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Engineering Report: Household Appliances – Refrigerator

Engineering Report: Household Appliances – Refrigerator Introduction- Refrigerator After a long day at work, you come home, open your refrigerator and take out a nice cold drink. Ever wonder why it is so nice and cold? In this report, I will be explaining how the refrigerator came about. The main reason for any refrigerator is to keep food/drinks cold as cold temperatures help keep food fresh for longer. Main idea of the refrigerator is to slow down bacteria activity in the food so it takes longer to spoil. Brief History The refrigerated coil was invented by Ibn Sina in the 11th Century. This was one of the essential advancements towards the modern refrigerator. The refrigerated coil was used to condense vapours. William Cullen went to the University of Glasgow and demonstrated the first artificial refrigeration system in 1748. He never did use his discovery for practical purposes though. 1805, Oliver Evans designed the first refrigeration machine that didn’t use liquid to cool and instead used vapour to cool. 1834, Jacob Parkins built the first Refrigeration machine for practical use. 1844, John Gorrie built a refrigerator in 1844 based on the design of Oliver Evans. It was used to produce ice for cooling the air for the Yellow Fever patients at the time. The first practical use of the refrigerator for food was invented by James Harrison in 1857, In 1859, Ferdinand Carre used the same idea but made it more complex. He developed a system that use ammonia for cooling instead of condense vapours. During 1876, Carl von Linden invented the Liquefying gas process which revolutionised the technology in the refrigerator. General Electric released the first refrigeration systems. Freon then used and marketed them as a lower toxicity alternative then the previous refrigerators in the early 1920s. The Refrigerator has changed majorly impacting the modern society and how food is being stored and kept fresh for longer periods of time. In the modern society, the refrigerator can be kept in many important places such as kitchens as well as offices and pharmacies. How it works Refrigerators do something called the ‘Vapor compression cycle’ The basic principle is to run cold liquid continuously around the object that needs to be cooled. This process will take heat out of the object. The refrigerator needs 5 crucial components, the fluid refrigerant, a compressor, the condenser coil, the evaporator coils and an expansion device. It all starts with the compressor. This controls the flow of the refrigerant, It raises its pressure and then pushes the refrigerant vapor into the coil on the outside of the refrigerator (normally the back). The hot gas will meet the normally cool temperatures of the kitchen which turns it into a medium heat liquid. The refrigerant now cools down as it flows into the coil inside the fridge and/or freezer. The refrigerant absorbs the heat given off from the objects inside. Ends up resulting cooling down the air when everything is cooled to the max temperature. The refrigerant evaporates to a gas when exciting the refrigerator and back to the compressor. This process can be a nonstop process that can work up to 13 years nowadays. A diagram of how the refrigeration process Different Shapes and Types of Refrigerator Refrigerators come in a variety of shapes and sizes, from basic to feature-rich models. Some famous designs are the following: Top Freezer Refrigerators A fridge that is designed to for a lot of storage in a fairly tight spot. It is a traditional fridge shape that is typically 80cm wide and can hold up to 622 litres of storage. This allows the wide swing of the doors and the low reach for the lower shelves and drawers. Bottom Freezer These refrigerators/freezers typically range around 92 cm wide and has a capacity of 850 litres. The usable space is less than that compared of top-freezers but instead, your fridge shelves are easily scan-able. Only real downside of this is that you will have to dig down into your frozen goods. French Door The French door refrigerator has two narrow doors at the top and a freezer below. Typically, around 90cm wide. Usable space cannot be compared to the top-freezer models as the swing doors have the added value of a lot more shelves on the doors. Most of these have the added in-door water and ice dispensers. Side-by-side This style has one side fridge and freezer on the other. Widths typically around 95 cm and holds roughly 850 litres in capacity. These narrow doors work well for small kitchens but they don’t open wide enough for wide objects as each side is not that wide. But overall, not as energy or space efficient. Counter Depth These have a lower profile than other fridges made for blending in with the build-in cupboards and selves for an all-in-one look. They may look nicer with the styles of the kitchen but they generally offer less storage. These designs tend to be costlier than your standard refrigerators. Compact Fridges Smaller versions of the traditional refrigerators and generally for dorm rooms or home offices. They usually have no freezing capacity, Freezer-less Refrigerators As the name states, this does not have a freezing compartment. Usually used for cooling fresh foods. Great option if you don’t need to freeze a lot of foods or have a separate freezing department. Refrigerator Drawers These refrigerators hide under the countertop just like your washing