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Environmental Toxicology and Human Health

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Environmental Toxicology and Human Health Environmental Toxicology is a field of science with various disciplines involved in the study of the adverse effects of various physical, chemical and biological agents on living organisms particularly animals, birds and fishes (Philp, 2001, pp. 10-11). Physical agents. They are sources of energy that may have negative effects on human health and that of biological organisms such as fish, birds and animals (Philp, 2001, pp. 20-25). One such agent is noise which can be defined as unwanted sound. Noise has both permanent and temporary damage to the ears rendering one incapable of hearing or resulting to tinnitus both of which are irreparable (McCally, 2002, pp. 58-67). Noise in the workplace also poses a threat to the workers in that they may fail to hear sounds indicating threats. Vibration, also a physical agent is categorized into two: hand-arm vibration (HAV) and whole body vibration (WBV). Continuous exposure to HAV has been proven to lead to hand-arm vibration syndrome a permanent and incapacitating health effect such as musculoskeletal disorders of the hand (McCally, 2002). On the other hand, continued exposure to WBV is associated with severe pain on the lower posterior. Optical radiation also has some grim effects on the health of people. Ultraviolet radiation emanated by the sun presents the utmost danger to our health. When exposed to the eyes it may lead to spoiled cornea and severe pain while exposure on the skin may vary from burning, redness and hastened ageing through skin cancer of different types. Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) generated due to electrical energy used may also be detrimental (Philp, 2001). Though they seldom occur, constant exposure to the EMFs can result to severe effects depending on the frequency of the radiation. Electricity can also be viewed as a threat since it may lead to death or severe injuries such as electric burns, thermal burns and electric burns to people. Last but not least we have ionizing radiation. Contact with low-level ionizing radiations may lead to cancer and DNA mutations while high-level exposures cause radiation sicknesses and burns (Philp, 2001). Biological agents. These include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and toxins associated with them. While some of these agents have no harmful implication on the human health, others have the potential to affect the human health in various ways ranging from moderately mild, allergic reactions to serious medical illnesses even demise. These agents occur widely in the environment (Environmental Toxicology And Human Health, n.d.). Biological agents have the capacity to reproduce rapidly, require little resources to live and can poison at very small doses thus they are a probable danger in a widely in our environment. Biological agents can be categorized into four sets according to their severity of infection and likelihood of prevention and treatment (McCally, 2002, pp. 150-200). Group 1 agents are those with low chances of causing ill effects to the organisms. Group two consists those toxicities that are unsafe for the workers but chances of spreading to the community are very minimal. Group 3 agents are those that can cause severe human disease, pose a serious threat to the workers and are likely to spread to the community. However, these toxicities can be treated. Group 4 agents are similar to group 3 agents except for the fact that there is no effective management for them. These are some of the most contagious and extensive biological agents: anthrax, botulism, avian flu, and Ebola (Environmental Toxicology And Human Health, n.d.). Chemical agents. These are as a result of the products we use in our day to day doings. Pesticides are a perfect instance of chemical toxins (Lakind). Pesticides persist in the environment long after their use which can result in bioaccumulation of chemicals in various organisms along with biomagnification within a group of organisms that depend on each other for food. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is another agent that was banned due to its negative effects on living organisms (Lakind). The reactions chemical toxicities is dependent on several factors that I will briefly discuss. Age is a significant aspect in establishing the response to a toxic chemical (Lakind). For example, parathion is more lethal to young animals. Although very rare, sex can determine the response to a toxicant. For instance, when exposed to parathion the female rat is twice as affected as the male rat. The responses to a toxic chemical also depends on the species (Safe). For example, insecticides are lethal to insects but relatively non-toxic to animals. Toxicity of a chemical is determined by factors such as: the dosage-it is the most critical factor if a substance will be acute or a chronic toxicant (Lakind). The form that a chemical agent is in also defines its toxicity. For instance, the poisonousness of mercury in gas form is very different from methyl mercury. The entry point of a toxin is also a measure of its toxicity. One other factor is the rate of removal from an organism’s system. According to Paracelsus all substances are poisons only the dose differentiates whether it is a poison or a remedy (Safe). Exposure assessment is the process of establishing the regularity, period and expansiveness of exposure to toxicities together with the traits and number of the population exposed. Methods of exposure assessment include direct and indirect approach (Philp, 2001, pp. 100-108). In direct approach exposure to the agents is determined by monitoring the pollutant concentrations reaching the person while in indirect approach the toxicant concentration is measured during specific human activities to predict the exposure distributions within a population (McCally, 2002). Epidemiology is important to research studies of environmental health since many environmental exposures can be addressed only by comparing populations instead of individuals and the interruption of both local and universal environments require us to come up with new methods of study design that is epidemiology. The epidemiologic approach to studying environmental health problems has its limitations. One of such constraint is the quick changes in the health and nutritional status of many populations that have been affected majorly which may lead to inconclusive results (Safe). Another limitation is the fact that data collected through epidemiology is often ignored and limited by factors such as limited resources, personal priorities, political concerns and public relations (Philp, 2001). Since epidemiology depends on valid data, restriction on the gathering of data can be considered a constraint. This may be due to insecurity or lack of resources preventing the researchers from submitting surveillance data (Safe). References. Environmental Toxicology And Human Health. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://docsfiles.com/pdf_environmental_toxicology_and_human_health.html Lakind, J. S. (n.d.). Workshop on Human Milk Surveillance and Research on Environmental Chemicals in the United States. journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. McCally, M. (2002). Life support the environment and human health. MIT Press. Philp, R. B. (2001). Ecosystems and human health: toxicology and environmental hazards. Lewis Publishers. Safe, S. (n.d.). Toxicology, Structure-Function Relationship, and Human and Environmental Health Impacts of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Progress and Problems. Environmental Health Perspectives. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

