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essay-comment on an academic article

essay-comment on an academic article. I’m stuck on a Political Science question and need an explanation.

1. Browse the internet or the electronic databases that the University gives access to,…, for example Jstor (or search the internet cites which give access to academic content) and find an academic article in a referred academic journal with at least 10 citations (the number of citations is presented by google just under the article’stitle in a google search)on one of the following topics or key-words : bureaucracy, organizations, institutions, rationality, values, ideology, norms, anomie, conformity/deviance, functionalanalysis(functionalism), classical sociology. A lot of PDF full text articles are freely available on the Internet, but you will have a far more rich choice using the databases. Give the correct references of the article.
2. Please read carefully the article and try first to well summarize its main idea and research question, before doing anything else.
3. Using font “Times new Roman”, line spacing 1single, and font size 12 please prepare a 1200-word essay (around 3 pages) trying to fulfill the following requirements:
• What is the main idea and research question that the author/authors are trying to answer/prove? (300 words)
• What is his/hers theoretical framework (300 words)?
• What are the principle methods of argumentation? (research techniques, logical argumentation, types of evidence provided etc.) (200 words)
• Is the author critique towards some theoretical perspectives or other authors and whichone? (200 words)
• Conclusion (200 words) Was the author convincing in his argumentation and what is the overall usefulness of his article? What is the main conclusion from your own perspective ?
4. Please do refer to the presentation “How to write a sociological essay” (topic 4 in the moodle system) and reference and cite correctly.
5. The essay is due on January 20-that noon. Upload the PDF of the article and the file of your essay converted in word.doc format.
6. If two students submit the same articles and strongly resembling essays they will be left without a note.
7. Those of you who have not submitted the first assignment, or are left without a note, could not be exempt of final exam (4,50 GPA for the two assignments) and their work will benefit them only as a training and writing exercises. Everybody is welcome to take the second assignment.
essay-comment on an academic article

ISSC 411 AMU PCI DSS Requirements and Security System & Internet Security Discussion.

I’m working on a computer science question and need support to help me understand better.

In 1-2 pages, Identify what tools you would use, along with the testing procedures provided, to evaluate Requirement 6 of the PCI DSS. Make sure to identify a tool (as applicable) for testing procedure and state the tool you would use to verify compliance.Below is the table the textbook: Internet Security: How to Defend Against Attackers on the WebTABLE 9-1 PCI DSS principle and requirements.PRINCIPLEREQUIREMENTBuilding and maintaining a secure network.Requirement 1: Install and maintain a firewall configuration to protect cardholder data.Requirement 2: Don’t use vendor-supplied defaults for system passwords and other security parameters. Protect cardholder data.Requirement 3: Protect stored cardholder data.Requirement 4: Encrypt transmission of cardholder data across open, public networks.Maintain a vulnerability management program.Requirement 5: Use and regularly update antivirus software or programs.Requirement 6: Develop and maintain secure systems and applications.Implement strong access control measures.Requirement 7: Restrict access to cardholder data by business need to know.Requirement 8: Assign a unique ID to each person with computer access.Requirement 9: Restrict physical access to cardholder data.Regularly monitor and test networks.Requirement 10: Track and monitor all access to network resources and cardholder data.Requirement 11: Regularly test security systems and processes.Maintain an information security policy.Requirement 12: Maintain a policy that addresses information security for employees and contractors.Additional textbook info:Requirement 6: Develop and Maintain Secure Systems and ApplicationsThe sixth requirement under PCI DSS is to develop and maintain secure systems and applications. Hackers often gain access to networks through security vulnerabilities. Often security vulnerabilities in programs and software are addressed by the vendor, and they provide security patches to correct these inconsistencies. Continuous updates and regular maintenance of systems and applications can stop hackers in their tracks. By applying the latest patches and updates immediately, an organization maintains the security of its system by fixing flaws within software programs. This prevents employees, hackers, and viruses from exploiting program and software flaws. Appropriate patches must be tested and evaluated to determine if they sufficiently fix security vulnerabilities.A few tips on maintaining application security include: WARNINGRemember, attacks can come from other sources besides hackers. Employees and viruses can be the cause of internal malicious activity within your network. You should consider insufficient training, human error, and intentional circumvention of controls as possibly introducing vulnerabilities.• Keep patches up to date—Ensure all system components have the most recently released vendor-supplied patches installed. Patches should be installed soon after the release date. In a business environment it is important to first test all patches and service packs in a test system before applying to a production system.• Develop patching and update policies—Many organizations choose to develop firm update policies that administrators follow. Systems and applications that are patched and updated are far less likely to be vulnerable.• Monitor vigilantly—Administrators must spend time reviewing and monitoring for the latest threats and vulnerabilities. The monitoring of logs and system errors is often audited in a corporate environment. IT managers who fail to perform and document this kind of monitoring may find themselves subject to discipline by their employers, and may even lose their jobs.• Configure automatic updates—Many systems and applications can be configured to be updated automatically. This takes the human error out of the equation and helps ensure that applications are current.• Ensure development follows guidelines—Develop all Web applications based upon secure coding guidelines. Review custom application code to reveal security threats. Cover prevention of common coding vulnerabilities.Implement Strong Access Control MeasuresThe fourth principle of PCI DSS requires organizations to implement strong access control measures. The requirements include enforcing the principle of need to know and enforcing technological and physical access controls.
ISSC 411 AMU PCI DSS Requirements and Security System & Internet Security Discussion

West Los Angeles College Status Quo Essay.