machine. These can be pulled out and you to access fresh foods and perishables. Often seen in luxury apartment and kitchens and are normally expensive. Howe ever these cannot hold frozen foods and are not energy efficient. Wine and Cold drink coolers Designed to keep wine and cold drinks cooled. These could range from your small compartment fridge to your traditionally sized fridge to the full-sized fridge able to store hundreds of bottles. Modern designs are able to keep different wines at different set temperatures. Materials used/Analysis The doors of the refrigerator are typically made of Aluminium or steel sheets. Metal skin on the outside does not only give the door its strength and rigidity but also supports the weight of the food in the door pockets. Insulation between the inner and outer cabinets consists of fiberglass. Fiberglass is used due to its lightweight, extremely strong and also a robust metal. Typically, far less brittle and less expensive. Components of the cooling system are typically made from aluminium, copper, or an alloy. Tubing is usually copper due to the metal’s ability to bend without breaking. Freon remains one of the most commonly used refrigerant. Freon is a stable, non-flammable, moderately toxic gasses/liquid. Most interior features such as cabinet liners or doors are made from a vacuumed-formed plastic because of its price for the strength it provides. Conclusion Not many improvements for the refrigerator could be changed in this time. Research has shown the best properties for each section of the refrigerator at the best price. Modern day refrigerators compared to the olden day ones are much more better designed and more powerful while energy efficient. The modern-day refrigerator has been tested safer, more energy efficient and stronger than it has ever been. Many materials were tested for best efficacy before designed and up for sale. Bibliography How refrigerator is made – material, making, used, parts, components, steps, machine. 2017. How refrigerator is made – material, making, used, parts, components, steps, machine. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Refrigerator.html. [Accessed 20 March 2017]. eBay. 2017. What Are all the Different Types of Refrigerators? | eBay. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ebay.com/gds/What-Are-all-the-Different-Types-of-Refrigerators-/10000000177628294/g.html. [Accessed 20 March 2017]. Real Simple. 2017. How Does a Refrigerator Work? – Real Simple. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.realsimple.com/food-recipes/tools-products/appliances/how-does-refrigerator-work. [Accessed 20 March 2017]. HowStuffWorks. 2017. The Purpose of Refrigeration – How Refrigerators Work | HowStuffWorks. [ONLINE] Available at: http://home.howstuffworks.com/refrigerator1.htm. [Accessed 20 March 2017].

Isolation of Caffeine From Tea

James Maitland Xanthines are purine alkaloids synthesised in plants such as coffee, tea, and cacao, with the most known xanthine being caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. Their production is limited in the aforementioned plant species compared to other plant alkaloids such as morphine, nicotine and strychnine, which are widely expressed across the plant kingdom. Caffeine is the world’s most consumed psychoactive drug, with approximately 74% of it used as beverages, 25% utilised for pharmaceutical formulations and the remainder for other purposes.3 It is chemically known as 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, with a complex purine-based structure, chemically associated to adenine and guanine found in DNA and RNA Caffeine’s also found in human tissues as well as various organisms. It is appreciated for its role in stimulating the CNS, kidneys, bronchial smooth muscle and relaxing the cardiac muscle.2,3 As a therapeutic, caffeine is administered as a powdered form, but the psychoactive substance found in tea leaves constitutes 2-5% caffeine per weight. Caffeine is used to treat apnea of prematurity, fatigue, in analgesic preparations with aspirin and paracetamol, and in various other roles including night duties (promoting alerting effect by antagonising adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the brain), and in sports as a performance-enhancer. Because of the prerequisites for its usage in beverages and its significant potential in the pharmaceutical industry, caffeine has been isolated primarily from coffee. However, the increasing demand for naturally derived caffeine for consumption necessitates additional other sources, for its extraction.4 Contrastive to its utilisation and because it is unregulated, there has been increasing concerns pertaining its connection to adverse side-effects on human physiology regarding its high consumptions by some, which is linked with tachycardia, arrhythmia, muscle tremors, headache, coma, or fatality.4,2,3 As such, alternative forms of beverages have been decaffeinated (e.g., green tea) to eliminate the described potential side-effects and the demand for alternative forms of beverages goes hand in hand with increasing environmental-friendly techniques used to decaffeinate the crude product. This article, therefore, looks at the water extracting method for the isolation of methylxanthines and using thin-layer-chromatography and IR spectroscopy to characterise individual methylxanthines, as well as discussing their Rf values, the use of caffeine in cold and flu remedies, and a brief look into the caffeine market. MATERIALS