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ENG 106 GCU Organ Transplantation to Treat Failing Body Organs Argumentative Essay

ENG 106 GCU Organ Transplantation to Treat Failing Body Organs Argumentative Essay.

A Policy Proposal as a Guest EditorialWrite a 1,500-1,750-word policy proposal related to the sale, trade, or donation of human organs using five to seven academic resources. The policy proposal should be suitable for publication as an editorial in a college or city newspaper or in a publication associated with a particular group, such as a church newsletter or employee bulletin. The voice and style of your argument should be aimed at readers of your chosen publication. Remember to not use first person pronouns (I, me, us, we, our, my, mine) or second person pronouns (you, your, yours) in this guest editorial writing, unless given permission by your instructor.Your editorial should have the following features:Identify the problem related to the sale, trade, or donation of human organs.Persuade the audience that you have selected that this is a problem that needs solving; give it presence.Propose action offering specific details to show how the actions will help alleviate the problem.Justify your solution; the reasons why your audience should accept your proposal and act on it.This essay is NOT simply a persuasive essay on organ sale, trade, or donation. It is an argumentative proposal that offers a practical and justifiable solution to a problem related to organ donation.GradingThe essay will be graded using a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations.SourcesInclude in-text citations and a references page in GCU Style for FIVE to SEVEN scholarly sources outside of class texts.These sources should be used to support any claims you make and should be present in the text of the essay.Use the GCU Library to help you find sources.Include this research in the paper in a scholarly manner.
ENG 106 GCU Organ Transplantation to Treat Failing Body Organs Argumentative Essay

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Econ 120 Exam 2 Total 40 questions!

