espond to ONE of these two prompts regarding the Tuskegee study:
The Tuskegee experiment is so shocking, many ask how it could have happened. Do you think this type of violation could happen again in the United States? Explain your position and note at least one ethical principle in the Belmont Report (from slides) which can guide researcher actions to protect patient rights.
When the Tuskegee experiments were publicly exposed in the early 1970s, what do you believe was the impact on African Americans and their trust in the healthcare system and research? Using the ethical principles from the Belmont Report (from slides), breifly describe at least one action nurses and researchers can take now to facilitate trust and increase the participation of African Americans in current healthcare research.
Respond to ONE of these prompts regarding Henrietta Lacks and her “immortal cells” (one is from a past perspective and one contemporary):
When Mrs. Lacks’ cells were biopsied and sent to a research lab, there were no protocols for gaining consent from patients for ‘medical waste’ to be used by researchers or sold by the hospital for profit (note this did not change until quite recently in the US). But it is very important that we consider this unique case as nurses and researchers. Briefly describe your thoughts of this practice and, using the ethical principles from the Belmont Report (from slides), identify at least one thing Mrs. Lacks’ nurses and the researchers at Johns Hopkins could have done to protect her rights.
The story of Mrs. Lacks and her cell line was not widely known until a book was published in 2010 (and Oprah Winfrey turned it into a movie). As noted in the article, her cell line contributed to many, many advances in health care while her family remained unaware for a very long time of their genetic line being used. What are your perceptions of this case? What suggestions do you have to address concerns about the situation now?
Respond to ONE of these two prompts regarding the Willowbrook hepatitis study:
Critical knowledge about hepatitis A and B was gained through the Willowbrook study which brought significant benefits to society as a whole. At the same time, the study is used as an example of an ethical violation in research because the children were purposely exposed to hepatitis as part of the experiment. Using the ethical principles from Belmont Report (from slides) and considering participant rights, what do you think about the risks/benefits of this study?
Because Willowbrook’s general wards were full, the only way children could be admitted to the facility was for parents to consent for their children to be admitted to research units and enrolled in the study. How does this impact the requirements of informed consent? Use the ethical principles from the Belmont Report (from slides) to support your answer.