AND METHODS Preparation of Tea solution 200ml of water was placed into a beaker and the solution was allowed to boil using a Bunsen burner. Tea (10.3052g) was then added into the solution and boiled for approximately 15 minutes. The beaker was then removed from the heat and 50ml sulphuric acid was then added to the hot solution and shake to ensure no emulsion occurs. The solution was later allowed to cool at room temperature and then filtered using Buchner system. Extraction of Caffeine 20ml of 10% sulphuric acid was added to the filtrate and stirred. Sulphuric acid converts the tannins to their salts, therefore, making them insoluble in chloroform, though soluble in water. The solution was then extracted by 3 successive washes of 50ml chloroform using a separating funnel, collecting the organic layer for each consecutive wash. The mixture of the solution was frequently shaken with occasional venting to prevent pressure buildup. The extracts were collected and dried by adding the catalyst anhydrous sodium sulphate for 10-15mins, removing all the water, leaving behind a fine powder. Isolation of The Caffeine Remove the sodium sulphate by filtration using the Buchner system. The chloroform was then evaporated by the use of a rotary evaporator, leaving behind the methylxanthine crystals. The weight of caffeine was then measured and the yield calculated. Thin Layer Chromatography TLC was conducted at room temperature and was used to verify the presence of caffeine by obtaining the methylxanthines, which was re-dissolved in 2ml of chloroform, 1ml of which was examined under TLC along with reference solutions and mother liquor. The UV-absorbing methylxanthines absorb UV light and so fluoresce agent (dichloromethane) in the stationary phase was used for visualisation in the UV254nm. On the TLC plate (Silica gel GF254; Dimension: 5cm x 20cm), a 1cm line was drawn above the base of one end of the plate. Capillary micropipette to place a spot of the reference solution (Caffeine, theobromine, theophylline, and mother liquor) along the line drawn on the plate and labelled as appropriate to reduce confusion with the other samples, which were also labelled as appropriate. This step was repeated using different micropipettes for each sample, creating spots at about 1cm from each other. The TLC plate was then placed upright in the TLC chamber contacting the developing solvent (Chloroform: Acetone: N-Butanol: 30% Ammonia, at 30:30:40:10 ratio) at a level below 0.5cm (the origin) and sealed with using a watch glass. The solvent was allowed to migrate along the TLC plate so it reaches at least 1cm from the top and once the solvent had evaporated, the plate subsequently visualised under UV light as most organic compounds are colourless in the naked eye, facilitated by the fact that the TLC plate contains chemical additives that fluorescent under UV-light. Infra-Red Spectroscopy The remaining methylxanthine solution of caffeine obtained was used to produce an IR spectrum to deduce the functional groups in the compound. The measured spectral range was between 600 – 4000 cm. The sample was placed on a sampling window and spectral data collected using a spectrum software (PerkinElmer Spectrum Express version 1.02.00, UK).10 Table 1: Weight of crude caffeine Caffeine 0.1606g Percentage yield = Mass of crude caffeine / mass of tea bags x 100% = 0.1606g / 10g Ã- 100% = 1.606% Table 2: Distance travelled by the standard solutions and Methylxanthines (mm) C TB TP ML Sample 36 24 18 Spot 1= 34 Spot 2= 26 Spot 3= 16 34 Note: C=caffeine, TB = Theobromine, TP = Theophylline, ML = Mother Liquor, S = Sample Rf value= Distance travelled by the compound (mm) Distance travelled by the solvent (mm) Caffeine = 36mm/38mm = 0.95 Theobromine =24mm/38mm = 0.63 Theophylline =18mm/38mm = 0.47 Mother Liquor spot 1= 34mm/38mm = 0.89 ML spot 2 = 26mm/38mm = 0.68 ML spot 3 = 15mm/38mm = 0.39 S= 34mm/38mm = 0.89 Table 3: Rf values of the standard solutions and Methylxanthines (mm) C TB TP ML Sample 0.95 0.63 0.47 Spot 1= 0.89 Spot 2= 0.68 Spot 3= 0.42 0.89 Note: C=caffeine, TB = Theobromine, TP = Theophylline, ML = Mother Liquor, S = Sample Figure 1: IR spectra of the caffeine. Peak 3000 cm-1 represents amides and amines, and peaks between the regions 1700 -1600cm-1 indicates the presence of alkene in caffeine. A and B shows the carboxyl groups – C=O bands of carbon-2 and 6 in region 1700-1659 cm-1. Figure 2: IR spectrum of the standard. The peak around 3000 is due to amides and amines. Peaks 1700-1600 is alkene in the caffeine molecule The structure of caffeine (Figure 3) is a function of how it behaves and interacts with other molecules and defines its properties such as solubility (e.g., due to the presence of nitrogen atoms), boiling point, as well as the melting point. The tertiary purine-based caffeine constitutes an amine, amide and alkene function group, all containing lone pairs of electrons on the nitrogen atom. The achiral molecule is polar in nature due to the electronegativity difference between carbon-oxygen and carbon-nitrogen covalent bonds due to dipole-dipole interactions, London dispersion forces, and hydrogen bonding once in water. The higher melting point of this molecule is as a result of these strong intermolecular forces and would necessitate high energy to break the associated bonds.1,2 Figure 3: Structures of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine Figure 3 indicates that the methylxanthines share similar structures (purine ring), but the