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ENG101 Minnesota Electrical Engineering Transfer Application Admission Essay

ENG101 Minnesota Electrical Engineering Transfer Application Admission Essay.

Hi, I want a one page admission essay. I will provide my general information which can help you in writing this assignment .My Name: Hamad Aljenfawi. Student at Minnesota State University, Mankato. Majoring in Computer engineering. I applied to Lawrence Technological University for Electrical engineering. I’m planning to transfer to this school because I have some friends who are a students in LTU. Also, i want to transfer because that I’d to change my major and I heard about this major in your university.So that’s what you may need. The rest just keep writing gener
ENG101 Minnesota Electrical Engineering Transfer Application Admission Essay

Mind Body Spirit Meditation Yoga And Spirituality Psychology Essay. Holistic healthcare understands that physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual lives cannot be taken apart. It emphasizes that there is a connection of mind, body, and spirit. People feel the need to create a healthy environment where they feel nurtured, supported, and safe as an individual discovers new truths about himself or herself and the surrounding world. Everyone wants to lead a healthy, satisfying, and meaningful life. Meditation, yoga, and spirituality are three complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practices that helps to improve a person’s mind, body and spiritual well-being. Meditation is a mind-body practice in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). There are several techniques of meditation, which originated in ancient religious and spiritual traditions. According to the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (“[NCCAM]”), 2009), the definition of meditation means “a group of techniques, such as mantra meditation, relaxation response, mindfulness meditation, and Zen Buddhist meditation” (p. 1). These techniques have been used for centuries in several different cultures worldwide. Mindfulness meditation and Transcendental meditation, also referred to as TM, are two common forms of meditation practiced in the United States. Mindfulness meditation is a component of Buddhism. The meditator is instructed to bring attention to the sensation of the flow of the breath when inhaling and exhaling. The individual will focus all attention on the experience without reacting to the experience. In an article written by Ludwig and Kabat-Zinn (2008), they stated that “mindfulness refers to a meditation practice that cultivates present moment awareness” (para. 1). On the other hand, transcendental meditation originated from Hindu traditions using mantra, such as a word, sound, or a phrase repeated silently to inhibit distracting thoughts from entering the mind (“Transcendental Meditation”, 2009). The TM method is simple, natural, no effort process practiced for 15-20 minutes, twice daily while in a comfortable sitting position. “The TM method allows a person’s mind to settle inward beyond thought, to experience the silent reservoir of energy, creativity and intelligence found within everyone-a natural state of restful alertness” (“Transcendental Meditation”, 2009, p. 1) Meditation consists of four common elements: a quiet location; a specific comfortable posture; a focused attention; and an open attitude. When a person practices meditation, he or she will learn how to focus attention. It will allow him or her to become mindful of thoughts, feeling, and sensations, and allow these thoughts to be observed in a non-bias way (NCAMM, 2009). This CAM practice is believed to bring a greater calmness and physical relaxation, and psychological balance. In addition, the ways in which emotion, mental, social, spiritual, and behavioral factors can directly affect health. Meditation is practiced by more than 20 million people, and is used for different health conditions, such as anxiety, pain, depression, stress, insomnia, physical or emotional symptoms that may be associated with chronic conditions; ADHD, diabetes, heart disease, HIV/AIDS, and cancer are some health conditions that are integrated with conventional medical treatments (NCCAM, 2009). Transcendental meditation has been shown to be the most effective health and wellness CAM program. TM is effective for promoting health and reducing healthcare use and medical expenses associated with a medical condition. Meditation is considered to be a safe mind-body practice, excepts for those whose activities are limited due to a physical medical condition or a mental health condition. In much the same way meditation benefits health and wellness, so does yoga. Yoga is designed to create a mind-body-spirit balance, heal and strengthen the body, liberate an individual’s true self, and improve fitness. Yoga began in India. Cook states, “initially, the sole purpose of practicing yoga was to experience spiritual enlightenment” (2009, p. 1). The meaning of yoga in Sanskrit, the ancient language of India, “yoke” or “union”, which integrates the mind and body to create a larger connection with an individual’s pure, essential nature. According to Dr. Vaeena Gandhi, who has been practicing yoga since a child in India, defines “yoga is about balancing life physically and mentally through controlled breathing techniques, meditation, diet, and the postures” (Davis, 2009). There are many styles of yoga that are practiced globally, but the most common form practiced in the United States is Hatha yoga. Hatha yoga involves specific movements of postures (asana), different breathing methods (pranayama), and meditation (dhyana), and combines two or more styles of yoga. Yoga is not a cure for any disease or condition: however, it can be a great complementary therapy for several conditions, such as cancer, heart disease, arthritis, asthma, diabetes, fibromyalgia, depression, migraines, in addition to several other health conditions. A person in good health can benefit from yoga to improve strength, flexibility, coordination, and range of motion. Since yoga promotes relaxation, improves circulation, and reduces stress and anxiety, it will improve the cardiovascular, respiratory, and nervous systems’ health. Also, because of the relaxation benefits, an individual will improve his or her digestion system function and will aid in getting a good night’s sleep. When a person is receiving treatment for a medical condition, yoga should be considered as a complementary therapy, and not an alternative therapy, to his or her conventional treatment therapy. A person should discuss with a healthcare professional before beginning a yoga class, especially if diagnosed with arthritis, multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, and other serious medical conditions. Many yoga studios offer specialized classes for individuals with these conditions. If a person has high blood pressure, glaucoma, or a history of retinal detachment or heart disease, they should not perform certain positions that requires a person to be upside down, such as in a handstand position. There are no negative side effects from yoga, but as with any exercise program, a person can injure himself or herself if trying advance positions before being ready (Fields, 2008). When practicing yoga, always listen and respond to what the body is saying. The fundamental yoga concept is nonviolence (ahimsa), and it all begins with self. This brings us to the third connection of the mind and body, which is the spirit or spirituality. Religious and spiritual values are important to individuals diagnosed with a life-threatening illness. The terms spirituality and religion are regularly used interchangeably, but for many individuals the terms have different meanings. Religion is defined as a belief or practice within an organized group, such as a place of worship. However, spirituality can be defined as an individual’s sense of peace, purpose, and connection to others, and beliefs about the meaning of life (National Cancer Institute, [NCI], 2009). Many individuals might question what does spirituality have to do with complementary and alternative medicine? Many patients who are diagnosed with cancer will rely on spiritual healing or religious beliefs and practices to help them cope with their illness. This is referred to as spiritual coping. Physicians are now supporting and understanding spiritual well-being in terminally ill patients because it allows them to enjoy a quality of life. It is not really known how spirituality and religion are related to health. There are studies to show that spiritual or religious beliefs and practices can create a mental attitude that is positive, may assist a patient in feeling better, and improve the well-being of family caretakers. The health benefits of spirituality are: it helps to relieve anxiety, depression, anger, and discomfort. According to the NCI, (2009), spirituality or religious beliefs will “help the patient adjust to the effects of cancer and its treatment; increase the ability to enjoy life during cancer treatment; and give a feeling of personal growth as a result of living with cancer.” In addition, “spirituality will increase positive feelings, such as hope and optimism, freedom from regret, satisfaction with life, and a sense of inner peace” (p. 2). Spirituality and religious well-being may help the patient live a longer quality of life. In an article written by Christine Larson, (2008), she interviewed Dr. Harold Koenig, a physician and co-director of the Duke Center for Spirituality and Health. Dr. Koenig states, “in the past eight years, there has probably been more research and discussion on the topic of religion and spirituality and health than was conducted from 1800 through the year 2000.” Because of the ongoing research, many medical schools across the United States have begun requiring medical students to take courses in spirituality and health. Physicians are now more willing to talk about spirituality with their patients. Individuals will use meditation, yoga, and spiritual practices to increase calmness and physical relaxation, to improve balance, cope with illness, or to enhance overall well-being. An individual may notice after participating in any of these three CAM practices an improvement in his or her health. Do not replace meditation, yoga, or spiritual healing as an alternative to conventional medical treatment or postpone seeing a physician about a medical condition. These CAM practices, as with all CAM practices, should be used as a complement to any conventional medical treatments. Do research regarding meditation and yoga practices for the health condition an individual is experiencing. Always tell the healthcare professional about any complementary and alternative medicine practices that is being considered; as well as the meditation and yoga instructors about his or her health condition. Following this recommended advice, will allow individuals to achieve holistic well-being without medical side effects. Mind Body Spirit Meditation Yoga And Spirituality Psychology Essay