Identity in clothing

THE CREATION OF IDENTITY THROUGH CLOTHING The work of Alison Lurie (Lurie, 1983) “The Language of Clothes” and Didier Gondola’s (Gondola, 2010) “La Sape Exposed! High Fashion among Lower-Class Congolese Youth” will be discussed in order to examine the concept of creating an identity through fashion. The first idea of discussion is Lurie’s concept (Lurie, 1983: 6) “Colour and Conformity”. Secondly Gondola’s comments on the Sapeurs. The third paragraph, applying the Lurie concept of Colour and Conformity to the Sapeurs and lastly the Colour and Conformity of Lurie, applied to the Smarteez. Lurie states (Lurie, 1983: 1) “Today, as semiotics become fashionable, sociologists tell us that fashion too is a language of signs, a nonverbal system of communication”. In Gondola and Corrigall’s articles, they discuss the way the sub-culture groups, Sapeurs and Smarteez used extravagant, colourful fashion to rise above their challenged, impoverished circumstances to create a flamboyant identity. Lurie’s (1983) article “The Language of Clothes” argues that wearing clothes is a form of language interpreted by all. Lurie states (Lurie, 1983:1) “…human beings have communicated with one another first in the language of dress…” In the section “Colour and conformity” Lurie mentions that psychologists discovered, looking at different colours may alternate our vital signs and emotions (Lurie, 1983: 1). Lurie justifies this by claiming that when someone is approached, the first thing that occupies the visual field is the colour of clothing having a great effect on the nervous system. (Lurie, 1983:2) “Loud, clashing colours, like loud noises […] may actually hurt our eyes or give us a headache…”. This implies that (Lurie, 1983:2) “Colour in dress is also like tone of voice in speech…”. A white evening dress communicates a different message than a scarlet one. (Lurie, 1983:2) According to Lurie (Lurie, 1983:3) “Convention alters the meaning of colours according to the place and time at which they are worn.” The corporate environment requires conventional dress code to communicate status, but the same people would wear colourful eveningwear, suggesting that not dressing in the recognized range of colour for given situations, attracts unfavorable attention. To the Sapeurs, making an immediate impact with their colourful clothing was of greater importance than the attention they received. In his article “La Sape Exposed! High Fashion Among Lower-Class Congolese Youth” (Gondola, 2010: 157) Gondola comments on the Sapeurs, the oppression faced and the new identity created in response to that. French colonialism brought to Africa, a mission to civilize the people. Gondola states (Gondola, 2010: 158) “…their mission civilisatrice was predicated on redeeming […] “primitive minds”[…] “primitive bodies” of the “naked people”. During the 1920s, the word sape(dress) and se saper (to dress fashionably) was used to describe the fashion energy that characterized Parisian socialites. (Gondola, 2010: 158) They influenced the young Sapeurs to dress fashionably, even over dress. Gondola comments (Gondola, 2010: 160) “…Congolese houseboys spurned their masters secondhand clothes […] spending their meager wages extravagantly to acquire the latest fashions from Paris”. After independence of the Congo’s in 1960, young Congolese flocked to Europe, because of economic chaos. Their dreams of a new life hindered by discrimination. Gondola argues (Gondola, 2010: 165) “…la sape became a refuge that enabled them to forge new identities away from home…” Gondola’s writing highlights that the sapeurs overcame their struggles by allowing fashion to be the essence of their identity through the use of vibrant suits. (Obv.org.uk, 2015) “Within this society, men are encouraged to have their own sense of style, bringing an individualised definition of sophistication and elegance that suits each character and enriches the group as a whole”. This image