions of Organization Behaviour, Canada Southwestern pp. 64-66. Boggan, S. 2001, ‘Nike Admits to Mistakes over Child Labor’, [Online] Available at: http://www.commondreams.org/headlines01/1020-01.htm Gorgemans, A. n.d., ‘Addressing Child Labor: An Industry Approach’, [Online] Available at: http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/ites/0505/ijee/gorgemans.htm Guardian 2007, ‘Child sweatshop shame threatens Gap’s ethical image’, [Online] Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2007/oct/28/ethicalbusiness.india Hall, E. n.d., Understanding Cultural Differences pp. 48-50. Harsono, A. 1996, ‘Nike Accused of Slave Child Labor’, [Online] Available at:http://www.albionmonitor.com/9606a/nikelabor.html Hindman, H., Smith, C. 1999, Cross-Cultural Ethics and the Child Labor Problem, Journal of Business Ethics, Volume 19, Number 1 / March, 1999 Penslar, R. 1995. Research Ethics: Cases and Materials. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Ridley, A. 1998, Beginning Bioethics. New York: St. Martin’s Press. UN General Assembly “Convention on the Rights of the Child”, Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession byGeneral Assembly resolution 44/25of 20 November 1989 entry into force 2 September 1990, in accordance with article 49 UNICEF, 2008 ‘Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse’, [Online] Available at: http://www.unicef.org/protection/index_childlabour.html Ethical Arguments on Child Labour
Saddleback College Ethical Dilemma in Gene Editing Paper.

Unnatural Selection is a limited series (4 episodes) on Netflix. Please watch the first episode of this series and consider the whether or not we should “allow” private individuals to alter the genome (germ line) of species. You should write a one-page position paper where you discuss whether it is it ethical for individuals, medical scientists, university researchers, anyone for that matter, to do these things? In your answer, please consider what “ethical” means. Consider what unwanted outcomes might occur. Find one outside reference that supports your point of view and use it you your advantage in making your argument. Your commentary should be 1 page double spaced, 1″ margins with a good title. Please submit an MS Word *.docx file.
Saddleback College Ethical Dilemma in Gene Editing Paper