Abstract The qualifications of the workforce have changed with the changing times. There has been a shift in workforce requirement from traditional personnel management to human resource management. With adherence to the same, Human Resource departments have become all the more important and have emerged as strategic players in the organization. The need of the hour for all the organizations is to efficiently align the HR activities with their mission. The paper covers the role of Human Resource in attaining the competitive edge over other organizations and various innovations in Human resource Management in 21st century. Key Words: Human Resource Management, Strategic Human Resources Management, innovations in HRM Introduction Traditional sources of success can still provide competitive leverage but a lesser degree now than in the past (Pfeffer, 1994). According to the Resource Based View (RBV), organizations can gain competitive advantage by their valuable, rare and inimitable internal resources. Considering this, it is possible to say that high quality workforce can create this advantage. The change that has most impacted organizations in the past decade has been the increasing realization that human resources of an organization are the primary source of competitive advantage. It is now accepted that high qualified employees in the organization and the way how they are managed is very important to gain competitive advantage. HRM must change as the business environment and the world in which it operates changes. Parallel to these changes in technology, globalization and dynamics of labor market, the way to manage human resources has changed. HRM managers have moved from handling simple personnel issues to making a strategic contribution to the future directions and development of the organization. With the evolution of HRM function from traditional to strategic, its roles and importance has gained more attention. The HR function and its process now have become more strategic and HR managers have been a part of the top management team. This strategic approach to HRM has led this function to be involved in strategic planning and decision making processes by coordinating all human functions for employees. Aligning the strategies of the organization with the HR functions has become the essential part of gaining competitive advantage. The role of the HR for the 21st century is named as strategically reactive in business strategy implementation through supporting the long term strategies with the necessary employee qualifications and developing the cultural and technical capabilities required for the strategies of the organization. The need for managing the employees strategically in the 21st century also requires the management and the organization structure to be more flexible. The work system has started to change with autonomous work groups with high qualified workforces, outsourcing some of the operational HR functions, downsizing, delayering, employee participation to the decision systems, high wages for the high qualified human resources, virtual and network organizations. Evolution The human resource management function, once responsible for record keeping and maintenance, has evolved into a strategic partner (Ferris et al., 1999). It will give a perspective if we look at the evolution of HRM in a historical period briefly. If we take the year 1920 as when many believe the first formal HRM function and department was initiated, then it is possible to think that the field is nearly 90 years old. During this 90-year period, there have been considerable changes in both science and practice of HRM. People who worked during the 1600s to 1700s were guided by a craft system. Under this system, the production of goods and services was generated by small groups of workers in relatively small workplaces, usually in a home. In the early 1900s, many changes occurred in the work place. This forced managers to develop rules, regulations and procedures to control the workers. Some of the regulations required an increase in job specialization, which led to boring, monotonous jobs (Anthony, Perrrewe and Kacmar, 1996). At that time, with the effect of Scientific Management, workers were seen as a part of a machine without considering that they were social human beings. All the jobs were broken into specific tasks.The next step in the development of human resources occurred in the late 1920s and early 1930s by Hawthorne Studies. As a result of these studies, the social side of workers was realized by managers and the effect of social factors on the performance was understood. Expanding on the human relations school of thought including academic findings from various disciplines such as psychology, political science, sociology and biology, the behavioral science era was born. This era focused more on the total organization and less on the individual. It examined how the workplace affected the individual worker and how the individual worker affected the workplace. Many believe that the modern day fields of organizational behavior and human resource management grew out of the behavioral science (Anthony, Perrrewe and Kacmar, 1996). In the early years, organizations set up welfare secretaries whose jobs were to keep track of employees’ welfare. Through the years, the welfare secretaries’ jobs encompassed more duties parallel with the new laws and employee rights were passed. They started to keep up all files about employees, maintain payroll systems and counsel employees (Anthony, Perrrewe and Kacmar, 1996).Parallel with the changes in some factors like technology, globalization and work force, HRM began to take more attention from the organizations and it became a formal department. The increase in the importance of HR has not happened accidentally. Rather, these trends are a function of specific changes in the business environment. With the increased rate of globalization, a firm’s ability to compete in a global environment becomes increasingly contingent on having the right people. Pressures from competitors, shareholders and customers require people that can create new products, services and processes ahead of the competition (Brockbank, 1999) Strategic Human Resources Management It is now widely accepted that an organization’s success is determined by decisions employees make and behaviors in which they engage. Managing people as an organization’s primary asset has inspired HR to become increasingly more effective at developing programs and policies that leverage talent to align with organizational competencies and at executing organizational strategy (Ruona and Gibson, 2004). The importance of fitting structure, systems and management practices to an organization’s stage of development is widely accepted. As the organization grows and develops, it needs change. By understanding how an organization changes as it grows, it is possible to understand how human resource management must change (Baird and Meshoulam, 1988). Perhaps the change that has most impacted organizations in the past decade has been the growing realization that people are an organization’s primary source of competitive advantage. The field of HRM has recently seen the human resources that it selects, trains and retains move from a supportive to a strategic role in organizations. This occurred because in strategic management sources of competitive advantage were no longer sought in external, but in the internal environment of a firm, namely in its resources, particularly its human ones. Accordingly the field of HRM reconsidered its own role, resulting in the emergence of a new distinct discipline termed Strategic Human Resources Management (Wielemaker and Flint, 2005). Recent works on business strategy have indicated that firms’ competitive advantage can be generated from firm human resources. According to the resource based view, the firm that can develop sustained competitive advantage through creating value in a manner that is rare and difficult for competitors to imitate. Traditional sources of competitive advantage such as natural resources, technology and economics of scale have become increasingly easy to imitate (Chang and Huang, 2005). Driven by a number of significant internal and external environmental factors, HRM has progressed from a largely maintenance function to the source of sustained competitive advantage for organizations operating in a global economy (Ferris et al., 1999: 385). Environmental factors such as uncertainty, technological innovation and demographic changes affect human resource strategy. Numerous environmental