Overview:Critical thinking requires us to control our biases, distinguish between fact and opinion, and research all perspectives in order to come to a reasoned judgment about an issue. Many of us do NOT come to the same reasoned judgment about issues because we differ in regard to the ethical code we operate by. I thought this assignment might help us to understand this fact–and why there are so many human rights abuses in the United States.Part 1: Essay Due Friday at 11:59 PM (100 Points)During this class, you’ve become familiar with Yale historian Timothy Snyder’s 2017 book On Tyranny: Twenty Lessons from the Twentieth Century, which is Dr. Snyder’s ethical guide for surviving and resisting authoritarianism. Now, you’re going to create an ethical guide of your own. In 1,500 words (6 pages) …1. Explain what “the system” (the status quo) is in the United States today. Who or what established the status quo; do you know? And what is YOUR ROLE in the system? For example, do you fulfill one or more of these roles: citizen, leader, follower, revolutionary, civil rights activist, group member, good samaritan … ? Or is there a different role or roles, not listed here, that you fulfill? What is your role or roles? Why?2. Employ your critical thinking skills to develop a list of 10 ethical principles that is appropriate for your role or roles in the system and can act as a guiding philosophy for you during your life. By each principle, indicate if it is “universal” or “relative.” If you think that a principle should be one that every human observes, then it is universal. If you think that a principle is one that applies only to you in your role within the system, then it is relative. (See ETHICAL RELATIVISM and ETHICAL ABSOLUTISM above.)3. Answer this question when you list and explain your rationale for your 10 guiding principles: does every person have an obligation to become informed about and actively oppose abuses the system may perpetrate against specific groups of people? If so, what form should this opposition take: speaking out where and to whom; marching in protests; boycotting the “bad guys”; acting against the status quo despite realistic fears of consequences for you, your family, and your friends, the way that the White Rose Group did … ? In determining whether or not you have this obligation, focus specifically on people of African descent in the United States of America, as abuses against them, now and during the last 400+ years, are frequently NOT communicated in history and civicslessons in U.S. schools. Should YOU and EVERYBODY ELSE, no matter what people “color” (Black, Brown, Yellow, White, Red), be concerned about human rights abuses against them that violate the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights of December 10, 1948? If so, why?Examples of Human Rights Abuses Against People of African Descent: Sally Hemmings, Dred Scott, Tulsa’s Black Wall Street, the FBI targeting Black Panther leaders, Redlining, the Fair Sentencing Act of 2010, and the verdict in the case of the shooting of Philando Castile.The Shooting of Philando Castile.4. Affirm that your list of guiding principles does NOT make you guilty of committing any of the common logical fallacies listed below–because your list of 10 guiding principles was formed using “reasoned judgment.”15 Logical FallaciesAd HominemStrawman ArgumentAppeal to IgnoranceFalse DilemmaSlippery Slope FallacyCircular ArgumentHasty GeneralizationRed Herring FallacyTu QuoqueCausal FallacyFallacy of Sunk CostsAppeal to AuthorityEquivocationAppeal to PityBandwagon FallacyPart 2: Peer Evaluations due Sunday at 11:59 PM (50 Points)Respond to four of your peers’ postings; write 125 words (a half-page) for each response, for a total of 500 words (two pages). How should you respond? Compare your peers’ thinking regarding this assignment to your own thinking; in each evaluation, quote your peer briefly, agreeing or disagreeing with how he or she thinks, and provide logical reasons as to why, but be respectful, compassionate and courteous. And … if someone evaluates your work, respond! In your response, don’t just write “thank you for evaluating my work” or something like that–demonstrate that you have read the evaluation and considered it carefully. IMPORTANT: Be sure to answer any questions and complete any tasks your instructor gives you in order to improve your grade. (See the Discussion Rubric ab
West Los Angeles College Status Quo Essay

Miami Dade College Databases in a Healthcare Setting Discussion.

I’m working on a health & medical project and need an explanation to help me understand better.