Measuring Surface Pressure Distribution. When an aircraft moves through the atmosphere there are many physical and chemical changes that take place around its surface. But if the speed is low enough, chemical changes are insignificant. To study the physical changes over the aircraft we take a cross section of its wing and study them in a wind tunnel. In this experiment, an unswept, untapered aerofoil with symmetrical section is mounted in a transonic wind tunnel, so as to measure the surface pressure distribution. This is done with different free-stream mach numbers ranging from subsonic to supercritical. These measurements are used to assess the validity of the Prandtl-Glauret Law, which relates the pressure coefficient at a point on the surface of an aerofoil in sub-critical, compressible flow to that at the same point in incompressible flow. Initially, the pressure coefficients are calculated using the measured surface pressures. Which are then compared with the theoretical pressure distributions predicted by the Prandtl-Glauret Law. Using the free-steam Mach numbers, the critical pressure coefficient (Cp*) is calculated and the critical Mach number (M∞crit) is also deduced. Furthermore, these results will be used as the basis for discussing the changes in flow properties as the Mach number increases into the transonic regime. BACKGROUND THEORY Pressure coefficient (Cp) When the airfoil is located in a free stream air, the velocity of air over the upper surface increases whereas the pressure decreases and vice-versa. The effect of changes in pressure over a wing is critical in the study of aerodynamics, as its properties highly affect the flight. Pressure is an effect which occurs when a force is applied on a surface. It is the amount of force acting on a unit area. Every point in a fluid flow field has its own unique pressure, which is called pressure coefficient,Cp. It is a very useful parameter for studying the flow of incompressible fluids such as water, and also the low-speed flow of compressible fluids such as air. This is given by the formula; where: P : Pressure at the point where pressure coefficient is to be calculated P∞: Freestream pressure : Fluid density in freestream : Freestream velocity of the fluid. For compressible fluids such as air or high speed flows, the difference between stagnation and static pressure is no longer an accurate measure of dynamic pressure. As a result, pressure coefficients can be greater than one in compressible flows.[1] Hence for compressible flows, the previous formula can be more conveniently re-written in the form (M∞ is the free-stream Mach number) MACH NUMBER (M) Mach number is a quantity that defines how quickly a vehicle travels with respect to the speed of sound. The Mach number (M) is simply the ratio of the vehicle’s velocity (V) divided by the speed of sound at that altitude (a).[2] Where; is the Mach number is the relative velocity of the source to the medium and is the speed of sound in the medium Since it is defined as the ratio of two speeds, it’s a dimensionless number. It is highly dependent on temperature and atmospheric composition. The Mach number is commonly used both with objects travelling at high speed in a fluid, and with high-speed fluid flows inside wind tunnels. Generally the flow is divided into five different conditions: Incompressible flow: M<0.3 Subsonic flow: 0.3 Transonic flow: 0.8 Supersonic flow: 1.2 Hypersonic flow: M>5 With the increasing mach numbers shock waves are produced and the temperature, pressure, and density also increase. The free stream mach number of the undisturbed flow, M∞, is related to static/stagnation pressures, P∞/Po∞, by the equation: CRITICAL MACH NUMBER (Mcrit) A “critical Mach number” is the speed of an aircraft (below Mach 1) when the air flowing over some area of the airfoil has reached the speed of sound. For instance, if the air flowing over a wing reaches Mach 1 when the wing is only moving at Mach 0.8, then the wing’s critical Mach number is 0.8.[3] When an aircraft is moving, the airflow around the aircraft is not exactly the same as the airspeed of the aircraft due to the airflow speeding up and slowing down to travel around the aircraft structure. At the Critical Mach number, local airflow in some areas near the airframe reaches the speed of sound, even though the aircraft itself has airspeed lower than Mach 1.0. This creates a weakshock wave. The critical Mach number differs from wing to wing. It depends on the geometry of the wing. Since a thicker wing accelerates the airflow to a faster speed than a thinner one, therefore a thicker wing will have a lower Critical Mach number. In theory, it posses a limit for the aircrafts before crossing the sound barrier. Any aircraft that has the ability to surpass the critical Mach number are called transonic aircrafts. TRANSONIC FLOW An aircraft is known to be in transonic region when the Mach number is between 0.8-1.2. It is the moment when the aircraft is concurrently below, at, and above thespeed of sound. The transonic period is dependent on aircraft speed and the pressure and temperature of the local environment. Transonic is a term used by aircraft designers to describe those high subsonic speeds – usually above Mach 0.7 – where an aircraft is travelling below the speed of sound but shockwaves are still present. This unstable formation of shock waves leads to wave drag. It is the main form of drag in transonic flights. At transonic and supersonic speeds, there is a substantial increase in the total drag of the airplane due to fundamental changes in the pressure distribution. These physical changes induce flow separation over the aircraft surfaces. The drag coefficient of the airplane is greater in transonic range than in the supersonic because of the erratic shock formation and general flow instabilities. However, once a supersonic flow has been established, the flow stabilizes and the drag coefficient is reduced.