characteristics have been investigated to determine how they constrain human resources or strategy formulation ((Lengnick-Hall and Lengnick-Hall, 1988). By the effect of these factors; human resource planners started to learn the language and techniques of strategic planning, assumed a more proactive stance in promoting strategic thinking in the human resources area and extended the personnel function well beyond the limits of its traditional activities (Miles and Snow, 1984). Human resources can make contributions to strategy and strategic planning in a number of ways. Systems such as performance appraisal, staffing, training and compensation help enable managers to implement the organization’s strategic plan. Human resources planning also links strategic management and business planning with these systems (Greer, 1995). The concept of strategic human resource management evolved with an emphasis on a proactive, integrative and value-driven approach to HRM. Strategic HRM, views human resources as assets for investment and the management of human resources as strategic rather than reactive, prescriptive and administrative. The definition of strategic HRM highlights two important dimensions that distinguish it from traditional HRM. Vertically, it links HR practices with the strategic management process of the firm and horizontally, it emphasizes that HR practices are integrated and support each other (Andersen, Cooper and Zhu, 2007). Most of the writings indicating greater integration between HRM and strategic business planning take either of two predominant approaches. One group of authors suggest a reactive role for the HR function, viewing organization strategy as the driving force determining HRM strategies and policies. These authors have concentrated on developing specific HRM strategies to fit identified business objectives. They contend that HR systems such as selection, training and compensation should be tailored to match the company’s objectives and product life cycles. A second group of authors suggest that HR should also play a more central and proactive role by becoming involved in the strategy formulation process itself (Golden and Ramanujam, 1985). As a result, today’s leading edge human resources staff is actively engaged on the management team, contributing participants in the planning and implementation of necessary changes. Human resource staff needs to be business oriented, aligned with the business and effective as consultants and business partners. The integration of human resources with the business requires a new paradigm for managing human resources in an organization (Walker, 1994). It is desirable to integrate human resources management and business for some reasons. First, integration provides a broader range of solutions for solving complex organizational problems. Second, integration ensures that human, financial and technological resources are given consideration in setting goals and assessing implementation capabilities. Third, through integration organizations must explicitly consider the individuals who comprise them and must implement policies. Finally, reciprocity in integrating human resources and strategic concerns limits the subordination of strategic considerations to human resources preferences and the neglect of human resources as a vital source of organizational competence and competitive advantage. This reduces a potential source of sub optimization (Lengnick-Hall and Lengnick-Hall, 1988).Integration refers to the involvement of HRM in the formulation and implementation of organizational strategies and the alignment of HRM with the strategic needs of an organization. To achieve strategic integration and alignment of HRM with business strategies, a documented HRM strategy would also be useful as it can make more concrete the role and authority of HR managers in corporate decision making and increase capacity to cope with externalities such as a tight labour market. A documented HRM strategy helps the organization to develop and HRM vision and objectives and to monitor performance (Andersen, Cooper and Zhu, 2007). To make HR managers more available for participation in strategic decision making processes, it is argued that the responsibility of routine execution and administration of HR practices should be delegated to line managers as they have direct and frequent contact with employees and a capacity to understand, motivate, control and respond quickly to employees (Andersen, Cooper and Zhu, 2007). The New Human Resources Management for the 21st Century HR must now be judged on whether it enhances the firm’s competitive advantage by adding real, measurable economic value as a business partner. The HR function and its processes now must become a strategic player (Beatty and Schneier, 1997). 21st century HR requires factors like; increased centrality of people to organizational success, focus on whole systems and integrated solutions, strategic alignment and impact, capacity for change. These factors are described below briefly (Ruona and Gibson, 2004). Increased Centrality of People to Organizational Success: Undoubtedly the most powerful force affecting the evolution of HRM is the increased centrality of people to organizational success. The emergence of resource based views of organizations has placed increasing importance on intellectual and social capital. Focus on Whole Systems and Integrated Solutions: It is clear that HRM has become increasingly systematic during their evolutions. With the strategic proactive role of HRM, the challenge for HRM is to continue to develop innovative systems by focusing on the integrated functions and systems of organization. Strategic Alignment and Impact: 21st century HR has become more integrated by its measurement efforts and it is expected that the importance of these efforts will increase in the coming years. This is all being driven by increased pressure to work on issues that are most important to the business and to provide organizational leaders with understandable information that helps them to make better and more strategic decisions about the workforce. Ultimately, it is essential to work together to enhance HR’s capacity to contribute to organizational and financial performance. Capacity for Change: Today’s organizations must thrive in complex and unpredictable environments and must be extremely agile. This demands the development and implementation of structures and processes that facilitate incremental change. The new human resources management for the 21st century should play a strategic role by contributing the strategy formulation process and being a strategic partner during the implementation of these strategies. The HR practices should be designed consistent with the strategies of the organization taking into consideration the essential HR needs. In parallel with these, organizations can be able to be more flexible, flat and agile in order to struggle with the changes in the competitive environment by gaining competitive advantage with their HR assets. HR professionals need to lead flatter organizations by encouraging individuals to exercise more initiative, autonomy and accountability by providing tools and techniques that improve their effectiveness and by enabling the acquisition of critical competencies through continuous learning opportunities (Schoonover, 2010). Conclusion Strategic human resources management has gained more importance for the organizations in recent years because human resources are seen as the most valuable assets of the organizations for gaining competitive. Human resources departments have started to play a strategic role in the organizations and all HR functions are integrated with the mission, vision and strategies of the organizations. The new HRM perspective for the 21st century requires HRM to be strategic partners of the organization that coordinates all functions and supporting the strategies by attracting and retaining the essential qualified employees REFERENCES Andersen, K. K., Cooper, B. K. and Zhu, C. J. (2007) ‘The effect of SHRM practices on perceived financial performance: some initial evidence from Australia’, Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 168-179. Anthony, W. P., Perrewe, P. L. and Kacmar, K. M. (1996) Strategic human resource management, USA: The Dryden Press. Baird, L. and Meshoulam, I. (1988) ‘Managing two fits of strategic human resource management’, Academy of Management, vol.13, no.1, pp. 116-128. Beatty, W. R. and Schneier, C. E. (1997) ‘New HR roles to impact organizational performance: From partners to players’, Human Resources Management, pp. 29-36. Brockbank, W. (1999) ‘If HR were really strategically proactive: Present and future directions in HR’s contribution to competitive advantage’, Human Resource Management, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 337-352. Chang, W. A. and Huang, T. C. (2005) ‘Relationship between strategic human resource management and firm performance’, International Journal of Manpower, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 434-474. Ferris, G. et al. (1999) ‘Human resource management: Some new directions’, Journal of Management, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 385-416. Greer, C. R. (1995) Strategy and human resources, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Golden, K. A. and Ramanujam, V. (1985) ‘Between a dream and a nightmare: On the integration of human resource management and strategic business planning processes’, Human Resource Management Review, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 429-452. Lengnick-Hall, C. A. and Lengnick-Hall, M. L. (1988) ‘Strategic human resources management: A review of the literature and a proposed typology’, Academy of Management, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 454-470. Miles, R. E. and. Snow, C. C. (1984) ‘Designing