slight molecular difference in structure results in the differences in properties. The difference in structure is based on the positioning of the methyl groups. Caffeine has three methyl group in carbon-1, 3 and 7; theobromine has two methyl groups on carbon-3 and 7; and theophylline has two methyl group on carbon-1 and 3, and is deficit of methyl group at position 7 and so has only a proton that can be donated, the same for theobromine having a proton on carbon-1, making them a weakly amphoteric compared to caffeine (a base compound).2 The TLC result shows the distance travelled by caffeine, theobromine and theophylline were 0.95, 0.63 and 0.47mm, respectively (Table 2). This implies that caffeine is more of a solvent compared to theobromine and theophylline. Mother Liquor contains three substances as shown by spot 1 to spot 3 in Table 3, with spot 1, 2 and 3 having Rf values of 0.89, 0.68 and 0.42, respectively. This means that spot 1 and caffeine are more attracted to the mobile phase, interacting less with the polar adsorbent (that’s interaction with the silanol group of the silica gel, with the most prevailing interactive force being dipole-dipole) as the compound is less polar, restricted to form hydrogen bonds by its three methyl groups (these contain electrophilic sites and the compound possess electrophilic and nucleophilic function groups, but caffeine is not a proton donor so less polar to adsorb) and so having large Rf values, consequently spent less time travelling towards the solvent front as it is more soluble in the mobile phase. Theoretically, compounds that are less polar characteristically dissolve in the solvent, thus migrate faster, and that the silanol group of the silica surface is highly polarised and is capable of forming dipole-dipole and hydrogen bonds. The more polar compounds such as theophylline (spot 3) strongly binds to the silanol group of the adsorbent or the stationary phase as they’re both capable of hydrogen bonding (theophylline is more of a proton donor thus has more electronegative substituents than for example, caffeine, so binds tightly to the stationary phase), and so moved slower than both spot 1 and 2, but also spends more time closer the origin, held by the resistive force of the sorbent.5,28 Spot 1 is likely to be containing samples of caffeine as they travel almost the same distance. Spot 2 is likely to contain samples of theobromine and spot 3 contains samples of theophylline as they have almost similar Rf values. IR spectroscopy was employed to elucidate the types of the functional groups in an unknown sample. The results from the IR (Figure 1) shows the presence of a compound indicated by the energy speaks. The spectrometer produced a graph based on the measurements of the photon within 600 – 4000 cm-1 frequencies. Comparison between the IR spectrum of the standard solution (Figure 2) and that of Figure 1 confirms the likeliness in functional groups shared between these solutions. Figure 1 indicates photon energy peak visible at 3000 cm-1, representing amides and aliphatic amines6, and peaks between the regions 1700 -1600cm-1 are due to the presence of alkene in caffeine molecule9. A and B specifies the carboxyl groups (C=O) of carbon-2 and carbond-6 in region 1700-1659 cm-1, indicating the most intense bands.17 Opinion on the use of caffeine in cold and flu remedies The effects of caffeine vary around the body and are dependent on the dose limit (400mg), at which beyond this parameter will elicit a range of physiological effects including muscle tremors, stomach upset, urinary incompetence, and a possible death. Below this dose limit, however, its effect is less detrimental to health.11 Due to it being readily available in foodstuffs and medicines, some may not be aware of the imposing dangers of caffeine, coupled with the fact that the FDA and the European guidelines consider caffeine not being a nutrient, but a natural ingredient found in beverages and so does not require identification in labelling of caffeinated product unless there’s added caffeine in the product.12 This makes it a daunting task for those tracking their caffeine intake especially those that are more vulnerable to its side-effects. Caffeine is issued both as a prescription and as an OTC medication treating various conditions from lethargy to being used as an adjuvant in analgesic, as well as in flu or cold remedies.12 Flu causes rhinorrhea, resulting in loss of fluid, which is counter to sustaining the body’s fluid balance needed for healthy wellbeing. The elderly are the most at risk if not hydrated and the problem exacerbates with the consumption of diuretic substances including any of the methylxanthines.14 A literature review by R. J. Maughan and colleague of caffeine ingestion and its effects on fluid balance assessed various age groups (adults) and the elderly of both sexes. Robertson et al. (1978) reported that R. J. Maughan and colleague administered a single dose of caffeine (250mg) and a placebo to the subjects and urine was accumulated for 3hrs. The result produced an ‘increase in urine output from 366 ± 30 mL (mean ± SD) on the placebo trial to 469 ± 43 mL on the caffeine trial, accompanied by an increase in urinary sodium excretion‘. However, in the same report by Robertson et al., other studies indicated that the diuretic effect of small doses of caffeine had minimal effects, which may be in the same dose range in these flue/cold remedies. It was also reported that long-term caffeine users are