[4] One of the important changes that take place in the transonic region is the sudden increase in drag. The Mach number at which the drag of the airplane increases markedly is called thedrag-divergence Mach number. Its value is typically greater than 0.6; therefore it is atransoniceffect and its value is also close to, and always greater than, the critical Machnumber. Usually the drag coefficient increases rapidly at Mach 1 and begins to decrease at around Mach 1.2 when the flow shifts to supersonic regime. APPARATUS WIND TUNNEL The tunnel used in this experiment has a transonic test section. The width and height of the working section are 89mm and 178mm respectively. It is equipped with liners which are ventilated so as to reduce interference and blockage at transonic speeds. The tunnel Mach number is controlled by varying the injector pressure. And the maximum speed that can be achieved is about 0.88. The stagnation pressure is taken to be equal to settling chamber pressure, and The reference stagnation pressure is taken from a pressure tapping in the floor well upstream of the model. THE MODEL The model to be tested is a NACA 0012 symmetric section and is unswept untapered model. It has a maximum thickness/chord ratio of 12% and has a chord length of 90mm. There are 9 pressure tapings altogether, built into the model. These tapings are connected to a multi-tube mercury manometer which has a locking mechanism that freezes the mercury level, helpful for taking the readings. Tapings 1-8 are on the upper-surface of the model, while one is at the lower surface called 3a. This pressure tapping 3a is at the same chord wise position as the tapping 3 on the upper side, which enables the model to be set at zero incidence. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Initially the barometric pressure Pat in inches of mercury was recorded. The manometer bank slope angle was set at 450. The injector pressure Pj was initially set to 115 psi and the manometer readings were recorded, along with atmospheric pressure(Iat), static pressure (I∞), stagnation pressure (Io∞), airfoil pressure tapings. The injector pressure Pj was changed six times and different readings were recorded at every value. The readings taken in the manometer were all in inches, which were later on converted to absolute pressure. RAW RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS 1) To convert the manometer reading to absolute pressure, following equation was used Calculating the value for P1, for example P1 = 32.7 /- l12.8 – 33.2l sin(45) Therefore, P1 = 18.28 pa All the other pressure readings were converted to absolute pressures in this manner. 2) To calculate the free-stream Mach number, following equation was used Calculating M∞ at the injector pressure 115psi, M∞ = sqrt(2/0.4){(P∞/Po∞)^-(0.4/1.4) – 1 Therefore, M∞ = 0.82 Similarly, the other Mach numbers were calculated 3) Pressure coefficient (Cp) was calculated using formula, Using the calculated value of M∞, P, P∞ and substituting in the equation of Cp gives, Therefore, Cp = 0.296 Other values of Cp were calculated using the same formula. 4) The Prandtl-Glauret law pressure coefficient (Cpc) were calculated using, Where Cpi is the theoretical pressure coefficient in incompressible flow. Substituting the values Cpc = 0.396/sqrt(1-o.82^2) Cpc = 0.6919 Other values of Cpc were calculated similarly. 5) The equation used to calculate critical pressure coefficient (Cp*) was, Calculating for initial Mach number i.e. M∞ = 0.82 Therefore, Cp* = 0.379 Remaining five values of Cp* were calculated using similar format. ANALYSED RESULTS Converted manometer readings to absolute pressures; GRAPHS From the above graphs, it can be seen that the Mcritical value is approximately 0.77. Hence for the NACA 0012 wing, shockwaves will only occour if the Mach number is above this value. Mach numbers below (or equal to) this value will not experience any formation of shockwave. As in this experiment, there wont be any formation of local shockwaves for Mach numbers 0.38, 0.55, 0.64 and 0.76. Discussion Transonic flow As stated previously, transonic is a term used by aircraft designers to describe those high subsonic speeds, where an aircraft is travelling below the speed of sound but shockwaves are still present. It usually is above Mach 0.7. The airflow around a moving airplane is considerd to be incompressible at subsonic speeds. The compressibility effects have only minor effects on the flow pattern and drag, up to a free-stream Mach number of about 0.7 to 0.8. The flow is subsonic everywhere. The local Mach number at the airfoil surface becomes higher than the free-stream Mach number because the flow must speed up as it proceeds about the aerofoil. There eventually occurs a free-stream Mach number called the critical Mach number at which a supersonic point appears near the maximum thickness. Indicating that the flow at that point has reached Mach 1. Larger regions of supersonic flow appear on the airfoil surface, as the free-stream Mach number is increased beyond the critical Mach number and approaches Mach 1. The flow must pass through a shock in order to return to subsonic flow from supersonic flow. This loss of velocity is accompanied by an increase in temperature, that is, a production of heat. This heat represents an expenditure of propulsive energy that may be presented as wave drag. At transonic speeds the main form of drag is wave drag which is due to the formation of shock waves. They create a lot of pressure difference over the aerofoil. And also induce flow seperation. These shocks appear anywhere on the airplane (wing, fuselage, engine etc.) Large increases in thrust is required to produce any further increases in airplane speed. Due to the formation of these erratic shockwaves, the coefficient of drag is higher in transonic flow than in the initial supersonic flow. Position of shock As determind previously, the critical mach number for this NACA 0012 aerofoil is 0.77. Thus, in the graphs for M = 0.79 and 0.82, we should expect a shockwave over the body of the aerofoil. As the formation of shock wave induces a large pressure difference, The pressure before the shock wave is very high, which decreaes suddenly after