strategic human resources systems’, Organizational Dynamics, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 36-52. Pfeffer, J. (1994) Competitive advantage through people: unleashing the power of the workforce, USA: Harvard Business School Press. Ruona, W. E. A. and Gibson, S. K. (2004) ‘The making of twenty-first century HR: an analysis of the convergence of HRM, HRD and OD’, Human Resources Management, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 49-66. Schoonover, S. C. (2010) Human resource competencies for the new century, [Online], Available: _Competencies_ for_the_New_ Century _ Final. Pdf [16 December 2010]. Walker, J. (1994) “Integrating the human resources function with the business’, Human Resource Planning, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 59-77. Wielemaker, M. and Flint, D. (2005) ‘Why does HRM need to be strategic? A consideration of attempts to link human resources and strategy’, The Business Review, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 259-264. Table 1 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCES APPROACH AND TRADITIONAL PERSONNEL APPROACH Dimensions Strategic Human Resource Traditional Personnel Approach Management Approach Planning and Strategy Participates in formulating Involved in operational Formulation overall organizational strategic planning only plan and aligning human resource functions with company strategy Authority Has high status and authority for Has medium status and top personnel authority Scope Concerned with all managers Concerned with hourly, and employees operational and clerical employees Decision Making Involved in making strategic Makes operational decisions decisions only Integration Fully integrated with other organizational functions like marketing, finance etc. Has moderate to small integration with other organizational functions Coordination Coordinates all human resource activities like training, recruitment etc. Does not coordinate all human resource functions
William Faulkner has written a variety of fiction stories that examine the lifestyles of individuals who live in the closed society. These societies are rooted in traditional values, and are found in the south of America. Among these stories is “Barn Burning” where Faulkner examines the occurrences that follow once a person loses their bond to the world and its ideals. Generally, it is the desire of every person to belong to a cohesive healthy family. Every family exhibits its relationships as a top concern, the needs of a family and associated activities prevail over all other activities. Some people exist in dysfunctional families which do not demonstrate warmth cohesiveness or friendship. William Faulkner’s short story “Barn Burning” examines the conflict that exists between father and son. Basically, the apprehension in Barn Burning is brought about by the generational gap existing between the two (Maxwell, 2005). It is a common phenomenon in most of the families nowadays for father-son relationships to fall apart. In most cases, the occurrence tends to get worse due to the actions of the father. William Faulkner’s story “Barn Burning” is a story of ethical development that also shows an ailing relationship between a father and a son. Sarty is a young man who tries very hard to identify and set his own code of morality. Although a father-son relationship should be built on legitimate respect, loyalty, and admiration, the opposite is evident in the short story. The idea of love, respect and loyalty was absent in relationship between Abner and Sarty (Skei, 1999). Faulkner has a unique writing style that helps in symbolism, scope and continuity, and this is clearly evident in his short story “Barn Burning”. In the second sentence of his story, Faulkner shows us his most unique writing feature, long sentences. The second sentence of the story is more than one hundred long, with multiple clauses that allow the reader to break when reading. According to Faulkner, the perception and thoughtfulness of individuals is easily questioned due to its varying nature, based on the influence of both the environment and other people. Faulkner’s writing also leaves the audience with uncertainty of the results of the actions taken. For instance, at the end of the story, Sartoris is observed to be free of his father’s influence, though the aftermath of this newly acquired freedom on both him and his family is unclear (Skei, 1999). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This second unique attribute of Faulkner’s stories as observed in “Barn Burning” is achieved through his selection of syntax. The combinations of long sentences that wander and deviate before coming to an end and the sentence structure have a great effect on the reader’s inability to reach a definite conclusion when reading the story. This feature is aimed at creating a sense of intricacy in the story “Barn Burning”, which is necessary on order to vividly portray the challenges that people go through in their day to day activities that seldom have definite resolutions. The long sentences used by Faulkner in the story “Barn Burning” are observed to loop, thereby creating a style that shows the indecisiveness of the characters, and the diversity of their thoughts. A sample of the second sentence on the story is shown below. “The boy, crouched on his nail keg at the back of the crowded room, knew he smelled cheese, and more: from where he sat he could see the ranked shelves close-packed with the solid, squat, dynamic shapes of tin cans whose labels his stomach read….”(2) This portion of the story indicates numerous thoughts; each portrayed in a clause of its own, but connected to create a flow of ideas. By using clauses to disrupt the continuity of the sentences, Faulkner is able to create the impression of how disorganized personal thoughts are. That one particular sentence informs us of how confused Sartoris is, and goes on to tell us about the place where the events are happening. According to Maxwell (2005), “Sartoris’s impressions reflect the hunger, fear, and guilt he feels, an impoverished child watching his father’s hearing from the back of a general store”. Sartoris’s awareness of his feelings is brought into light when his hunger is awakened by the smell of food in his surroundings. He becomes more concerned of his loyalty to his family, and this makes him sad. Another feature of the story “Barn Burning” is the use of third person in narrating the story. The narrator of the story appears to have a little information regarding the occurrences and the characters involved. In this story, the narrator puts more emphasis on the actions and thoughts of Sartoris, by narrating through Sartoris’s perspective. We will write a custom Essay on “Barn Burning” by William Faulkner specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The narrator even informs us of Sartoris’s thoughts, which are italicized in the story. In doing so, Faulkner makes the story more reliable, and helps us, the readers, to identify ourselves with Sartoris by knowing what he is thinking. This can be illustrated in line 86 of the story. “I could run on and on and never look back, never need to see his face again. Only I can’t. I can’t […]” (86) This helps us to identify with the turmoil that Sartoris is facing, and try to make the choice for him. It is also clear that he would like to distance himself from his father. The narrator also tells us about Sarty after the convicting testimony, until he was thirty years old. The mentioning of his age by the narrator is significant in that we get to know that Sartoris managed to live with himself after his convicting testimony against his father. In addition to this, the narrator tells us that Sartoris never forgot the events that took place, and he had to live with the memories. This perspective gives the story “Barn Burning” an aspect of hope, since we get to see that the victim, Sartoris, is alive and coping with life. The narrator also uses another perspective to tell the story. The narrator informs the reader of things that Sartoris is unaware of, mainly regarding his father. This information helps us understand Abner’s character, and the choices that he made. The narrative voice is significant in creating symbolism, while giving the reader a better understanding of the events that occur. An example is when the narrator tells us that it was midnight when Sartoris was seated on a hill trying to figure out what to do. The time in this case shows the transition from one day to the next. Similarly, Sartoris was about to make a decision that would change his life. Faulkner uses the element of modernism in this story by using internal monologues such as Sartoris’s thoughts. The story moves fast, from the first day to the last, though there are many instances where the narrator deviates from the main story and informs us of Abner’s past, as well as Sartoris’s future, and it is up to the reader to put the pieces together and understand the events, from both the perspective of Abner, and Sartoris. The narrator helps us understand the situation that Sartoris was faced with, at the age of only ten years. He felt obliged to make a prudent decision, like an adult should, yet he was only ten years old. His decisions at this tender age result in his leaving home. Naturally, the reader is concerned about the survival of Sartoris, and when the narrator mentions him at the age of thirty, it is a relief, and this gives the story a sense of hope, as it comes to an end. Not sure if you can write a paper on “Barn Burning” by William Faulkner by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Maxwell, W. J. (2005). Teaching African American Literature: Theory and Practice. New York: Routledge. Skei, H. (1999). Reading Faulkner’s Best Short Stories (Literary Criticism). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.