INTRODUCTIONIn this task, you will analyze and resolve duplicates and errors within a master patient index (MPI) in preparation for implementation into a health information exchange (HIE). Additionally, you will evaluate the quality of a data dictionary and create a presentation to summarize your findings.The purpose of this task is to pull healthcare data, analyze the data, and organize the data into a data dictionary within a database, duties often associated with healthcare analysis and health information management (HIM).SCENARIOYou are a new graduate working at Wizer Hospital as an HIM analyst. You have been asked to compile data into a database for leadership so they can quickly and efficiently pull reports. You have been given an Excel spreadsheet and asked to analyze the data and evaluate a data dictionary. As you are preparing the data, you notice several duplicates and errors within the MPI files that were pulled from the electronic health record (EHR). Ensuring that the data from the MPI files and data dictionary is accurate and that all duplicates are resolved is critical for the facility as they move forward with HIE implementation and interoperability.REQUIREMENTSA. Refer to the attached “Master Patient Index” to do the following:1. Identify three duplicate patients.2. Identify three errors in the data.B. Refer to the attached “Sample Data Dictionary” supporting document to do the following:1. Identify three missing elements from the data dictionary.2. Evaluate whether the data dictionary contains the required elements to meet interoperability standards.C. Create a presentation about how inaccurate data impacts the ability to share healthcare information with other organizations by doing the following:1. Summarize your findings from parts A1 and A2.2. Summarize your findings from parts B1 and B2.3. Describe a process improvement plan for data entry to ensure patient identification, including the following: the problem statement, the sources where the data errors could have originated, a plan that addresses the steps needed to correct the data errors, a plan that addresses what to do if a duplicate cannot be corrected, a plan that addresses ongoing maintenance of duplicates, a plan that addresses the problem statementD. Acknowledge sources, using APA-formatted in-text citations and references, for content that is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized.E. Demonstrate professional communication in the content and presentation of your submission.File RestrictionsFile name may contain only letters, numbers, spaces, and these symbols: ! – _ . * ‘ ( )File size limit: 200 MBFile types allowed: doc, docx, rtf, xls, xlsx, ppt, pptx, odt, pdf, txt, qt, mov, mpg, avi, mp3, wav, mp4, wma, flv, asf, mpeg, wmv, m4v, svg, tif, tiff, jpeg, jpg, gif, png, zip, rar, tar, 7zRUBRICA1. DUPLICATE PATIENTS:NOT EVIDENT3 patients are not identified.APPROACHING COMPETENCE3 patients are identified, but 1 or more of the patients is not a duplicate.COMPETENT3 patients are each accurately identified as a duplicate.A2. ERRORS IN DATA:NOT EVIDENT3 errors in data are not identified.APPROACHING COMPETENCEN/ACOMPETENT3 errors in data are identified.B1. REQUIRED ELEMENTS OF THE DATA DICTIONARY:NOT EVIDENT3 missing elements are not identified.APPROACHING COMPETENCEN/ACOMPETENT3 missing elements are identified.B2. ELEMENTS OF INTEROPERABILITY OF DATA:NOT EVIDENTAn evaluation is not provided.APPROACHING COMPETENCEThe evaluation does not accurately conclude whether the data dictionary does or does not contain the required elements to meet interoperability standards. COMPETENTThe evaluation accurately concludes whether the data dictionary does or does not contain the required elements to meet interoperability standards.C1. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS FROM A1 AND A2:NOT EVIDENTA summary is not provided.APPROACHING COMPETENCEThe summary does not accurately describe the findings from parts A1 and A2, or the summary is incomplete.COMPETENTThe summary accurately and completely describes the findings from both part A1 and A2.C2. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS FROM B1 AND B2:NOT EVIDENTA summary is not provided.APPROACHING COMPETENCEThe summary does not accurately describe the findings from parts B1 and B2, or the summary is incomplete.COMPETENTThe summary accurately and completely describes the findings from parts B1 and B2.C3. PROCESS IMPROVEMENT PLAN:NOT EVIDENTA process improvement is not provided.APPROACHING COMPETENCEThe description does not appropriately identify a process improvement plan for data entry that ensures patient identification or does not include each of the given points.COMPETENTThe description appropriately identifies a process improvement plan for data entry that ensures patient identification, including each of the given points.D. APA SOURCES:NOT EVIDENTThe submission does not include in-text citations and references according to APA style for content that is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized.APPROACHING COMPETENCEThe submission includes in-text citations and references for content that is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized but does not demonstrate a consistent application of APA style.COMPETENTThe submission includes in-text citations and references for content that is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized and demonstrates a consistent application of APA style.E. PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION:NOT EVIDENTContent is unstructured, is disjointed, or contains pervasive errors in mechanics, usage, or grammar. Vocabulary or tone is unprofessional or distracts from the topic.APPROACHING COMPETENCEContent is poorly organized, is difficult to follow, or contains errors in mechanics, usage, or grammar that cause confusion. Terminology is misused or ineffective.COMPETENTContent reflects attention to detail, is organized, and focuses on the main ideas as prescribed in the task or chosen by the candidate. Terminology is pertinent, is used correctly, and effectively conveys the intended meaning. Mechanics, usage, and grammar promote accurate interpretation and understanding.
Miami Dade College Databases in a Healthcare Setting Discussion

University of California Irvine Social Dancing in the Fourteenth Century Essay

University of California Irvine Social Dancing in the Fourteenth Century Essay.