of the Sapeurs is an example of Gondala’s comment (Gondola, 2010: 158) “One could easily spot them strolling down the boulevards […] in expensive and flamboyant attire”. Combining a maximum of three colours was their idea of perfection. (Michalon, 2015) “The ways of Sapeology are impenetrable for any Sapeologist who does not know the rule of 3: a trilogy of finished and unfinished colours”. They had to know the rules of elegance, which implied matching colours harmoniusly without being excessive. (Gondola, 2010) The loud and striking message the Sapeurs portray in this image does not have a negative effect, as Lurie implies (Lurie, 1983: 2) because of their stylish matching of colours. Like the Sapeurs overcame their obstacles through their fashion identity, the Smarteez also formed an identity through their excessive colourful attire. In her article “AGAINST THE MACHINE: THE ‘SMARTEEZ’ FASHION A NEW POST-APARTHEID IDENTITY” Mary Corrigall writes about the Smarteez (Corrigall, 2011: 2) “a youth-driven street fashion sub-culture”. The image of the group above reflects their striking outfits. (Corrigall, 2011: 2) “The Smarteez outfits are garish and excessively colourful and thus immediately recognisable as in the vein of dandyism in which the subjects appear like costumed objects”. Lurie argues (Lurie, 1983: 4) “ some people may avoid colours they like because of the belief […] that they are unbecoming, while others may wear colours they dislike for symbolic reasons”. The defining feature of the Smarteez was combining primary colours in their outfits, referring to their name,“ a bright sugar-coated chocolate confection”. (Corrigall, 2011: 3) The name smart refers to their formal wear and intellectual acuity. (Corrigall, 2011: 3) “…the Smarteez attire is a parody of the middle class values”. According to Lurie (Lurie, 1983: 1) “…dress is a continual manifestation of intimate thoughts, a language and a symbol.” Rejecting those who did not wear brightly coloured clothes. Therefore they set out to create their own unique identity. The aim of this essay was to assess Lurie’s (1983) “The Language of Clothes”, specifically her discussion of “Colour and Conformity” and Didier Gondola’s (Gondola, 2010) “La Sape Exposed! […] Congolese Youth” by examining the concept of creating identity through fashion. Lurie comments on clothing as a language that communicates. Using colour attracts favorable or unfavorable attention. The Sapeurs created an accomplished and wealthy identity through colourful clothing, their flamboyance making immediate impact. The Smarteez valued their brightly coloured clothing to the extent of rejecting those that did not conform. Therefore these subcultural groups rose above their struggles by creating new identities through fashion. Bibliography Gondola, D. (2010) ‘La Sape Exposed! High Fashion among Lower-Class Congolese Youth’. Gott, S.L.K. (ed.) Contemporary African Fashion, 1st edition, Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Lurie, A. (1983) The Language of clothes, Random House Inc. Leroux, D. (2014) Forget the hipster fashion, preppy, preppy golden swag. Nothing compares to the Fire of Congo, 11 Nov, [Online], Available: http://www.tonbarbier.com/2014/11/11/oubliez-la-mode-hipster-preppy-bcbg-ou-le-swag-rien-nest-comparable-aux-sapeurs-du-congo [24 May 2015]. Edsuter (2015) The Smarteez | Ed Suter, [Online], Available: http://edsuter.com/my-work/the-smarteez/ [24 May 2015]. Obv.org.uk (2015) Sapeurs: The creativity of African fashionistas | OBV, [Online], Available: http://www.obv.org.uk/news-blogs/sapeurs-creativity-african-fashionistas [24 May 2015]. Michalon, N. (2015) Sussing out “La Sape”: fashion, science or religion? – Clique.tv, 07 Apr, [Online], Available: http://www.clique.tv/en/enquete-sur-la-sape-mode-science-ou-religion/ [24 May 2015]. Corrigall, M. (2011) ‘Against the Machine: The ‘Smarteez’ Fashion a new post-apartheid identity’, Fashion Conference, Oxford, 1-4. 1