not susceptible to this diuretic effect and may not lose water via urine output14, but those that are may be disposed to electrolyte abnormalities (e.g., natriuresis) to kidney dysfunction. The mechanism in which caffeine induces diuresis is not yet clear, but it is believed that the compound acts as a phosphodiesterases inhibitor in the kidneys, along with its antagonistic effect on adenosine receptors.15 Another complication that may arise using caffeine remedies is the possibility of drug-drug interactions such as in the case of taking tizanidine (muscle relaxant), causing low blood pressure and dizziness16, or its inhibitory effect on the antipsychotic medications clozapine and olanzapine, metabolised by CYP1A2. Caffeine may also pose as a competitive inhibitor of CYP1A2 if metabolised at a slower rate compared to an administered drug, thus minimising the drug’s plasma concentration with the likelihood of toxicity.20 The compounding benefits of caffeine, when consumed within physiological limits, cannot be contested. Studies have shown that the groups most at risk of caffeine overdose are young people/children and adolescents due to the lack of awareness and incorrect social perception regarding the benefits versus harmful effects.17 It was reported by the American National Poison Data System that 6,309 cases related to caffeine overdose. A recent article by the telegraph newspaper reported that some students came close to fatality upon accidentally overdosing on caffeine (consumed 30000mg) and were placed on dialysis to remove the intoxication from the kidneys.19 So, in support of it still being a legal stimulant, not only does the benefits outweighs the adverse effects, the compound’s plasma half-life is approximately 5hrs. This fast pharmacokinetics or elimination via urinary excretion entails that its concentration in the blood will always be regulated, adverse side-effects occurring or at least decrease its effects.20 Due to caffeine being readily available, there are no age limits for their purchase and are not costly either as beverages. The FDA and EMA must assume responsibilities in engaging and communicating with the most at-risk groups, using public education campaign, and firmly addressing the potential risks of overdosing, especially when using multiple caffeine products in combination, and also labelling of such products, indicating the caffeine concentration, as well as targeting the medium used by these at-risk groups such as social media, the internet, and television. The European legislation, however, has taken the incentive in labelling beverages containing caffeine equal to or over 150mg caffeine per litre, affirming in their statement, “High caffeine content. Not recommended for children or pregnant or breastfeeding women“.17 Additionally, self-monitoring of caffeine concentration by providing device similar to those used by diabetic patients may assist with staying within physiological limits, but also restricting accessibility (age-dependent) might just be one way to control the likelihood of abuse. As a commodity, caffeine can be obtained in various forms for many applications (cosmetics, medical, etc.) and there is always a huge demand, which are popular amongst young people, particularly with the emergence of caffeine-fuelled energy drinks that are used to mix alcohols in social venues.21 Compared with other drugs, the Global Drug Survey 2014 (Figure 4) reported that caffeinated energy drinks were the fourth most drug bought (45.9% prevalence use) after alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis. This illustrates caffeine’s importance both at physiological level, and as a big earner for the industry’s major players in global caffeine market (Pfizer, Boehringer Ingelheim, CSPC Pharma, BASF, and Cocam) as it is consumed by 90% of the world’s population.24,25 One of the drivers of the industry is the production of coffee, which is forecasted to produce 156.6 million bags in 2016/17, and global consumption to be 153.3 million bags.26 This points out the growing demand for caffeinated products, predominantly in traditional markets including Canada, EU, USA, Japan, Norway and Switzerland, but also in emerging markets; Turkey, Algeria, Russia.27 Figure 4: Prevalence of top 20 drug use. Caffeinated drinks was among the most drugs bought in the year 2014.21 It is concluded by the study that the amount of caffeine extracted in tea was almost consistent with the theoretical constituents per weight, 2-5%. This research yields 0.1606g (1.606% ) from 10kg of tea bag and so was impossible to recover 100% of caffeine, greatly impacted by the fact that the reaction was never at completion, not all the caffeine was extracted through the funnel separation, loss of product may have occurred due to emulsions, discrepancies with the instruments due to factors affecting calibration, and steaming during brewing affects the mass of the extracted caffeine. One way to improve the percentage yield may be to explore different organic solvents. Although caffeine has numerous health benefits within physiological optima, it is also detrimental and causes death if these limits are breached. As such, healthcare authorities, as well as the caffeine industry must put in place measures so it is better regulated, and may mean being transparent about the health benefits/risk factors, and spread this awareness in all media used by their target users, especially young people as this is the group that are less aware of the risks. References Caffeine: The Molecule. [2017 Feb 9]. Available from: http://caffeinethemolecule.weebly.com/physical-properties.html Preedy V.R, editor. Caffeine Chemistry, Analysis, Function and Effect. UK: The Royal Society of Chemistry; 2012, p.3 -6,44 Vuong Q.V, Roach P.D. Caffeine in Green Tea: Its Removal and Isolation.