Please go to (Links to an external site.) and complete your Module Ten. Inside of this assignment you will get all your details for your research paper. Once you have gotten your details, complete your research and then submit your paper here. Research Paper Guidelines: *Please refer to the full Module 10 for all details. In this module, you will continue your investigation of social dances through your own research. Research guidelines, recommendations, and support materials for writing your Signature Assignment are included.A four to six page minimum research paper in APA format (Times New Roman, 12 pt. font, and double-spaced) including 16-32 sources. It includes a Title Page and Reference Page(s). The Title Page and Reference Page(s) are not counted in paper length. No Abstract is required for this assignment.
University of California Irvine Social Dancing in the Fourteenth Century Essay

Strategic Approaches for Global Events Report

essay order Introduction Many global events like the Rugby World Cup, an international trade fair, etc., are conducted in areas near us, but few of us usually take into consideration the strategic approaches behind the success or the failure of these events. The purpose of this assessment is to examine strategic approaches with respect to a global event like the Nuremberg Toy Fair in Germany. The report analyses the city of Nuremberg in Germany both internally and externally using such models as the PESTLE and SWOT analysis. The report looks at the internal and external environment surrounding the city of Nuremberg. The report also examines the key success factors (KSF) of holding the event at Nuremberg and future recommendations. Background information The Nuremberg toy fair is a mega event held every February in the Nuremberg exhibition center in the city of Nuremberg, Germany. The trade fair is also referred to as Spielwarenmesse International Toy Fair. The attendance of the fair is limited to the major stakeholders of the toy and game industry. Admission is only allowed to people over sixteen years, and the show is opened from 9 am to 5 pm daily until the last day of the exhibition. In the year 2011, the organizers of the event estimated an attendance of 2600 exhibitors from around 64 countries, 76000 visitors from 115 countries, 1 million products inclusive of 70000 new products, and around 2500 journalists (Allen et al. 2005). The fair is gradually becoming popular outside Germany as the international visitors accounted for 54% in the year 2011. The trade fair was started in 1949 and ran for six days each year in the month of February. The fair is prepared by Spielwarenmesse eG, which is a company located in the city of Nuremberg, Germany, specializing in marketing, promotion, and trade fair services to its clients. Methodology A research methodology is a term that comprises a planned process of carrying out research. The methods used to collect information related to this topic were observation and analysis of records related to the topic of assessment. The records observed and analyzed came from various sources that were of help to me in making sound and conclusive conclusions (Campbell et al. 2004). The area of study is limited to the city of Nuremberg as the trade fair is exhibited in the city. The population targeted by the assessment is the stakeholders of the toy fair Nuremberg. This includes the organizers as well as the visitors. The conclusions and recommendations target the organizers, the local authorities, the exhibitors, the manufacturing companies, and the consumers of the products, games, and toys. The unit of analysis of this assessment is how strategic management approaches can be applied in events like the toy fair Nuremberg in order to make them more successful. The researcher experienced challenges during the assessment (Coulter 2008). The researcher experienced problems where some of the source materials were unavailable or could not give the required information. The time limit was also another problem where the researcher had to work within a specified time frame. The records analyzed and observed were picked randomly from the area of study without following any sampling procedure. Findings, Results, and analysis In this section, we will critically examine and analyze the internal and external environment of the host city, Nuremberg. It is also in this section that we will look at stronger points accruing from the city hosting the toy fair (key success factors). External environment analysis The external environment can be divided into two broader categories, which include: General external environment Competitive external environment. General external environment These are general factors that determine or affect the success or failure of an event. To help us analyze these factors better, we use the PESTLE analysis. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More PESTLE analysis PESTLE is a short form word that stands for Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal, and Environmental factors that should be considered in staging or hosting of an event. The PESTLE analysis is very crucial in the determination of opportunities and the risks of hosting the toy fair in Nuremberg city in Germany (Wheelen