the shock. So to determine the position of shock wave, the pressure readings should be checked at those individual mach numbers. Hence, from the manometer readings of the pressure tappings it was seen that, the pressure suddenly decreases between the x/c% 0.45 and 0.55, that is, between the pressure tapping 5 and 6. This was for Mach number 0.79. Whereas for Mach number 0.82, the pressure suddenly decreased between the x/c% 0.55 and 0.65, that is, between the pressure tappings 6 and 7. This can be tabulated in the form M Approximate position of shock (x/c) 0.79 0.45-0.55 0.82 0.55-.65 It can be seen from the above table that the shockwave progressively moves more downstream as the free steam mach number increases. Evaluation of grpahs From the graphs of Cpexp Vs Cpthoery(Cpc), it was seen that the experimental value corelates with the theoritical values for smaller mach numbers. But as the Mach numbers increases the experimental value and theoretical values start to deviate. For the Mach numbers 0.38, 0.55 and 0.64 the graphs almost overlap each other. But for higher mach numbers such as 0.76, 0.79 and 0.82 they differ with great amount. This is mainly because of the prediction of Prandtl-Glauret theory about the aerofoil being thin. The theory breaks down completely in super-critical flow, when regions of locally supersonic flow occur and shock waves start to form over the surface of the aerofoil. Whereas the theory does not take shockwaves into account. Hence when the critical mach number is reached, the theory is of no importance.[4] The acuuracy would have been increased if better equipments were used for pressure tappings and if the number of presssure tappings were increased. Because the initial pressure tapping was at x/c, 6.5% of the chord lenght and the final tapping was at x/c,75%. Whereas, important changes take place at the leading and trailing edges when the speed is super-critical. Even though there were some discrepancies, the experiment gave some fairly accurate values in determining the critical mach number and the position of the shockwaves. Conclusion To conclude, the aims of the experiment were achieved. The experimental results bear close relationship with the theoretical predictions of the Prandtl-Glauret law upto the critical mach numner (Mcrit). After which they highly differentiate due to the formation of shock waves. It was seen that due to the formation of shockwaves there was a considerable drop in the graphs of Cp, and also the location of the shockwaves moved further downstream as M increased. The experiment gave a better understanding of the behaviour of flow over the aerofoil in the transonic regime. There were some errors in the experiment which included human errors and some approximation of results. More accuracy in the results would have been achieved if the errors mentioned in the discussion were minimized. Finally, even though there were some error, the experiment was a success. References http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/atmosphere/q0126.shtml http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Dictionary/sound_barrier/DI94.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pressure_coefficient Den/302 Lab Handouts. Measuring Surface Pressure Distribution
The Voyage Introduction The title of this essay is “The Voyage” . It’s a reflective essay, and I am using the Gibbs Reflective Cycle (Gibbs, 1988) as a template for this exercise. It’s a critical reflection on the importance of personal development and self-awareness, which are necessary if one is successful in becoming, and remaining a councillor. In simple terms it’s a examination of one’s outlook on life, from their own behaviours and to how they interact with other people. By self examination and peer feedback facilities me to become more aware about myself. Conscious of my privileges, prejudices, perceptions, core values, beliefs ,and behaviours. Aware of my strengths, weaknesses and blind spots. This development of self awareness, along with the ability to self reflect on one’s life experiences, is viewed as not only necessary, but professionally ethical, as its practice enables a councillor and clients to remain safe and emotionally detached from future relationships they are trying to develop. Because it’s so easy for a counsellor to fall into the trap of forming a sense of identity or empathy while counselling clients. But it’s vital for both, especially the councillor, that they remain emotionally detached at all times. Being objective is the main difficulty when assessing our personal development and self awareness. How we see and think of ourselves can be quite different from what other people see us. Only by rigorous personal inventories and feedback from others can we find a yardstick which with we can measure our ethics, and our professional standards which are vital in providing a safe environment when forming a relationship with our clients. Its only by this sometimes painful process of becoming more self aware can we then embarque on our lifelong personal development, and be better equipped in dealing with the challenges presented by possible conflicts, and enable us to be more attuned and less vulnerable with our relationships with future clients. The Voyage According to Plato the famous philosopher Socrates once said “The greatest good of a man is daily to converse about virtue, and all that concerning which you hear me examining myself and others, andthatthe life which is unexamined is not worth living” (Plato,Apology). This course, which is a diploma in the psychology of counselling, has contained within it a module on personal development and self awareness. This module challenges us to examine our core values, beliefs and prejudices and behaviours.. One of the requirements to becoming a good councillor is to know which way your ‘moral compass’ points, and to be aware of any prejudices, privileges and blind spots, and to remain emotionally uninvolved. To achieve this one has to embarque on a new journey of fearless self analysis. We were advised to keep a journal, in