English as a Global Language International English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and also the movement towards an international standard for the language. It is also referred to as Global English, World English, Common English, Continental English, or General English. Sometimes, these terms refer simply to the array of varieties of English spoken throughout the world. Sometimes, “international English” and the related terms above refer to a desired standardisation, i. e.Standard English; however, there is no consensus on the path to this goal.
divides the use of English into three concentric circles. The inner circle is the traditional base of English and includes countries such as the United Kingdom and Ireland and the anglophone populations of the former British colonies of the United States, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Canada, and various islands of the Caribbean, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. In the outer circle are those countries where English has official or historical importance (“special significance”).This includes most of the countries of the Commonwealth of Nations (the former British Empire), including populous countries such as India, Pakistan and Nigeria; and others, such as the Philippines, under the sphere of influence of English-speaking countries. Here English may serve as a useful lingua franca between ethnic and language groups. Higher education, the legislature and judiciary, national commerce, and so on, may all be carried out predominantly in English. The expanding circle refers to those countries where English has no official role, but is nonetheless important for certain functions, notably international business.
This use of English as a lingua franca by now includes most of the rest of the world not categorised above.  An interesting anecdote is the developing role of English as a lingua franca among speakers of the mutually intelligible Scandinavian languages (Danish, Norwegian and Swedish). Older generations of Scandinavians would use and understand each others’ mother tongue without problems. However, today’s younger generations lack the same understanding and some have begun using English as the language of choice.  Research on English as a lingua franca in the sense of “English in the Expanding
How did sexism and racism impact the efficiency and effectiveness of NASA operations?
How did sexism and racism impact the efficiency and effectiveness of NASA operations?.
For the topic of the paper, I need you to analyze aspects of the Hidden Figures movie from the perspective of various theories we have studied in the course. For example, you might want to consider some of the following (see below). Feel free to pick 3 or 4 topics, or choose your own. NOTE: YOU DO NOT NEED TO PICK TOPICS FROM ALL 12 CHAPTERS!!!! I am grading on QUALITY of analysis not QUANTITY. Therefore, please do not just write about a laundry list of scenes from the movie. I am not looking for a movie review, but rather I want you to use the film to illustrate and analyze theories we have studied, and that you have written and been tested about. Chapters and Content Possible Topics you could write about from the Film in your paper: (Pick 3 or 4, or something of your own choosing!)
1. How did sexism and racism impact the efficiency and effectiveness of NASA operations?
2. What personality traits of managers aided (or hindered) the successful goals of NASA?
3. From a stakeholder perspective, describe an ethical dilemma faced in the film? Was it resolved? 4. What challenges did NASA face operating in the global environment? How did the female mathematicians help NASA face those challenges? 5. How would you characterize the decision-making processes conducted at NASA? What were the pro’s and con’s of their approaches? 6. What was NASA’s mission statement at that time? How did they seek a competitive advantage to achieve that mission?
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