The Inherently Unsustainable Of Mass Tourism Tourism Essay

Tourism Industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. “Tourism has long been a central component of the economic, social and cultural shift that has left its imprint on the world system of cities in the past two decades” (Dumond; 2005 cited in Beben; 2006;1). According to the statistics of World Trade Organization, there was 693 million tourist arrivals across the globe in 2002 (Beben; 2006). Moreover, WTO and the World Tourism and Travel Council announced a possible increase in the number of tourists to close to 1 billion by the end of 2010 (Massound; 2010). Mass tourism is seen as a large number of people participating in tourism as well as inflexible and packaged standardized holidays (Poon; 1993). Starting from the 50’s a new tourist demand leaded to a new stage in this evolutionary process. Tourism industry just like other Fordist industries has been supplying mass products, mostly considered under the label of mass tourism (Conti; Perelli; 2004). According to Conti and Perelli (2004;3), Thomas Cook created the tourism packages in the 19th century as “the pioneering forms of mass tourism and the opportunity for the definitive shift from the aristocratic forms of vacation to the mass mobility of workers spending their paid holidays travelling”. The concept of Cookism was used in a place of Fordism to express the era of mass tourism. Others seen mass tourism as consuming places by the large number of visitors (Urry; 1995). More recently mass tourism consumption experience has been linked to the ideas of “a McDonaldization, Disneyfication or McDisneyfication of societies” (Ritzer and Liska; 1997 cited in Conti and Perelli; 2004;3). The impact of those consumption patterns has been considered as the typical Fordist “leading to a reduction of the cultural diversity by mean of the demand of a tourist experience that will be more and more reproducing the everyday life patterns of consumption” (Contti and Perelli; 2004). Mass tourism is strongly linked to seasonality. The impact of schools closure for the holiday periods as well as companies´ work programmes and the destination specific weather conditions, all that aspects are gathering great number of tourists at the same time (Shaw and Williams; 1995). Before tourism was a luxury, available mostly for higher class but after the introduction of packaged holidays and development of mobility and technology, travelling became more accessible for everyone. Tourism has aroused on the market as a forceful industry making changes which have both positive and negative economic, socio-cultural and environmental impacts. The development of tourism industry is very important for economy of the country especially for less developed countries as it increase foreign exchange earnings and generates employment. According to UNWTO, tourism stands for 8% of employment and 9% of global GDP and by the year 2019 will provide 296 million jobs (UNWTO cited in MercoPress, 2010). Tourism can have a powerful and beneficial direction for both economic and sociio-cultural change but at the same time it can be destroying. Do actual benefits from tourism go to the host community? Is government´s priority in development are to provide the needs of the tourists instead of local community? The government blinded by the opportunity of the country to generate the money from the development tourism is forgetting about the negative aspects that the industry can bring. Most of the attention has been made to economic aspects of the tourism growth and environmental and socio-cultural issues have been swept out to the second plan. Although to make tourism sustainable it is very important to look at those aspects. As mentioned before tourism enables the development of the destination although, the lack of own capital and a weak economy of some underdeveloped destinations makes foreign investors to build a new hotels that makes tourism being beneficial mostly for the developed countries. The same is with employment. It seems like tourism would give jobs to the local community but in the meantime the investors from developed countries employed the workers with a better education and abilities so the developing country stays with almost nothing. When the development is lower than the position of a country is worse. Leakage is an amount of money that escapes from the local economy (France; 1997). According to Kripperdorf(1982;136), “tourism planning is usually in the hands of outside promoters the local population are regarded merely as landowners or as a reserve of labour, not as people entitled to participate in decision making”. For example, tour operators owning resorts and sending the customers to the destination which mean that local community won’t benefit much from those tourists. They export food for the tourist and employ British stuff. How tourism can be sustainable if it´s breaking the basic rules of it. The tourism control and planning strategy is crucial in developing sustainable tourism but how can it be done if even government is closing their eyes on the unfair practices in the Tourism sector of that region. The uncontrolled tourism in Goa has a strong impact on host community who has to face the food and water shortage (Almeida; 1996). Moreover, Goan has to face with “electricity problems, there is a severe water shortage. The water pipeline that was originally meant for the villagers is now being utilised by the hotels. The transport too is insufficient to transport both locals and tourists” (Misquita, 1996a cited in Noronha;1999;101). Very fast process of urbanisation has changed Goa into the concrete jungle. Police is closing their eyes on the drug fulfilled parties. Barely 10 % of Goans have benefited from tourism development, moreover, the foreign investors are buying large amounts of lands in the region (Almeida; 1996).All those examples illustrate how unsustainable tourism it is. Moreover, as suggested by Wall and Wright (1977); physical impacts to the tourist destination include “alterations to the natural environment, including air, water, soils, vegetation and wildlife as well as changes to the build environment” (Mathiesen and Wall; 1999; 38). Mass tourism affects strongly beaches, cliff-side, environment and degraded landscape. In some mass destinations ground water is in an alarmingly low level which is largely consumed by agricultural sector, by the irritation of a great number of gardens constructed due to the development of new summer houses and second homes and golf courses (Molz; 2004;5). Also the beaches