Accuracy of Home Glucose Monitoring Devices

Accuracy of Home Glucose Monitoring Devices. The Accuracy of Home Glucose Monitoring Devices during Hypo and Hyperglycaemia Self – monitoring of blood glucose at home is useful for the management of diabetes as it helps to monitor symptoms of hyper and hypoglycaemia (Diabetes UK). Testing of blood glucose also helps patients to adjust dosages of medication such as insulin and sulphonylureas, monitor the effects of exercise on blood glucose levels, and plan meals (Diabetes UK and Nipro Diagnostics, 2011). The FDA (US- Food and Drug Administration) (2014) refers to a trial in 1993 for control and complications of diabetes which stated “that good glucose control using home monitors led to fewer disease complications”. For these reasons blood glucose meters that aid self- monitoring most be accurate. Nipro Diagnostics (2011) in the “Accuracy Study of Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems” states that the “use of blood glucose meters and test strips are effective in controlling blood glucose values”. There are currently different brands of meters on the market ranging from expensive to less expensive. The accuracy of meters has been questioned by patients and consumer blog groups such as the” American Association of Retired Persons” and therefore the FDA and MHRA (UK-Medicines Healthcare Products and Regulatory Agency) monitor medical devices to ensure they work safely and provide accurate results. At a worldwide level the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) provide standards and regulations which manufactures must meet when producing self-monitoring glucose meters. All brands of glucose meters are subject to the ISO standards (Nipro Diagnostics, 2011) Incorrect blood glucose readings may occur with blood glucose meters due to software issues but may also occur due to operator errors, effects of oxidized uric acid and abnormal haematocrit levels (ADDE, 2013, Bode, 2007, and FDA, 2014). Inaccuracies due to operator error or short cuts, maybe due to poor technique, use of expired test strips, the use of un – calibrated meters, or meters calibrated with expired control solutions, unwashed hands before testing, applying too much or too little blood to the test strip, testing from sites damp with alcohol and from meters and testing strips not stored and handled according to manufacturer’s instructions (ADDE, 2013 Bode, 2007, and FDA, 2014). Oxidised uric acid may lead to falsely low glucose levels by the home glucose meter (Bode, 2007). Dehydration causes haematocrit levels to be elevated resulting in low glucose reading, whereas, high levels caused by anemia, for example, cause low levels of haematocrit resulting in high glucose readings (Bode, 2007). In 2013 the ISO updated the ISO 15197:2003 standards for the “self – testing glucose monitoring Systems” (ISO 15197:2013). The improved standards will enhance even greater accuracy for glucose meters for patient use (ISO, 2013). In 2013 a meeting of the Diabetes Technology Society researchers, presented evidence from studies done in the USA and Germany concerning accuracy of blood glucose meters using the ISO 15197:2003 standards (ADDE, 2013). The evidence presented showed that many meters did not meet the ISO standard that requires 95% of results to be within range of /- 20% of the true value (ADDE, 2013). The new international standards ISO 15197:2013 require meters have increased accuracy especially with glucose reading over 4.2mmol/l, and 99% of all results to be within ±15% of true value (ISO, 2013). The FDA (2010) report as cited on says that a potential inaccuracy with glucose meters between 1992 to 2009 were associated with 100 deaths and 12,672 injuries from 2004 to 2008. American Diabetes Association reported that up to 50% of home glucose meters did not meet the ±20% of the true values (Alto et al, 2002). The MHRA in April 2013 issued a Medical Device Alert (MDA/2013/022) about “Home Use Blood Glucose Meters”. These meters were recalled due to a software fault. At very high glucose concentration patients were given a “falsely low reading with One Touch Verio Pro and no results were recorded with One Touch Verio IQ”. A recent alert (MDA/2014/009) was issued from the MHRA March 2014 about “FreeStyle Mini® and FreeStyle® blood glucose meters”. The meters were recalled because they may be “reporting incorrect low blood glucose reading” (MHRA). Alto et al (2002) in a study of 111 patients using 21 different brands of meters found that 84% were within the ±20% of the true value even though patients took short cuts. The study highlighted that patients were not always calibrating meters due to the price of strips and the use of expired control solutions (Alto et al, 2002). Overall, the blood glucose values obtained in this study were clinically useful (Alto et al, 2002). On the other hand, another study “The accuracy of home glucose meters in hypoglycemia” concluded that some meters were inaccurate in reporting hypoglycaemia (Aydoqdu et al, 2010). There is evidence that home glucose meters are associated with inaccuracies. These inaccuracies maybe due to software problems associated with the meters or due to the operator. The operator plays a very important role in the accuracy of home glucose monitoring. The operator should follow the manufacturer advice about use, technique, storage and calibration of meters to achieve optimum results. Diabetes UK (2014) and the FDA (2014) encourage patients to check accuracy of home glucose meters by comparing to results of blood processed in a laboratory (Collazo – Clavell, 2012). ISO has tightened requirements in 2013 for home glucose meters to ensure higher accuracy for all new meters. References Diabetes UK (2014)– “Blood Glucose Meter Guide” [Online]. Available at: (Accessed 23 March 2014) FDA (2014) – US Food and Drug Administration, ‘Medical Devices’, Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices’. [Online]. Available at: (Accessed 23 March 2014) Nipro Diagnostics (2011) “Accuracy Study of Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems” (Accessed 23 March 2014) Bode, B.W, (2007) “The Accuracy and Interferences in Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose”, Blood Glucose monitoring, US Endocrine Disease, pp. 46 -48. [Online]. Available at: (Accessed 30 March 2014) MHRA (2013) ‘Medical Devices Alert’ Home use blood glucose meters: Lifescan OneTouch Verio Pro; Lifescan OneTouch Verio IQ (MDA/2013/022 [online]. Available at: (Accessed 23 March 2014) MHRA(2014) ‘Medical Device Alert’ FreeStyle Mini® and FreeStyle® blood glucose monitoring systems manufactured by Abbott Diabetes Care (MDA/2014/009)[Online].Available at: (Accessed 24 March 2014) ISO (2013) “More accurate self-testing results for diabetes patients with new ISO standard” [Online]. Available at: (Accessed 23 March 2014) AADE (2013) ‘American Association of Diabetes Educators’ Practice Advisory Blood Glucose Meter Accuracy [Online. Available at: (Accessed 24 March 2014) Alto, W.A., Bryson, P, Kindig, J, Meyer, D, and Schneid. J (2002) ‘Assuring the Accuracy of Home Glucose Monitoring’, Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 15(1). [Online]. Available at: (Accessed 30 March 2014) Aydoqdu, A, Erbil, M.K, Kilic, S, Kutlin, M, Serdar, M, Sonmez, A, Tapan, S, Taslipinar, A, Uckaya, S, Yazici, M, Yilmaz, M.I, and Yilmaz, Z (2010) ‘The accuracy of home glucose meters in hypoglycemia’ Diabetes Technol Ther 12(8), pp. 619-26. PubMed. [Online]. Available at: (Accessed 30 March 2014) Collazo – Clavell, M (2012) ‘Diseases and Conditions’, Sometimes my blood glucose monitor seems to give incorrect readings. What can I do to make sure the measurement is accurate? Mayo Clinic [Online]. Available at: (Accessed 30 March 2014) Accuracy of Home Glucose Monitoring Devices

Evaluation Of The Claim Rousseaus Social Contract Philosophy Essay