[2017 Feb 16]. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15422119.2013.771127 Vuong Q.V, Bowyer M.C, and Roach P.D. L-Theanine: properties, synthesis and isolation from tea. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2011; 91: 1931-1939 Analyzing a Mixture by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). [2017 Feb 17]. Available from: http://cactus.dixie.edu/smblack/chemlabs/analyzing_a_mixture_by_thin_layer_chromatography.pdf Gunasekarana S, Sankarib G, Ponnusam S. Vibrational spectral investigation on xanthine and its derivatives-theophylline, caffeine and theobromine. Spectrochimica Acta Part A. 2005 Caffeine. [2017 Feb 16]. Available from: https://tinyurl.com/hsbppmn Al-Hitti IK, Ibrahim SS. EXTRACTION, IDENTIFICATION AND DETERMINATION OF CAFFEINE AND TRACE METALS IN THREE TYPES OF TEA LEAVES. J. of al-anbar university for pure science. 2009 Sing BM et al., Determination of caffeine content in coffee using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy in combination with attenuated total reflectance technique: a bioanalytical chemistry experiment for biochemists. Biochemical Education. 1998 Palo M et al., Quantification of caffeine and loperamide in printed formulations by infrared spectroscopy. JDDST. 2016 Behind the hype: Caffeine. [2017 Feb 12]. Available from: http://nutritionandactivity.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2 2 NPA161 Behind the Hype-Caffeine_5.pdf Why isn’t the amount of caffeine a product contains required on a food label?. [cited 2017 Feb 12]. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/aboutfda/transparency/basics/ucm194317.htm Caffeine and Your Body.[Cited 2017 Feb 13]. Available from: https://www.ctclearinghouse.org/Topics/Customer-Files/Caffeine_And_Your_Body_052113.pdf Maughan RJ, Griffin J. Caffeine ingestion and fluid balance: a review. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2003 Dec;16(6):411-20. Zhang Y et al., Caffeine and diuresis during rest and exercise: A meta-analysis. J Sci Med Sport. 2015; 18(5): 569-574 25 Most Severe Caffeine and Drug Interactions. [2017 Feb 14]. Available from: http://www.caffeineinformer.com/caffeine-drug-interactions Caballero B, Finglas PM, Toldra F, editors. Encyclopedia Of Food And Health. Oxford: Elsevier; 2016 S. Jain, et al., Caffeine addiction: Need for awareness and research and regulatory measures. Asian J Psychiatry. 2017 Bodkin H. Students left fighting for lives after taking enough caffeine for 300 cups of coffee in botched university experiment. Telegraph. 2017 Jan 25 Caffeine: An Evaluation of the Safety Database. In: Gupta RC, editor Nutraceuticals: Efficacy, Safety and Toxicity. London: Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc;216. P421,430. Caffeine. Technology, Products, Market, Manufacturing. [2017 Feb 10]. http://www.primaryinfo.com/industry/caffeine.htm The Global Drug Survey 2014 findings. Dr Adam R Winstock. Global Drug Survey. [2017 Feb 10]. https://www.globaldrugsurvey.com/past-findings/the-global-drug-survey-2014-findings/ Caffeine Drug Interactions. Anna Duggett. Drugsdb. [2017 Feb 10]. http://www.drugsdb.com/cib/caffeine/caffeine-drug-interactions/ Global Caffeine Market Forecast and Analysis 2016-2021. Radiant Insights. [2017 Feb 11]. https://www.radiantinsights.com/research/global-caffeine-market-forecast-and-analysis-2016-2021 Caffeine Market 2016 – Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share. GlobalInfoResearch.[cited 2017 Feb 10]. Available from: https://www.wiseguyreports.com/reports/637714-global-caffeine-market-by-forecast-to-2021 Coffee: World Markets and Trade. Foreign Agricultural Service/USDA Office of Global Analysis.[cited 2017 Feb 10]. Available from: https://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/coffee.pdf An industry study: The Coffee Industry. Mairin M. O’Connor. [2017 Feb 10]. Available from: http://www.slideshare.net/MairinOConnor/coffee-industry-analysis Thin Layer Chromatography. Industrial Economics.[2017 Feb 16]. Available from: https://yvesrubin.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/tlc.pdf

Berkshire Community College Python Encryption Setting Exam Practice

assignment helper Berkshire Community College Python Encryption Setting Exam Practice.

Write a program that encrypts or decrypts text. The encryption algorithm involves replacing the following letters with the following symbols (spaces should be copied over ‘as is’ and not replaced by a different character):- A-> ~
– B-> !
– C-> @
– D-> #
– E-> $
– F-> %
– G-> ^
– H-> &
– I-> *
– J-> (
– K-> )
– L-> –
– M-> +
– N-> {
– O-> }
– P-> [
– Q-> ]
– R->
– S-> :
– T-> ;
– U-> `
– V-> /
– W-> <
– X-> ?
– Y-> ,
– Z-> .
The decryption works the same way, but in reverse (e.g., replace + with M).HINT: There is a long way to solve this problem, and a short way to solve it. The long way involves creating an if statement with 52 blocks in it. The short way uses two strings, each with 26 characters in it. One of the strings is used to hold the clear text characters and the other contains the encrypted characters. For example:codes1 = “ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ”
codes2 = “~!@#$%^&*()-+{}[]:;`/<?,.”