have been extended in order to meet tourist demand. The unlimited constructions and unsustainable exploitation of natural resources will lead to the serious environmental problems. Recreational activities organized for tourists have also strong impact. Tourists by touching reefs when diving and snorkeling are damaging them. Also by the great number of boat trips tourist are disturbing marine animals. According to Kripperdorf (1982;135), “the mass phenomena of modern tourism have initiated the paradoxial process “Tourism destroys tourism”. The landscape loses its tourist value through its use, or rather over-use, by the tourist”. Mass tourism is not only a problem of coastal regions but also the winter season is strongly connected to mass tourism. In Alps the number of tourists doubles every 7 years (Dziedzic; 1998). In Tyrol the ski slope is going through the endangered forests. Every year more than 500 hectares of agricultural land is used to make new skiing resorts and slopes (Dziedzic; 1998). Environmental degradation destroys the meaning of existence of tourism itself. The number of tourists is growing every year. According to the World Travel report (cited in Hickman; 2006) “by 2020 the natural features of some of the wonders of the world will be damaged by global warming, while other resorts will become seriously overcrowded”. The carrying capacity has been described as greatest number of people who can use the place without any damage to the natural resources and without degradation of the environment (Wall and Mathiasen; 1999). The attrition of historical buildings and the saturation of the coasts are one of the problems were carrying capacity has been overtaken. Changes in tourist destinations are inevitable but the concept of carrying capacity has the chance to indicate the amount and the way of change and to assess to which point those changes are acceptable (Mathiesen and Wall; 1999). The socio-cultural impacts are the other aspect of a great importance when looking at the changes in tourism as it strongly changes the way of life of the local communities. Mass tourism is causing displacement of indigenous population by tourists. For example in Hawaii there are about 1 million of indigenous inhabitants, which is a quarter of the whole population (Dziedzic; 1998). In human relationships, the disappearing traditional hospitality is a very important aspect. Especially in the big tourist resorts, these relations were long ago converted into a commodity for sale. Kuhn (2007; cited in Hanna; 2010 HHhhKKKK) argues that sustainable tourism attempts to preserve traditional cultures in a way that the western tourist deems as ‘authentic’. If sustainable tourism will lead into that direction it will not be very successful. Tourist resorts also offer its guests a more refined, but a fake version of its folklore and traditions, adapted to the stereotypical images of the visited country. According to Mathieson and Wall (1992; 4) “the commercialization of culture, through the marketing and sale of artefacts, may revive traditional art forms or modify them so that they are scarcely recognizable”. Which in a long term might create a “phony folk culture” but at the same moment it can lessen existing unemployment problems and create more jobs. The Tourism authorities are pleased of the fact that tourism is developing in the country but some of the local communities have different opinions on that. According to Ignacio Cembrero in “View from Fez” (2006), “the country’s Islamist party frequently rails against hotel casinos, restaurants that serve alcohol and the growing gay club scene” (Ranger; 2006). The tourist must accept the cultural differences of other countries. The most of Moroccans are very religious and tourist has to respect it. Even more tolerate Moroccans can become tired of tourists when seeing nudity on the beaches or tourists wearing t-shirts or short trousers in the churches. It insults their believes and rules. “A lack of consideration by tourists for local norms, culture, people or the environment of tourist receiving destinations” is leading to unsustainable tourism practices (Poon; 1993 in Wahab and Pigram; 2004;51). This point was also commented by Obrador et al (2009;3) who suggest that “local cultures are seen as eroded by a homogenous inauthentic, consumer culture”. Moreover, overcrowding and growth of the bad reputation of the destination by breaking ethical rules can be destructive for the destination. There are many places in the world which have been spoiled by mass tourism and after the development of low cost airlines many cities has lost their “shine. As most of the products also destinations have a lifecycle. It was clearly presented by Butler (1980) in his model of lifecycle of a tourist destination. He evaluated six stages a destination goes through when tourism development takes place: “exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation, concluding with either rejuvenation or decline.” At this stage the destination is visited by small number of tourists who are keen to explore cultural and natural beauty of the place but the number of visitors is limited due to accessibility difficulties and lack of facilities. Here the attraction of the place yet remains unmodified by tourism. In the next stage of involvement advertising and local initiatives are seen as the element of promotion of the destination which results in increase of the tourist number with the pressure on the public sector to develop infrastructure. Next step in the cycle is development in which further initiatives for development of facilities are made by national and multinational companies. In this stage the control of the public sector is necessary as the popularity of the destination and increasing number of visitors may not only be the reason of success but also cause failure and “the destination may suffer a change in quality through problems of over-use and deterioration of facilities” (Butler; 1980;92). The consolidation is the next level of tourism life cycle when tourism becomes a great part of the local community. Next step of stagnation occurs when after reaching peak numbers of visitors the destination is no longer popular and only conservative visitors are still coming back. In this stage the environmental, economical as well as socio-cultural problems can be seen as the reason. The last stage is decline where effort is need to maintain the tourist arrivals by introducing new types of facilities like for example casinos. Prague is only one of the examples of the life cycle destination. The city has become