i need help writing an essay This essay will begin from the premise that, far from advocating a collectivist contract of society and sacrificing the individual to such state, Rousseau’s Social Contract establishes protective measures for the individual through the conception of the ‘general will’. Firstly, an exploration of the content and main features of Rousseau’s Social Contract will be undertaken, before a critical evaluation of its relation to the protection of the individual in society will be offered, principally through the notion of the general will. This essay will then reject opponents’ claims that this inevitably leads to individual freedom being sacrificed to the community, as will it reject the argument that Rousseau’s contractarianism is either illiberal or totalitarian. It will conclude by defending the perception of Rousseau’s Social Contract as an advocate an egalitarian liberal society. The will of the General Will The evaluation at hand presupposes that Rousseau’s Social Contract champions collectivism, or communitarianism, and in doing so rejects liberalism which places at its heart the autonomy of the individual. The thesis of such an argument is that through various measures, society as a collective usurps the ability for an individual to maintain independence or free will in the social contract. Yet this examination disregards both the historical context of Rousseau and the underlying purpose of Rousseau’s work, which was to provide an explanation of the conditions in which, man being individualist by nature and simultaneously wanting the protection and advantages of living in a civil society, both of these can be achieved without the need for a loss of liberty. Rejecting this collectivist position, which will be countered in greater depth later on in this essay, it is important to explore the content and main features of Rousseau’s Social Contract, to remind us that “a liberal political theory needs to concern itself not only with the identity of liberty, but also with identifying the conditions under which that liberty can be sustained” (Hampsher-Monk 1995: 275). Thus, the Social Contract’s central concern is to create a climate in which popular sovereignty is realisable, and Rousseau’s lineage of work therein is logically concerned with strengthening the case for and to counter any potential challenges to it (V. Gourevitch 2003: xxiii). Popular sovereignty, for Rousseau, was the very basis for the protection of individuals: the Sovereign, being formed wholly of the individuals who compose it, neither has nor can have any interest contrary to theirs. (Social Contract I: 7.5) Inherent in Rousseau’s conception of sovereignty is the general will, which governs the relations of all men, enforcing popular sovereignty and forming the foundation of Rousseau’s theory: Each of us puts his person and all his power in common under the supreme direction of the general will, and, in our corporate capacity, we receive each member as an indivisible part of the whole. (Social Contract I: 6.9) Simply put, the general will is the common good of all men, and yet this concept is precisely what provides protection of the individual, since Rousseau’s conception is such that the individual and the collective are so entwined that they cannot be separated without returning to the state of nature. Yet, Rousseau does concede that particular (or private) wills of the individual do exist in so far that ‘each individual, as a man, may have a particular will contrary or dissimilar to the general will which he has as a citizen’ (SC I: 7.7). This presents a quandary: natural liberty and particular wills are one and the same by definition, but the very purpose of the Social Contract, ‘to find a form of association which will defend and protect with the whole common force the person and goods of each associate, and in which each, united himself all, may still obey himself alone, and remain as free as before’ (SC I: 6.4) proposes that a solution to reconcile the two must necessarily be presented. This is presented two-fold: firstly, Rousseau claims that the general will be naturally discoverable, by taking away the ‘pluses and minuses’ of particular wills, which innately cancel each other out, leaving only the general will as the sum of the differences (SC 2: 3.2); secondly, for ‘whoever refuses to obey the general will shall be compelled to do so by the whole body. This means nothing less than that he will be forced to be free; for this is the condition which, by giving each citizen to his country, secures him against all personal dependence.’ (SC I: 7.8) The latter account has frequently been the origin of the so-called ‘totalitarian thesis’, a popular assessment of Rousseau but which has been convincingly rejected by recent study and will be similarly critiqued later in this essay. Thus, Rousseau acknowledges, by virtue of admitting that particular wills do exist, that in the social compact, man does sacrifice his natural, absolute liberty. Yet, as will be argued, rather than sacrificing individual freedom altogether, the social compact offers something that cannot be attained in the state of nature – civil liberty; ultimately, this is far more favourable, and a truer, more secure, representation of individual autonomy. Rousseau outlines that self-love (‘amour de soi’), reason and freedom are all fundamental features of human nature, and we have ‘a basic interest in ensuring protection of our person and the goods we need to survive and live well’ (Cohen 2010: 11). Similar to other social contract theorists such as Hobbes and Locke, Rousseau’s state of nature, that is to say the natural state of things before the social contract is conceived, offers absolute liberty on one hand, but no protection for rights on the other. Protection of rights offered in civil society, including the protection of property, is non-existent in this state; the social contract is Rousseau’s response to those calling for the reconciliation of liberty and the protection of rights without sacrificing liberty of the individual, and here Rousseau differs from his contemporaries in that he advocates a different conception of sovereignty. Liberty in the social contract is exchanged, but this is not to say it is sacrificed, as Rawls states: We gain the same rights over others as they gain over us, and this we have done by agreeing to an exchange of rights for reasons rooted in our fundamental interests, including the interest in our freedom. (Rawls 2008: 221) Thus, the general will, being the will the community, appears at first to be antithetical to the interests of individuals. It is an abstract theory, but nevertheless exudes clarity of purpose, even if Rousseau does not definitively express how the general will is found. As has been touched upon, society, being inescapable without returning man back to his origins as a primitive being, is such that the community and the individual are permanently coexisting and interdependent. The general will – the will of the community – is thus to Rousseau a reflection of the common good, since all rational persons have in their very nature a concern for their self-preservation and freedom; they would thus be harming themselves to will something for the community (in which they are inextricably linked) that is distinctly separate from their own particular will. Consequently, the common good reflects an equal concern with the well-being of each person, and as a result an equal concern for individual autonomy, since all people share the very same conception of the common good (Cohen 2010: 15); ‘the public interest and common liberty are synonymous with…personal interest and liberty.'