which we could record events on one side and our feelings of these events on the other side. This has provided me with very valuable insights into my personality while compiling this essay. Also this paper is a reflective essay, and so we must immerse ourselves in self reflection. The goal of this exercise is to make us more self aware. Aware of our personality traits and prejudices, our core values, habits, emotions, and the psychological forces that dictate our behaviour. This comprises of all events, good and bad, acquired throughout our entire lifetime that shapes who we are as a person today, and what we have to offer any potential client. While our tutor explained the module in greater detail, warning us that it could be a emotional rollercoaster for some of us, I could sense the nervous atmosphere throughout the classroom. After all it’s not easy dissecting ones entire lifetime, reliving all the events, good and bad, questioning ones reactions, the lessons learned or forgotten, and most importantly how these events shaped our personalities, attitudes, and our behaviour. I could see the importance in such an exercise. To become a good councillor requires change, and the first step in making a change of any kind is to beawarethat a change is wanted or needed. This can only be achieved by getting to know oneself by immersing themselves in various scenarios, reflecting on past events, and questioning their reactions and what thoughts were felt at the time. This is the path to self awareness, and its only by self awareness one gets to know what are the strengths and weaknesses they poses that can achieve better results in their role as a councillor, and with their clients. Unlike many of my classmates I thought I had an advantage. The advantage in question is I’m an alcoholic and a drug addict, thankfully in recovery, five years clean and sober. I’ve been to rehab, several times. The most popular method of treatment used is called the Minnesota Model (Hazelden 1949) , this has developed into the more widely known ‘twelve step program’. Today there are many similar twelve step programs. But there is one important step common to all groups, that is step four, which reads: “Made a searching and fearless moral inventory of ourselves” (The Big Book: April 10, 1939, Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc ). My feelings was that in my case it was already done and dusted. In overcoming my addiction I had to ‘dig deep’ very deep. From my earliest childhood memories up to the present day. I didn’t find it easy, but it changed the person I thought I was completely, and was a vital tool to my recovery. The life of a councillor will always be a work in progress, there is no such thing as perfection, but one should always be as self aware as possible, and continue completely and honestly with their personal development. This includes sourcing important feedback from superiors and colleagues, which proves valuable information as to how others view you. Like our tutor explained, the path to personal development and self awareness can be very difficult and emotional. The pain of dredging up memories long buried can be to some too much to endure. But the simple fact is just this, the pain one experiences while undertaking this difficult task, comes in not the journey, it comes by not having the courage to embarque on such a journey. Fear that one has to challenge and change some thought processes and behaviours that they have used and relied upon for some time. Often through various defence mechanisms that they may not be even conscious of. The journey of self discovery can be a difficult one, but I was first in line to buy a ticket, confident I had already been there, and if there were some omissions, I was eager to discover them. I viewed my life story as an open book, and was comfortable in disclosing any of my many shortcomings, to anyone at anytime. However I soon realised it was far from done and dusted. To maintain abstinence we have to always seek self awareness, and continue our personal development. In doing so we have to be completely honest and humble. Completing step four of a twelve step program is like looking at your reflection in a mirror. You only see your shortcomings through your own eyes. The fact that others may see you differently felt slightly uncomfortable, due to the possibility that I may be someone different to whom I thought I was. Over the next two months we sometimes engaged in groups to discuss and debate various topics. One of those being, what are the effects of modern society, and how people living in congested inner cities, with no community can lead to future mental health problems. I once thought of such people as scum. Undeserving of any free handouts. It would be true that I viewed these people as narcissistic parasites. Freeloaders who only existed by terrifying innocent and vulnerable people, and who should be locked up to protect decent honest people. However I began to realise that these same people were victims of a society that judged and condemned them, a society of which I was a part of. I realised that these people didn’t have a choice as to which culture and society they were born into. A society which denied them equal access to education, sports and pastimes, marginalising them to such an extent that the easiest path to fill the vacuum they felt was through violence, crime, addiction, and most unfortunately suicide. I learned through enrolling in this course that it was they who were the victims. I grew convinced that the culture and society they lived in, was one we created for them. I soon formed the opinion that the root of these problems was a result of poor parenting. By poor parenting I mean stressed parenting. Stress caused by economic poverty, violence, unemployment, dysfunctional societies, abandoned mothers, poor housing, no access to education, crime, addiction etc. I argued that the problem started from birth, and possibility pre-birth as stress hormones in the mother has been proved as having a negative effect on the unborn foetus. (Verny

