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The first thing you need to do is save this document onto your hard drive or a disk • Then work through your assessment, remembering to save your work regularly • When you’ve finished, print out a copy to keep for reference • Then, go to www. vision2learn. com and send your completed assessment to your tutor via your My Study area – make sure it is clearly marked with your name, the course title and the unit and activity number. Unit two: Explore prejudice and discrimination Name: Assessment 1. Define the terms ‘stereotyping’ and ‘labelling’.

This means to categorise a group of people based on certain characteristics or behaviour. For example, calling all people who wear black clothing a ‘Goth’. A stereotype is often just a general assumption. Labelling: This means to place a label on someone which will place them in a certain category. This can often have negative effects on people. If they have been labelled in a certain way many times then they can start to actually begin to behave like the given label. 2. Why do people stereotype? People often stereotype in order to deal with differences that they do not understand or dislike.

This helps them feel safe and to think that they can justify actions by doing so. If people use a negative stereotype about a group of people this makes them feel superior and they think that their values and beliefs are right. 3. a) Give an example of a stereotype that might be used about a teenager. All teenagers are smoking, drinking, hoodie criminals. b) Where might you find this? This stereotype is used all over the media at the moment. It seems to be in the paper and news every day. 4. Explain what might happen if you labelled someone as a ‘trouble maker’.

Often when someone is continually labelled in the same way, they can adopt that behaviour and be true to the label. This is due to your self image partly being made of the way other people label you. This is called self-fulfilling prophecy. 5. Stereotyping can lead to various outcomes. Identify the meanings of the following: Oppression This means an unjust force of power, force or authority over people. Disempowerment This means to have no power or influence. Discrimination This means unfair or unequal treatment to a certain group of people based on a shared characteristic.

Exploitation This means to use something or someone for personal gain, without regard for that person or thing. Denial of rights This means that a person’s freedom of rights has been stopped or blocked. 6. Give two examples of how stereotypes and labels can be created. a) The media have a strong influence on creating stereotypes and labels. As the media have a massive audience this is the most powerful way. b) People in power or work etc create both stereotypes and labels. 7. What external factors can influence individuals’ prejudices?

External factors that influence people’s prejudices are the same as the ones that influence stereotyping and labelling. – Media, i. e. newspapers, magazines, television, advertising. – People at work, in powerful positions, friends, family. – Governments, authorities, businesses. 8. a) What is the meaning of ‘prejudice’? This means to have a preconceived opinion, a biased opinion, before all the facts are known. b) Give an example of prejudice. The Holocaust was based on prejudice. The Germans believed that they were more powerful and superior to the Jews and discriminated against them for that.

They were thought to not be worthy of having a life with choices. 9. a) What is the meaning of ‘discrimination’? This means unfair or unequal treatment of a person in equal circumstances. b) Give an example of discrimination. There are a number of different types of discrimination; ages, race, sexual, disability. An example of discrimination: You are a female security guard at work and you wish to wear trousers, like your male colleges.

However, you have been told that all women must wear skirts. This is sexual discrimination as you are being discriminated against for being female and are not given the same choices. 0. a) Identify three types of discrimination. – Sexual discrimination – Age discrimination – Racial discrimination b) What do you understand by the term ‘multiple discrimination’? This means that a person suffers from more then one discrimination and prejudice, such as their race and gender. This can have major effects on them as a person. 11. Explain how a person may suffer from multiple discrimination and how it might affect them. Being a subject of multiple discrimination can cause major effects on a persons self esteem and self confidence, making them feel very low.

It can affect their choices in life, such as career and living choices. Their health may also be affected by this. 12. List the areas of everyday activities where discrimination can take place. – Work – School – Social occasions – Everyday situations, such as shopping – In the media, such as papers, magazines, TV. 13. There are two types of discrimination recognised by the law. These are indirect and direct. Give an example of each. Direct Mr Smith is a 61 year old Asian male working in a pub as a bar tender. The manager has received complaints from customers saying that they do not like being served by Mr Smith.