Polycultural Education: Overview and Reflection

online homework help The problem of enhancement of education belongs to a number of those pedagogical problems which don’t lose the relevance eventually. The modern situation in modern society is characterized by the growth of the local ethnic conflicts. Tasks of preserving safety in modern society require continuous work on studying the nature of the conflicts between representatives of various ethnic groups, their influences on the social and economic life of society, and also search of ways of their overcoming. All this sets serious problems for education which can’t but react to the taking place events in society. The experience of foreign countries, in particular, the USA, shows that educational institutions are the main structures where the purposeful uniting and peacekeeping policy is pursued. Therefore, education can help society to bring up youth in the spirit of the humane attitude towards representatives of other cultures and to find effective methods of a decrease in international hostility which can be applicable in a social environment in one hand and in another hand can help to improve students’ grades. Nowadays, researchers propose a theory of culturally focused pedagogy that might be considered in the reformation of teacher education. According to Lopez, (2016), “some researchers assert that culturally responsive teaching (CRT) improves academic achievement because it views students’ culture and language as strengths.” All schools have their ratings, and parents usually want to send their children to that school where the ratings are very high. Also, parents look for schools where their children can feel themselves comfortable in other words, in their “plates”. As an educational leader, I would like to incorporate cultural pedagogies at my school. According to that place where teachers will work, we should prepare future teachers with following requisite teacher beliefs. They are high expectations, cultural knowledge, cultural content integration, and of course language. Firstly, I would like to speak about high expectations. There are so many cultures, which are mixed in every country during the globalization and the role of all teachers be closer to their students helping them to overcome any academicals issues which they will face. According to Villegas and Lucas (2002) state, “Teachers’ attitudes toward students significantly shape the expectations they hold for student learning, their treatment of students, and what students ultimately learn” (p. 23). It means that all teachers are responsible for their students’ performance. Teachers should make standards-based content and curricula accessible to students and teach in a way that students can understand using aspects of their cultures. Once students feel comfortable with how a teacher talks and discusses academic material, they will feel comfortable enough to focus and try to learn the content. For example, in my country when I became a class teacher, I had a class with bad ratings. There were many children from problematic families. I mean, not full families, where they don’t have father or mother or both of them. Children were psychologically closed in their inner world. All teachers didn’t want to go and teach them because children didn’t take a part in discussion or activities during the lesson. And of course, their marks were really bad. It was for me very hard to understand those children, but I did. I started to spend more time with them, and every time I told them you are the best and you can change the world. I encouraged them with sports and they won sports competition at the school. They were very happy. Next, my step was to improve their knowledge. I told them that they won sports Olympiad at the school and it means they are not bad. If they could do it, they can do the best in their subjects too. And they did. I was very satisfied when all my children started to show good results at school. The second, in my opinion, is much important to have cultural knowledge. To know how to teach them using their cultures, traditions and teaching styles. I mean how to behave yourself. New teachers should know all about students’ culture and the books which they will use in their classes should have included famous and well-known people from local culture. It will keep students’ attention during the class in one hand and in another hand they will learn many interesting facts which they didn’t know before. The treatment of differences as traits, however, may be in part due to the emphasis on differences in ways students learn, and how these merit considerations by teachers. Gay (2002), for example, states that “Culture encompasses many things, some of which are more important to know than others because they have direct implications for teaching and learning. Among these are ethnic groups’ cultural values, traditions, communication, learning styles, contributions, and relational patterns” (p.107). The CRT literature is consistent in the need to validate students’ cultural experiences as knowledge. Avoiding the reduction of cultural experiences as traits, cultural knowledge is also represented in constructivist views of learning, where “learners use their prior knowledge and beliefs . . . to make sense of the new input” (Villegas