one of the most visited cities in Europe after Czech Republic became a member of EU and after the growth of mobility (Global Travel Industry News; 2010). This beautiful, full of historical monuments city was rejuvenated in the last two decades. The commercialization of the city took place and the old town became surrounded by souvenir vendors, Irish pubs and beer gardens losing its authenticity. Also the prices have gone up and all locals who couldn´t afford been forced to move out of town. It’s one of the examples when the way of making quick cash has prevailed over the unspoiled charm of the historic Prague. Mass tourism has led to the development of sustainable tourism in order to reduce negative impacts of tourism growth. Later in time the concept of Post Fordism was seen as the customers seem to acquire more power in determining market tendencies. According to Contti and Perelli (2004;9), “this change also tend to meet the new demand for environmental friendly tourism products, being new tourists generally perceived as more educated, interested in local communities culture and in a real interaction with the surrounding environment”. Since 1980 the sustainable tourism has began to be an important issue in the tourism industry (Swarbrooke; 1999). By creating a new infrastructure, hotels and businesses the employment is increasing. By travelling people have a chance to experience new cultures and traditions, although not every tourist is keen to do that and some visitors are not interested in it and ignore host communities. Sustainable tourism development is directed especially to create a better understanding of tourism, of how to achieve balance between economic, cultural and environmental aspects of tourism development. It is necessary to encourage people to take responsibility for the environment. Moreover, fair distribution of tourism benefits is necessary and the bigger involvement of local community in the tourism development decisions of their region has to be improved. The sustainable tourism directs to reduce negative impact on environment by introduction of quieter, more fuel efficient aircraft to start from to maximizing economic benefits for the host community rather than the visitors countries. Mass tourism is strongly connected to the high seasonal tourism caused by the great demand of 3’s tourism tourists all over the world (Bramwell; 2004). That is why diversification of tourism like development of rural tourism has been developed to minimize saturation of the beaches in the high seasons and to avoid mass tourism. The development of sustainable tourism in very important for the countries where tourism industry is a main element of the local economy because the traditional beach holidays will decline caused by the saturation if the mass tourism will be increasing with that speed (Swarbrooke; 1999). According to Perry (2001), the climate change caused by humans will result in future modification of the climate conditions for example in the Mediterranean area, whereas the northern and western Europe climate will be improved. In 1992 on the conference in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil the first strategy document on sustainable tourism has been announced – Agenda 21 as the basic economic model of tourism in XXI century (Hanna; 2010). Although, the Agenda 21 has meet various criticism mostly “due to its non-binding treaties allowing most of the recommendations surrounding climate change and various other cultural issues to be ignored by the international community” (Hanna; 2010). Nowadays, alternative forms of tourism have been emphasized but taking in account that even small group tours can be damaging the sustainable tourism is hard to accomplish. Latest debate of Tourism Concern came to a conclusion “that all-inclusive holidays, arguably the epitome of mass-packaged tourism consumption should be banned” (Farrington; 1999 cited in Sharpley and Telfer; 2002; 304). For example Gambia’s tourism authorities have banned all-inclusive holidays in 1999 (Sharpley and Telfer; 2002). It is an effective contribution to the development of destination. This could be a possible solution of applying sustainable tourism into a real life but it is doubtful if it would work for every country. Another alternative solution suggested by France (1997;89) is “the development of holiday complexes which provide artificial ´sun-warm water` environments (e.g. Center Parc villages), located at points of maximum market access” which could be an exit for achieving sustainable tourism just if the great number of people would choose it instead of “normal” holidays. In conclusion, the growth of tourism seems to be inevitably unsustainable. Tourism is giving employment and economic benefits but for example in the Third World countries the division of money is unequal. The powerful developed countries are always going to be stronger than less developed countries if management will not be carefully planned. So even if tourism is bringing money, it is not always bringing it to the right place. Nowadays people blinded by money forgetting about more important things like passing their tradition to the next generation by conserving it. Mass tourism is termed as a neo-colonialism which can be compared to army forces where instead of their invasion we have an invasion of the tourist influx (Dziedzic; 1998). There is no solution to stop people from travelling. The great understanding of negative impacts would lead to better sustainable tourism development but this need a high number of people involved in it which is hard to accomplish as nowadays people don´t think much about the future risk related to the planet because “not to go away is like not possessing a car or a nice house. It is a marker of status in modern societies” (Urry; 1990;4). There is a lack of sustainable understanding and adequate tourism control to develop sustainable tourism. Sustainable tourism will not eliminate negative impacts of tourism but it could be a way to minimize its impact. Because if the growth in mass tourism will continue as fast as it does now the global warming will be arising and some destinations will suffer unbearably high temperatures with an increase in the risk of fire. All those changes will lead tourists to changes in their holiday destinations, which not necessarily means stop of mass tourism. Tourist will continue with transport use even if they will reduce their travels, it will be still environmental damaging. All the facts are coming into conclusion that the best way for sustainable tourism would be staying at home.