When encrypting, you can search codes1 for the index of the character you are encrypting and then replace it with the character in the same location in codes2. For example, if you are encrypting M you will find that letter at location 12 in codes1 and you should replace it with the character at location 12 in codes2, which is +. When decrypting, do the same thing in reverse (search codes2 for the index of the character you are decrypting and replace it with the character in the same location in codes1).Here are some sample runs of the completed program:Enter some text: Calculator
Enter 1 for encrypt and 2 for decrypt: 1
@~-@`-~;}
Enter some text: @~-@`-~;}
Enter 1 for encrypt and 2 for decrypt: 2
CALCULATOR
Enter some text: My Calculator
Enter 1 for encrypt and 2 for decrypt: 1
+, @~-@`-~;}
Enter some text: +, @~-@`-~;}
Enter 1 for encrypt and 2 for decrypt: 2
MY CALCULATOR
Berkshire Community College Python Encryption Setting Exam Practice

Pestel’s The Russian Truth

Pestel’s The Russian Truth.

Write an overview of Pestel’s “The Russian Truth”-Focusing on why he wanted to reduce the imperial diversity of population, territories, languages, and cultures in order to implement his republican scenario (parliament and equal rights). -Also focus on the problem of how empire makes (in the minds of many reformers and revolutionaries, from emperors to Decembrists to leftist radicals) “democracy” impossible. -This is the same problem we are tackling in our contemporary societies: how to reconcile the diversity of interests, cultures, religions, genders and so on and universalizing ideas about how “just”, “liberal” and “democratic” politics should be organized. Analyze carefully.
Pestel’s The Russian Truth

Managing Change, Balanced Scorecard Report

What Is Bsc? The balance scorecard which is also known as (BSC) is a tool that is used by organizations to measure the numerous outcomes that may result from the activities they carry out. It helps in evaluating the financial performance of an organization, the level of customer satisfaction, the excellence with which the internal processes are run and the ways by which the employees learn and various ways in which they can grow. The outcomes from the organization can then be connected to the vision of the organization and also their strategies (Gupta 114) Perspectives in a BSC Financial perspective The outcome of a particular organization can be considered from the point of view of the finances. From this angle, various aspects of the finances can be considered such as the profitability of the organization. The scorecard technique should take into consideration that for most organizations, the profit making perspective is one of its major objectives and hence cannot be ignored. This is the returns that an organization makes after they have included all their deductions from their income and what they remain with is the profit. The growth of an organization is also to be considered in the scorecard because this is crucial for any organization if it aims at being competitive over a long period of time. The growth can be calculated in form of percentages, where the gradual increment of profits is considered, the increase of shares that are made available in the market stock exchange and also the worth of the organization at that particular time. This requires documents from previous financial years to come up with a steady and reliable feedback of the financial increment or decrement (Gupta 115). The value of the shares is also included in the scorecard as a way of valuing the organization against the many more in the market. The value also determines the amount of capital the organization may be having in circulation from the shareholders. The share that the organization has in the market is also necessary, such as the size or the volume of customers, the resources among their competitors and this is important is setting goals for the next financial years. The operating expenses have to be considered especially the ones that have been reduced as a clear indication of growth with minimal expenses and this may also lead to a higher profit. The assets are also recorded to show the turnover they can bring forth is they are disposed. Customer Perspective Customer satisfaction should also be highly regarded in the scorecard since without the customers the organization cannot run. The time that it takes for an organization to respond to a customer is necessary because the faster it is the better feedback and loyalty the organization gets. The time that it takes to cover a particular issue for a customer is also necessary as it determines if an organization gets to keep its customers or not (Gupta 116). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The quality of customer service is also necessary as it sets the standards of the organization and also helps in its evaluation. The quality on the part of the customer translated to the effectiveness of the organization to meet their needs. Performance and the service delivered by the personnel is also considered on the score card. The cost that is incurred by the organization to meet various activities is necessary, if a customer is required to give an extra fee so that they can get special services that are not offered free of charge. Internal Perspective The business may have internal processes and that perspective is considered in the scorecard. The processes that are found within the business or the organization are; cycle time, quality, employee skills and productivity. The cycle time is recorded from when a new product is introduced to the market and the time it takes to reach the maturity stage. The maturity stage is when product begins to get popular with the clients and it goes to a peak and the time it gets to the plateau stage of growth. The time it takes in this cycle is recorded and used in the evaluation in connection to the vision of the organization. The quality of products or services offered by an organization or business should be considered in order to assess the value of the organization in the current market. The skills possessed by the employees also matter because they dictate the output of the organization and also the quality to be delivered by that particular business. The productivity has to be put in context because this is what makes a business relevant and the managers must ensure that all activities are geared to increase the productivity and at the same time maintaining their quality. Decisions that are made within the business will manifest in the kind of results that come out of this. These decisions have to be recorded to create accountability of every result to a previous action or decision. Actions in the business are also to be in the scorecard from whatever level they may have been made from. Every action has a reaction and some may be working together with the vision of the organization and others may be the reason why most of the objectives have not been meet in the business. We will write a custom Report on