(Boucher 2009: 278) The Legislator The Social Contract offers various measures through which the general will is made discoverable, or else enforced, as briefly mentioned above. Whilst forcing man to be free seems adversative to liberal political theory (which this essay argues that Rousseau follows), the institutions that Rousseau describes within The Social Contract are analogous to popular sovereignty and hence compatible with individual autonomy as we have seen. These include the institutions of a legislator, or law-giver, civil religion and censorship. Rousseau acknowledges that man does not necessarily know what he wants, or is best for him and so needs the guidance of wisdom and experience in the form of these institutions to aid the formation of the social contract. In particular, there is a need for a legislator to ‘[lead] to the union of understanding and will in the social body’ (SC 2: 6.10). This legislator would ‘do so by reason of his genius, [and]… no less by reason his office, which is neither magistracy, nor Sovereignty’ (SC 2: 7.4). Thus Rousseau depicts a figure who is distinct from the sovereignty of the people and hence neither superior (a master) nor inferior to the community: he works in the interest of discovering the general will (by means of persuasion), and thus by deduction solely motivated by the protection of liberty and freedom of the individual. Of course, by separating the legislator from the people, Rousseau is opening himself to claims of elitism, which are potentially at odds with the egalitarian ‘free community of equals’ (Cohen 2010: 10) that is the outcome of his conception of the general will. However, he counters these criticisms by making clear that ‘he who holds command over laws ought not…to have it over men; or else his laws would be the ministers of his passions and would often merely serve to perpetuate his injustices.’ (SC 2: 7.4) This Montesquieu-esque separation of powers (who, along with Diderot, preceded Rousseau in coining the term ‘general will’ and who evidently influenced Rousseau’s thought) safeguards the sovereignty of the people, and whilst the legislator is applicable to the community at large, Rousseau expresses its worth to individual autonomy rather than the collective authority: If we ask in what precisely consists the greatest good of all, which should be the end of every system of legislation, we shall find it reduce itself to two main objects, liberty and equality (SC 2: 11.1) Rousseau’s ‘civil concept of liberty’ It has been established that the social contract contrasts two necessities of human nature: the need for security and political authority (embodied in the social contract as the need for a political community) and the need for individual autonomy and liberty. Yet there must inevitably be a concession. One of the towering liberal philosophers of the twentieth century, Isaiah Berlin, famously drew a distinction between ‘two concepts of liberty’, those of positive and negative liberty (Berlin 1958), and this is pertinent in its applicability in Rousseau’s Social Contract. Whilst negative (absolute) liberty allows the individual full autonomy in the absence of external forces (coercive or otherwise), Rousseau concedes that to reconcile the two necessities a different conception of liberty is needed, and this Berlin called positive liberty: the freedom to, as opposed to freedom from, act with individual autonomy, protected by certain measures acting as safeguards. This, to Rousseau, was civil liberty: What man loses by the social contract is his natural liberty and an unlimited right to everything he tries to get and succeeds in getting; what he gains is civil liberty and the proprietorship of all he possesses. …we must clearly distinguish natural liberty, which is bounded only by the strength of the individual, from civil liberty, which is limited by the general will; and possession, which is merely the effect of force or the right of the first occupier, from property, which can be founded only on a positive title. (SC 1: 8.2) This is an important distinction to make, but not one that this essay believes forces a dilution of liberty. Berlin (1958) draws these two distinct concepts to further his argument that the only true form of liberty is that in a negative sense. Nonetheless, liberalism to a modern scholar associates itself with the protection of individual rights, such as those of proprietorship; this has been engrained in liberal theory, which arguably finds its origin in Rousseau’s Social Contract. To Rousseau, the liberty that is afforded to man in the state of nature (being the liberty that Berlin favours) is detrimental to the human condition. On the other hand, under the social contract, man ‘gains an equivalent for everything he loses’ (SC 1: 6.8). From this we might take that liberty under the social contract is a zero-sum gain; liberty is exchanged, but not lost. However, the benefit of civil liberty is that man gains ‘an increase in force for the preservation of what he has.’ (SC 1: 6.8). Rousseau develops upon this by commenting that the right of first occupier, ‘which in the state of nature is so weak’ (SC 1: 9.2), is respected by individuals and the community alike: ‘possessors, being regarded as depositaries of public property, and having their rights respected by all the members of the State…, have, by a cession which benefits both the public and still more themselves, acquired, so to speak, all that they gave up.’ (SC 1: 9.6) We might, over and above all this ‘add, to what man acquires in the civil state, moral liberty, which alone makes him truly the master of himself; for the mere impulse of appetite is slavery, while obedience to a law which we prescribe to ourselves is liberty’ (SC 1: 8.3). This is a striking statement, and of course not one that Berlin, among others, accepts. Berlin states that ‘to coerce a man is to deprive him of freedom’ (Berlin 1958: 6). Yet Rousseau’s social contract is not coercive in this sense. Man does not accept the general will through the persuasion of authority, but because it is rational to do so as the general will is equally a manifestation of one’s own true will. Rousseau does not deprive the individual of free will: far from it, he expects that in the social contract man will choose the general will with this very same free will of the individual. By man developing his ‘moral’ faculties through the conception of the civil state, Rousseau claims that justice triumphs over instinct, intelligence over stupidity and irrationality (SC 1: 8.1). Thus, in forming a civil community (state), man develops an appreciation of the liberty of other individuals within that community, which is mutually protective; the moral intelligence that man formulates is of greater benefit to individual freedom and autonomy than his very same (absolute) liberty in the state of nature. Communitarianism and illiberalism It is clear to see that myriad critics, among them Berlin, reject Rousseau’s contract’s protection of liberty, instead arguing that his strong conception of political community intrinsically works to oppose this. Berlin’s extraordinary claim that Rousseau was ‘one of the most sinister and formidable enemies of liberty in the whole history of modern thought’ (Berlin 2002: 4) certainly has great impact, a surprisingly ferocious attack on a theorist who had at his heart a desire to protect the freedom of human condition in society. Thus it is necessary to delve into Berlin’s criticism further to understand his reasoning. Berlin saw Rousseau’s conjecture being particularly dangerous to liberty. In Berlin’s view, Rousseau had associated freedom with self-determination, yet self-determination with obedience to the general will. The notion of the general will, being quite separate from individual (particular) wills, went against Berlin’s conception of liberalism, for it alleged the existence of a common interest encompassing the interests of all men: an absolute, single set of rules for all, which Berlin saw as being a divergence from the pluralist tradition of liberalism. Rousseau also went some way to disguising man’s true nature, as Berlin saw it, by conceiving man as a citizen being, rather than a lone, individual creature – an unrealistic transformation of human interest. Furthermore, Rousseau was said to have changed the concept of man’s will from what he actually desires empirically, to a will that he ought, or should, desire, but may not through the nature of the human condition (Berlin 2002). Emphasised by his strong Calvinist influence, we could also add to this Rousseau’s deeply-rooted sense of morality, a sense of right and wrong, and what it means to live a good (and bad) life, which we can take Berlin to object to on the basis of its limitation on individual choice and self-determination.