The manager decides to end Mr Smith’s employment with the pub due to staff cut backs. Mr Smith is being personally being discriminated against, this could be due to his age or race. Indirect A hotel has a staff uniform policy that no headwear is to be worn at all times. This is an example of indirect discrimination as this will affect Jews who wear a yarmulke, Sikhs who wear a turban or Muslims who wear a topi etc. 14. State three laws that have been passed in the UK to stop discrimination and say which groups they are designed to help. – The Race Relations Act 1976 (amended 2000 and 2003)

This law is designed to help stop discrimination based on race, nationality, colour or ethic origin, in areas such as employment, housing and education. – The Disability Discrimination Act 1996 (amended 2005) This law is to help stop discrimination against people with disabilities, in areas such as education, buying and renting, housing and in some employments. – The Sexual Discrimination Act 1975 (amended 1986, 1999 and 2003) This law is designed to stop discrimination on the grounds of sex in the areas of employment, education, housing and providing goods and service. 15. a) Explain the meaning of the term ‘racism’.

Racism means discrimination of a person based on the colour of their skin, their ethnicity or beliefs. b) Give an example of racism. A Chinese restaurant advertises for a waitress position and has 2 interviewees for the job. One female Chinese woman and one female England woman. Both women are equally qualified for the position and are available as soon as needed. However, the position is offered to the Chinese woman, to be in ‘theme’ with the restaurant and the current staff. This is racial discrimination against the English woman as she was not chosen for the position only on the basis that she is not Chinese.

Explain the meaning of the term ‘ageism’. This is discrimination against someone’s age. This is usually found in employment, discriminating against older people. b) Give an example of ageism. Two men have applied for the same position as a mechanic. One man is 29 and has little experience and the other man is 59 and has over 20 years experience. After the interviews, the position was offered to the 29 year old. This is age discrimination against the 59 year old as he was more qualified for the position and could have not been offered the job due to his age. 17. Give an example of when an employer can justify discrimination.

This can be for a reason like insurance purposes. In certain jobs such as a job as a Chef in a kitchen, machines and tools needed to be used will only be covered from a certain age in the employers insurance. 18. a) Explain the meaning of the term ‘sexism’. Sexism is discrimination against a person based on their biological sex. It is usually the case that one sex believes they are ‘better’ and more powerful than the other. b) Give an example of sexism. An example of this is when women were paid less then men for doing the same job. This has now been stopped by introducing The Equal Pay Act. 19. )

Explain the meaning of the term ‘disablism’. This is where people with a disability have been discriminated against. b) Give an example of disablism. A female with learning disabilities wants to apply for a job but she feels she needs someone to accompany her to the interview. She asks the interview if this is ok and they tell her that she can not have anyone accompany her. She has been discriminated against because of her disability as having someone accompany her to an interview is her right. This could also be translated to the employers not wanting to interview someone with a disability. 20.

In the workplace, someone consistently refers to an older person as a ‘moaner’. a) Why is this prejudicial language? They are judging the older person by using a preconception of them which may have been pressed onto them by peers, family members etc, or from media such as TV and newspapers. They believe older people to be moaners and used the opinion of them onto this older person. b) Why is this prejudicial behaviour? The older person may not actually be a moaner and accuser has linked these two opinions together and is acting in a prejudicial manner towards them, without necessarily finding out if this is the truth or not. ) What effect could this have on the person? This person may feel that they have been called this for so long that they become a ‘moaner’. This is call self-fulfilling prophecy.

From your own experience, give an example of one situation in which someone might use prejudicial language and behaviour. a) What might they say? As I work in an industry that deal with a lot of different people, nationalities and cultures, there are times when people will use prejudicial language and behaviour for no reason other then to offend. The main situations are usually prejudicial language, such as ‘you fat old lazy cow’ etc. ) What might they do? Usually this does not lead on to any physical behaviour but leads to obvious friction unless the situation is defused quickly.

State one opportunity that existed for men but not for women prior to the Sex Discrimination Act. Men were not discriminated against for being married and were allowed to work in any chosen field. Well done! Now go to www. vision2learn. com and send your completed work to your tutor via your My Study area. If you’re not sure how to do this, or need a quick reminder, follow the instructions in Getting started.

Cities as Experience

Cities as Experience.

Cities as Experience

You are to convey how and what you think about cities based on your experiences living in or near them, or visiting them.This is NOT to be a litany of where you have lived or traveled.It is to be a thoughtful analysis of your ideas about cities, of what your own urban experiences have meant to you, and how they have shaped your thinking about cities.

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