Managing Change, Balanced Scorecard specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The coordination of activities is very crucial, as this is what gives the over-view of the strategies laid out by a business. The better the processes work out together the better the outcome that comes with it. The resources that are within the business have to be considered too. The resources can be in form of money or even assets and all these have to be looked at in a way that they can be used to enhance the production or continuity of the organization. The capabilities also have to be recorded so that they can easily forecast the ease with which the organization can adapt to future changes in the market. Innovation and Learning Perspective The employees are of great value to an organization and their skills determine the productivity of the organization. The employees have to be trained through a learning process on the various ways of meeting the standards and quality of the organization. For instance, when a business introduces new services or products to the market, it is important for management to equip the employees with the necessary information on the new release so that they can comfortably market the new products to the customers and they will answer all questions with ease. The employees have to be shown that the customers are of great value, and this may come about through training that will help them see that every single customer, may they be loyal customers or potential customers should be treated in the same esteem so that they can feel they belong to that business. The efficiency with which the employees operate should also be considered, which can be seen through the time it takes them to attend to clients (Gupta 120). Case Study: Al-Kindi Pharmaceuticals Al-Kindi Pharmaceutical Industries PLC is a medium sized biopharmaceutical company that has been one of the many organizations across the globe that has successfully implemented the business scorecard as a tool in management. This can be clearly seen at the corporation level and it has carefully trickled down to the employee levels at each individual level. It can be seen that the organization has to work hand in hand with everyone in the company to achieve outcomes that have a great connection to the vision of the organization and to work with their strategies. The strategies that are put in place by the organization so that they can work for all the stakeholders have been in the context of the four perspectives in the business scorecard. The four perspectives are; financial performance, internal business processes, learning and growth and the reputation with customers. The pharmaceutical company has a matrix form of organization and this can be seen where there are different directors in various branches. Not sure if you can write a paper on Managing Change, Balanced Scorecard by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This form of structure helps in increasing the profit as the various stations ensure that the company covers a greater area of market. The internal business processes such as the decisions to be made or actions have to be presented to the managing director before they are passed to be applied to all areas, hence reducing the level of risks or mistakes and promotes orderliness. The geographical distribution ensures that there is customer satisfaction as they are reached individually to their grassroots. The growth and learning process of the employees can be seen from the development of the various directors in each station who can keenly work with each employee to give a higher outcome for the company in overall production. Al-Kindi Pharmaceuticals have been in operation for thirty years in Bahrain. They have sought with time to have minimum cost and at the same time maintain the quality of their products. This led them to having the business scorecard, which would outline the vision, mission, objectives and even the strategies to ensure that they remained in the market for a long time. Al-Kindi is a research driven company, which looks into the global healthcare with great values in the biopharmaceutical chain, and they endeavor to form a strong matrix of capabilities. The company focuses on the medical need in the field of cancer, inflammatory diseases and diabetes. The company ensures that they provide therapies that are based on affordable innovation. The company ensures that the stakeholders are taken care of in the four perspectives of the business scorecard. The finances of the company are recorded and it may appear to the employees that the services or therapies are affordable through their vision. The company also seeks to show customer’s satisfaction in the range of diseases in which they offer research in therapies. The owners of the company are reassured that they will get the profits they aim at attaining and the customers are guaranteed of the proper healthcare. The internal processes of the pharmaceuticals business have been featured in the quality of the healthcare they aim to achieve. They point out that the matrix organization they use is of paramount benefit by collectively using different capabilities or skills of the employees in various fields and the diverse station all around the world. Al-Kindi has a strategy in place that ensures its operations are legal through the licensing partnerships. This is guaranteed to provide them with a wider access to the people across the globe and to add on to this it will help them to penetrate a larger market hence raking in more profits for the company. The company also assures its customers through the strategies that they will deliver great breakthroughs in various fields of research. This reassurance is the best thing to the loyal customers and it helps in attracting as well as retaining the potential customers. (Melendez-Ortiz and Vincente 200) Conclusion A strategy is very necessary for a company as it also outlines the way in which the employees will be trained and how they will learn in the same way. For example, Al-Kindi will require including in their strategy how they will be equipping the employees with the information on the new products or even the new services they may be delivering to the market. This will be important to them in the effort to win more customers to their side. This also helps in maintaining the quality standards of the company, which is viewed by many as being reliable. In conclusion, the business scorecard is essential in growing companies that hope to establish themselves in a rapidly growing market. It is used by almost seventy percent of the organizations all over the world. It can be deduced that any business that fails to implement a BSC is destined for a decline in the outcome. Works Cited Gupta, Praveen. Six Sigma Business Record. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2007. Print Melendez-Ortiz, Ricardo and Vincente, Sanchez. Trading in Genes. Chicago: Earthscan, 2005. Print

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