Legal Drinking Age and Its Consequences Essay (Critical Writing)

Nowadays, the issue of the drinking policy and changes in it has become widely discussed and utterly controversial. Some people consider alcohol as a mere tool of socialization and treat it as if it cannot cause any severe harm. A contrary opinion on the issue exists, and people who hold it support it with undeniable proofs, such as, for instance, abusive and destructive behavior as a result of drinking. Levinthal (2014) notes that “in the eyes of many people, an alcoholic drink is simply a social beverage; in actuality, it is a social drug” (p. 192). It is hard to disagree that many crimes and domestic violence could have been avoided if it was not for alcohol. However, in many cases, it is not the drinking itself that results in some negative consequences, it is mainly the irresponsible drinking that leads to that. Therefore, it is also important to note that alcohol is not solely a reason for a harmful outcome, but the surroundings and other life factors influence the behavior of a person as well, probably even more. One of the essential sections of this issue is legal drinking and its modifiers, such as age. This paper aims at studying this section thoroughly and discussing the effects of nowadays legal drinking age along with some pros and cons of lowering it. To begin with, it seems significant to consider the fact that some states have raised their legal drinking age to 21 recently. Researchers claim that it has some benefits, such as a lowered risk of developing alcoholism later in adult life and, in addition, low exposure to alcohol‐related chronic illnesses throughout the lifespan (Plunk et al., 2016). Importantly, it is a widely known fact that teenagers’ bodies and minds are much more likely to suffer from adverse side effects of alcohol than adults. Therefore, it seems to be significant and scientifically proved that not letting teenagers and young adults consume alcohol until a certain age (21) affects their state and life positively. However, such prohibition can also result in a higher interest of young people towards alcohol, and it can even provoke illegal drinking. Auspiciously, according to Levinthal (2014), a legal drinking age of 21 mostly prevents drinking problems among high school students (p. 200). Although, problematic alcohol consumption and its adverse consequents occur among college students. Apart from some alcohol-related problems, such as troubles with studying and unplanned sexual activities, there are also effects on nondrinkers. Around 30 percent of nondrinkers report being insulted, abused, or embarrassed by a student who had been drunk. There is also a large number of death cases of drunk students reported each year, mostly related to car accidents. Therefore, it is possible to note that, although the legal drinking age averts incidents connected with alcohol consumption among graduates, it results in mostly irresponsible drinking among 21 years old and older. In other words, an increased legal drinking age does not contribute to illegal drinking, although, in general, it affects the drinking pattern of young adults negatively. What is more, there is a proven correlation between an increased phenomenon of victimization and the age of 21. According to Chalfin, Hansen, and Ryley (2019), “drinking increases at both the extensive and intensive margins when individuals turn 21″ (p. 10). In addition, in this survey, it is claimed that the level of victimization also rises depending on the age, 21 is noted primarily as a critical point. Although it differs for men and women, crime risks increase noticeably for both. For men, it is mostly robbery, and for women, it is more often sexual assaults. Therefore, it is hard to deny that legal drinking leads to adverse effects, such as increased victimization, death accidents, and various crimes committing. However, it also raises the following question: would it help if the legal drinking age were higher? Moreover, would not it increase the level of illegal drinking? As for argument in favor and against the higher age limit, it is hard to tell with absolute confidence what should and what should not be done. According to the fact that the legal drinking age manages to prevent high school students from irresponsible alcohol consumption, positive arguments may be as follows. Increasing the drinking age limit can help to reduce crimes and other adverse consequences of drinking among not only school students, but also among people studying in college. However, it would merely postpone the problematic drinking outbreak until people become older. Furthermore, an argument in favor of the higher age limit may be a reduced risk of developing alcohol-related diseases since the later a person starts to consume alcohol, the later an illness appears. Nevertheless, in this case, it is also more about postponing and not solving the problem entirely since the fact of drinking is, regrettably, unavoidable. It seems possible to note that some other regulations may be enacted apart from increasing or decreasing the legal drinking age. For instance, researchers claim that when students take part in some social events and gatherings, the risk of problematic alcohol consumption tends to be lower. According to Layland, Calhoun, Russell, and Maggs (2019), “students who attended Late Night Penn State activities used alcohol less in general and less when they participated compared to themselves when they did not participate” (p. 349). It proves the point mentioned before connected with much more significant influence from surrounding and other life factors on alcohol consumption and general drinking patterns. In other words, when a person, especially a troubled one, experiences some life ordeals or falls under the impact of another troubled individual, it may result in adverse consequences, such as violence and crime committing. Conversely, if a person, even a troubled one, is provided with some activity or task, the risks of problematic drinking are considerably lowered. It is also possible that such a person would not be tempted to drink at all. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, it is also important to note that society needs some changes not solely in legal drinking policy, but in general public guidance as well. It is claimed that “among the challenges in reducing the harmful alcohol use, there is low political commitment to effective coordination of multisectoral action to reduce harmful use” (World Health Organization, 2018, p. 15). This survey also notes that these challenges include the impact of strong commercial interests that interfere with effective control policies connected with alcohol and established drinking traditions inside various cultures. The primary challenge in reducing illegal alcohol consumption seems to be the continuing access to alcohol that young people inevitably have in spite of the current legal restrictions on sales of alcohol. Many underage drinkers may be provided with alcohol by adults, some of them are even given the alcohol by their parents. A majority of them report drinking alcohol being a guest in someone’s home. Consequently, it seems to be more significant to deal with the challenges mentioned above first and only after that carefully change the legal drinking age. It is much more probable that these changes will have a positive influence on drinking behavior since they will be performed in a more favorable environment. To sum everything mentioned above up, it is essential to note that the raised drinking age limit has a somewhat positive effect on young people since it manages to prevent problematic drinking at least throughout the school period without too many cases of illegal drinking. However, a sequential issue is that later, when a person turns 21, a majority of people start to drink irresponsibly, which leads to adverse results. Therefore, an idea of the higher age limit seems to be relevant and reasonable, although it does not solve the main problem. Nowadays, in modern reality, it can only postpone negative consequences and cannot help to prevent them entirely since not only irresponsible drinking results in them. There are more factors to be considered, such as surroundings, social connections, and other life features that are also crucial. Moreover, there are many public and inner government challenges that must be dealt with, such as commercial influence and the pressure of strong traditions. Further debates on the issue between social and government departments are essential, and many problems that are connected with alcohol consumption policies are to be discussed and negotiated. References Chalfin, A., Hansen, B.,

Fundamentals of Electronic Business

Fundamentals of Electronic Business. I’m studying for my Business class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

Q1) Discuss and illustrate with examples the two major elements in the Business Model framework of Disruptive Innovation. (25 marks)
Q2) Discuss and illustrate with examples the five major changes in the Data domain from the analog to the digital age. (25 marks)
Q3) Discuss and illustrate with examples the following concepts: (25 marks)
a) Electronic commerce versus e-business
b) Click-and-mortar versus brick-and-mortar organizations
Q4) Give one example of Inter-organizational information systems (IOSs), and illustrate its importance in creating business values. (25 marks)

A student considered to have cheated in course work should be given a zero mark for that particular piece of work. The case may be brought to the Student Disciplinary Committee if the Programme Director/Head of Academic Unit concerned deems it necessary to do. so. Students’ attention is drawn to the definition of plagiarism, i.e. “the presentation of another person’s work without proper acknowledgement of the source, whether protected by copyright or not, as the student’s own work”. All quotations and paraphrases taken or derived from the work of other authors should be properly acknowledged within the text of all assignments, and full bibliographic details of books/articles/websites used should be included in the reference list.
Fundamentals of Electronic Business