Organizational Charts

Organizational Charts.

In this assignment, you will determine the allocation of new employees that you have been authorized to hire in order to carry out the organizational goals identified in the Unit 2 assignment. You will do this for your declared functional area as well as for the human resources area.Follow these steps to complete this project component (all of the required documents are given in the Resources):Download the document Executive Department Management Sheet.Read the information to understand your directives and parameters, and then use the information to revise the organizational charts for the human resources area and your declared functional area.Download the organizational chart for the human resources area.Review the organizational chart to determine where the new resources are to be assigned.Revise the organizational chart to reflect the allocation of resources to be added.Include, at the bottom of the revised organizational chart, a justification for your decisions.Download the organizational chart for the declared functional area.Review the organizational chart to determine where the new resources are to be assigned.Revise the organizational chart to reflect the allocation of resources to be added.Include, at the bottom of the revised organizational chart, a justification for your decisions.Prepare a one-page reflection write up on the revised organizational charts you just completed for the human resource area and your declared functional area, which addresses the following questions:How does the chain of command influence or affect your role as manager? How does it affect the organizational functions?What research was used to support your work, in determining the new organizational chart? Use APA style and formatting to cite your sources.What current or past experience did you draw from, if any?Use Microsoft Office Word, Excel, or PowerPoint to create your revised organizational charts. If you need additional support in using these programs, review the respective Microsoft Office tutorials listed in the Resources.Prior to submitting your assignment, review the project description and Organizational Charts Scoring Guide to ensure you have met the overall project requirements and all of the criteria for this assignment.Submit these three items as attachments to the assignment area:Revised organizational chart for the human resources area.Revised organizational chart for the functional area you chose (sales and marketing, accounting and finance, or operations and production).Reflection write up.
Organizational Charts

NYU The Development of Science & Scientists & The Definition of Cosmos Discussion

NYU The Development of Science & Scientists & The Definition of Cosmos Discussion.

please assess how the role of the “scientist” and the process of “scientific inquiry” has evolved from a benign and introspective endeavor to a more malevolent, perhaps amoral, and hedonistic process.
In other words, what role did the individual play initially in his/her definition of the cosmos and how did this vision become thwarted?  Was the scientist compelled to change his/her world or did the modern world mold the scientist? How so?
Please be specific in your citations from each text and author. 
You must incorporate three citations from each text.
Your paper should be between 3-5 pages in length, double-spaced
NYU The Development of Science & Scientists & The Definition of Cosmos Discussion