COMM 370 California State University Fullerton Partisan Press Report

COMM 370 California State University Fullerton Partisan Press Report.

I’m working on a writing question and need support to help me learn.

Your final paper is an “encyclopedia entry” that addresses your approved topic and its relationship to American journalism and mass communication. An encyclopedia entry is a description of scholarly research about a topic. It is not an essay intended to advance an argument or express an opinion.An example of an encyclopedia entry is the “Third-Party Platforms” reading by Professor Russell. However, your encyclopedia entry does not need to be as detailed or the same length as this example.Possible topics include but are not limited to public relations, advertising, independence, objectivity, the partisan press, the penny press, muckrakers, magazines, television, radio, cinema, digital news, codes of ethics, freedom of the press, Facebook, Twitter, nonprofit news organizations, and influences on news selection, production or distribution at the individual, communications routines, organizational, institutional or societal levels.The paper includes properly cited references to at least five peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to journalism or mass communication. At least three articles must be from the list of approved journals. The paper also includes a reference to the Craft & Davis textbook. It may include as many as 10 scholarly or semi-scholarly sources. At least one in-text citation must be present for each source listed in the reference list. You must provide a reference list at the end of your paper to earn points in this category. (10 points)The main body of the paper provides a complete, but concise discussion of the topic and its relevance to American journalism and mass communication (10 points). This discussion is based on the sources cited and not the author’s opinion or speculation (10 points). The discussion reflects multiple scholarly perspectives about the topic (10 points). The discussion includes multiple good examples about how the topic is reflected in journalism or communication practice or research (10 points).1200-1500 words
COMM 370 California State University Fullerton Partisan Press Report

BHR 3551 Columbia Southern University Career Advancement Question

essay help online BHR 3551 Columbia Southern University Career Advancement Question.

According to DuBrin (2015), the following strategies or tactics are identified for enhancing your career:1. develop career goals,2. capitalize on your strengths and build your personal brand,3. be passionate about and proud of your work,4. develop a code of professional ethics and prosocial motivation,5. develop a proactive personality,6. keep growing through continuous learning and self-development,7. document your accomplishments,8. project a professional image, and9. perceive yourself as a provider of services. (p. 430)Identify and explain three career-enhancing techniques or tactics in advancing your career.Your essay should be at least two pages and should include an introduction, a body of supported material (paragraphs), and a conclusion. Be sure to include two references (on a reference page), and follow all other APA formatting requirements. The reference page does not count toward the total page requirement. Please use the CSU Online Library for providing the supporting sources to complete the paper.Be sure to apply the proper APA format for the content and references provided.
BHR 3551 Columbia Southern University Career Advancement Question

Mercer University Women Heroes of the Day Societal Role of Women Submission Paper

Mercer University Women Heroes of the Day Societal Role of Women Submission Paper.

I’m working on a philosophy report and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

required book is Homer’s the odyssey translated by Emily Wilson 1500 or more words 12 point font times new roman cover page with creative title on the topic of the paper double spaced reference page please use chicago style formatting and citations use evidence from the book mentioned above to back up your claims I’ll include a example of the format from a essay I wrote for this class once a tutor is chosen
Mercer University Women Heroes of the Day Societal Role of Women Submission Paper

PHYS 206 ABAC Parallel Plate Capacitor The Existence of Medium Lab Report

PHYS 206 ABAC Parallel Plate Capacitor The Existence of Medium Lab Report.

As part of the pre-lab, please submit a draft of your report that hasHeading: (same as shown in attachment) Equipment,ProceduresTables (labeled but without data)Figures (of experimental setup, equipment)Questions (your answer to pre-lab questions)Pre-Lab QuestionsDescribe the equivalent capacitance of capacitors connected in series (show your steps)Describe the physical quantity that is the same (constant) for capacitors connected in series.Describe the equivalent capacitors of capacitors connected in parallel (show your steps).Describe the physical quantity that is the same (constant) for capacitors connected in parallel.State Kirchoff’s rules. (Do they apply to network of capacitors?)
PHYS 206 ABAC Parallel Plate Capacitor The Existence of Medium Lab Report