The Entrepreneur I Most Admire Commerce Essay

Your assignment requires you to identify an entrepreneur of your choice in this case Richard Branson. The assignment provides a profile brief of the person Richard Branson you have selected to study as an entrepreneur and explain why you have selected him in this case as my choice of study. Using concepts and models learn from module BUS 6360, explain why your choice of person can be classed as an entrepreneur. Critically evaluate what you feel has been the entrepreneurial strategy that your chosen subject has deployed to achieve recognition as an entrepreneur by you. Richard Branson Profile Richard Branson started life as a dyslexic schoolboy who did terribly on the standard IQ test but had an amazing ability to energise the ambition of others. His talents emerged in the late 1960s when he started his own student newspaper that focused on students from a number of schools but not the schools themselves. This business was started with a £4 donation from his mother. In 1970, the government abolished the retail price maintenance agreement but none of the big stores discounted records. Branson saw the opportunity to sell records cheaply to students by running adverts in his magazine. The orders flooded in for both records and subscription to the magazine. Richard rounded up the staff of “Student”, leased an old shoe shop and opened their first record shop named “Virgin”. From these small beginnings Richard Branson is now head of around 400 companies that carry the Virgin name. Branson has no giant head office, very few board meetings, and keeps his enterprise small and relies on empowering people’s ideas to fuel success Nowadays the Virgin group is known for the diversity of products and services it provides, such as Virgin money, Virgin Hotel, Virgin Galactic, Virgin airline, Virgin Broadband. The group employees over 50 000 people throughout the world and had is well respected brand in the world. According to the 2010 Forbes list of billionaires, Richard Branson is ranked among the 212th richest person in the world with a net worth of around $4 billion USD. He is known for having turned his record company into a rail, telecommunication, health care, travel, Entertainment Empire. Richard Branson has revolutionised business through creating great employee culture and running his business based on great consumers service. He is known for his talent in making the workplace an attractive place for the workforce, and managed to attract great employees to work for corporation. Entrepreneur I admire I admire Richard Branson for his ability to motivate people and generate the best performance from his employees. Branson wrote ‘having a personality of caring about people is generally important. You cannot be a good leader unless you generally like people, that is how you bring out the best in them (Branson 2008) such an essential leadership quality – possessing social skills, is not a common trait in leaders. As the CEO, he would approach passengers in the economic class of Virgin Airlines, sit beside them, play with their child and collect feedbacks. Richard Branson possesses several personality traits, namely his endurance for failures contributing to persistence, being a risk taker, possessing emotional intelligence as well as having a drive and achievement motive. In the realm of business, Richard Branson has experienced the equation of success and has experienced his shares of failures. The Virgin group controlled a large amount of business and most of them have been sold or closed or lost most. Despite them Richard Branson ‘always believed in the defy of learning and trying to accomplish something better than in the past’ (Henry et. al 2003). This truly outlines his admirable quality of persistence. Branson believe if someone knows one business therefore the persons knows any business. In addition he also mentioned ‘if can run an airline, you can run a bank. If can run a record company, you can a soft drink company’. Branson has truly proven without debt to be a real risk taker. (Dearlove 2007) One of the aspects I admire from Branson’s character He is self-regulated; he thinks that anger promotes counterproductive thus he tries to remain calm all the time. “Branson believe that his employees should be give top priority”, therefore he spends most of this time motivating people (Morgan 2009). Branson embodies the definition of being drive and achievement motivated, he possesses a strong need to accomplish goals he has set for himself and is willing to take risks, because he feels a sense of joy upon its completion. Branson said, “I always pick myself up and try again. I prepare myself to have another stab at things with the knowledge I’ve gained from the previous failure” (Dearlove 2007). He strongly believes that a setback is never a bad experience; it is just a learning curve. This ability to take risks and having an opportunistic mentality gives him a strategic orientation and makes him proactive in his strong desire to achieve (Henry 2001). Entrepreneurship ‘Entrepreneurship is the process of creating something different with value by devoting the necessary time and effort, assuming the accompanying financial, psychic and social risks, and receiving the resultant rewards of monetary and personal satisfaction.’ Today’s entrepreneurs are equipped with a list of characteristics and skills, providing the building blocks for successful entrepreneurship. Stokes (1998) categorises these skills and characteristics into three headings: Technical skills, encompassing product or service knowledge and an understanding of the marketplace. Management competencies, encompassing the areas of marketing, finance and human relations. Personal attributes, such as having an innovative and determined nature, being equipped with an external focus and being a team leader. The possession by the entrepreneur of these skills and characteristics can aid him when turning his vision into strategy. With small companies and new ventures at high risk of failure, adopting a strategic approach will improve its chances of survival. A successful strategy should provide the direction necessary to allocate the resources of the enterprise in a unique and viable way, taking into account internal strengths and weaknesses and also external opportunities and threats. (Stokes, 1998) Richard Branson demonstrates individualised consideration by giving personal attention to his staff and develops on their needs. He gave his staff opportunities even if they lacked experience and training as a result created the impression that people worked in Virgin for the fun and excitement. For example, when Virgin Airlines made a pit stop at Sydney, he would stay at the hotel with his 200 cabin crew, and communicate with them and find out about their opinions and concerns about their work (Branson 2008). Branson would also walk the floor; write letters indicating his home address and home telephone number to every employee allowing them to voice out problems, suggestions and ideas (Manfred

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