This document contains what is the instrumentation and its importance in the industry. This also contains that what are the sensors, level sensors, method of measurement of the level and selection of suitable sensor for the solid level measurement. This document also contain the different type of the solid level measuring sensors, how they work , their advantages and disadvantages. Importance of instrumentation: Instrumentation is the basic process control in industry. In industrial control a wide number of variables temperature, flow, level, pressure, and distance can be sensed simultaneously. All of these can be interdependent variables in a single processing require a complex microprocessor system for total control. Due to more advancement in technology and the efficient measurement techniques instruments that we are using today may be obsolete in future. During specifying the instrumentation the main objectives of the designer are Safe plant operation High production rate To maintain the product composition within the specified quality limits. Lowest production cost Sensors: Sensor measure the physical quantity and converts into signal which can be observed by observer or by an instrument. e.g., thermocouple measure the temperature and converts it into the voltage which can be observed by voltmeter. Level sensors: The accurate measurement of level is of great importance in the industrial process during the processing of materials or in the storage of materials. for this purpose level sensors are used to detect the level of the liquid or solids. Sensing of levels can be done by the two ways point sensing and continuous sensing. Point sensing: In point sensing the actual level is measured when it reaches the predetermined level, so that action can be taken to prevent the overflow or to refill the container. Point sensing measure the level that are extremely high or low. Continuous sensing: Continuous level monitoring measures the level without any interruption. In continuous level sensors measure the level constantly within the specified range. There are two methods to measure the level direct method and indirect method. Direct method: Direct method of measuring the level sense the surface or interface of solid and liquid and is not affected by the changing in the density or specific gravity of material. Indirect method: In this method level is measured by some other physical parameter such as pressure, weight, or temperature. It involves the conversion of measurement into other quantity such as pressure to level by determining how much pressure material exerted on the specific location. The suitable level sensor for the given application depend upon the different factors. Whether you are the level of solid or liquid Is point level or continuous measurement required Specific gravity or density of the material Dielectric constant of the material Temperature Pressure Vessel composition Vessel size and shape Agitation or movement Solid level measuring sensors: There are different types of the sensors that are used for measuring level of the solid. Vibrating point level sensors Rotary paddle level sensors Capacitance level sensors (also called RF) Weight and cable system (plumb bobs) Ultrasonic level sensors Laser sensors Load cell Radar sensors Microwave level sensors float level sensors optical level sensors Vibrating point level sensors: Vibrating point level sensors are used for the point level measurement of different types of solids according to the nature or densities of the materials. They have the ability of point level measurement of the very fine powders which have the bulk density in the range of (0.02 gm/cm3 to 0.2 gm/cm3)[1].These sensors are also used for the point level detection of the fine powders.These level sensors also have the ability to detect the level of granular solids. The level of the electrostatic material and very fine powders can be measured with suitable adjustment of the selectivity and with the proper selection the vibration frequency. Working principle: In the vibrating level sensors two piezoelectric crystals are present in the base of the probe. A signal is sent at the frequency equal to the probe’s self resonance to one crystal. Probe vibration occur due to the electrical excitation which cause the physical deformation of the crystal. The second crystal felt the vibration of probe in the absence of the material. Physical deformation occur in second crystal due to this vibration and the voltage generates which can be detected by the electronic circuit. The vibration is dampened in those cases when the material is present around the probe and therefore voltage generated by the second crystal is minimized. The relay status changes accordingly due to the change in the output voltage in the circuit. Advantages: Working of vibrating probe level sensor is independent of temperature, humidity and material. It requires no calibration. Single probe removes the problem of material packing and the false conditioning which is commonly observed in dual pong “tuning fork”. Limitations: Vibrating level sensors are the costly. Vibrating level sensors are not used in case of the sticky material. Rotary paddle level sensors: Rotary paddle level sensors are the oldest sensors and these sensors use the established technique for the measurement of the point level of the bulk solids. Working principle: The working principle of the rotary paddle level sensors is very simple. This level sensor is installed through the vessel wall so that it can easily rotate in the vessel. A small electric motor is installed to drive the paddle with the help of the gear box arrangement and in the absence of material it rotates freely. When the material come in the path of paddle the rotation of the shaft stops and signals the presence of material at that level in the vessel or alarms the unit or to control the situation. Applications: Rotary paddle level sensor is used to measure the level of the particulate material, wood, cement, grains powder and plastics. Rotary paddle level sensors are used for the detection of the high level materials and for the low level materials. Limitations: Rotary paddle sensors are not working properly in case of the power failure. Capacitance level sensors: Capacitance level sensors are also known as the radio frequency level sensors or admittance level sensors. These sensors are used for both point measurement or continuous measurement of level. Point level measurement is mostly used in the plastic industry. These sensors work on the principle that admittance of the alternating current circuit change with the change in level and they measure the admittance of the alternating current circuit. Working principle: The working principle of the capacitance level sensor is that a radio frequency is applied to the probe and continuously observed to measure the change caused by the surroundings. When the probe of the sensor encounters with the material the capacitance increased due to the shift in the radio frequency. The wall of the vessel and the active probe of the sensors form the two plates of the capacitor having area (A) and have the fixed distance between two plates (d).In the absence of the material surrounding air and insulator provide dielectric having dielectric constant (K=1).when any material displaced the air having dielectric constant greater than one ( K >1).The capacitance increased. This change is measured and compared with the reference. Application: Capacitance probe level sensors are used for the high and low level measurement of solids in bins, silos, hoppers and other vessels. Capacitance probe level sensors give the accurate result in case of powder, liquids, granular solids an viscous material. Limitation: Capacitance probe level sensors have one limitation that they require the calibration and recalibration in case of materials having different dielectric constant and incase of different vessels. Weight and cable systems: The weight and cable system is one of the oldest method of measuring the level of solid. The other name of this system is the plumb bobs. In the beginning these are the simple electromechanical devices but with the passage of time the sensor using the optical techniques and microcontrollers have replaced these sensors. Weight and cable systems are mostly used for the level measurement of the dry solids. Working principle: Working principle of the weight and cable systems is simple. In these devices the cable which is fastened with the weight is sent into the vessel and it stops when it encounters the material present in the vessel. Then it is pull away and send into the sensor which is at the top of the vessel. In the sensor casing electronics control the direction of the motor and the distance is measured in the both direction as the weight and cable system goes upward or downward direction. Advantages: Working of Weight and cable system is independent of the dust, humidity, temperature, material density and dielectric properties. Weight and cable systems require no calibration Limitations: Weight and cable system are used only for the point level measurement of the solids. Ultrasonic level sensors: Ultra sonic level sensors are used for both point and continuous level measurement. The point measuring ultrasonic sensors are used for the measurement of gas liquid, liquid liquid, or gas solid interfaces. Working principle: Ultrasonic level detectors work either by absorption of acoustic energy as it travels from source to receiver or by the attenuation of a vibrating diaphragm face .it works by generating an ultrasonic pulse and measuring the time it takes for the echo to return. In case when ultrasonic level sensors are mounted on the top of the tank .The time of travel is an indication of the depth of the space above the material in the tank. In case when it is mounted on the bottom of tank ,the time of travels reflects the depth of material in the tank. In order to measure the time of travel of echo of an ultrasonic pulse, it is necessary that some of the sonic energy be reflected. Solids particles are good reflector. Loose dirt have poor reflecting characteristic as they tend to absorb the sonic pulse .since the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence.It is important the reflecting surface be flat. If it is slopping surface its echo will not be directed back and it will not reflect the vertical distance. Advantages: Ultrasonic level detectors are non contact type. They have ability to measure level without physical contact. They have no moving parts The reliability of reading is independent of change in composition, density, moisture content and dielectric constant of fluid. Limitations: Temperature compensation is necessary in the ultrasonic sensors. Dirt, irregular and slope surfaces affect the accuracy of measurement. Laser sensors: Laser level sensor is suitable for the continuous level measurement of solid and liquid. Laser based level measurement depend on the exact measurement of time it takes for flight pulse to travel to the process material surface ad back. The velocity of light is affected by the index of refraction of vapors through which the light wave travels. Working Principle: It works on the principle that a transmitter mounted on the top vessel sends a signal via an antenna toward the measured level. A receiver detects the returned signal by means of a second same antenna. The laser measurement uses infrared light which can be formed as electromagnetic radiation as well as corpuscular current. There are two types of measuring techniques that are used in level sensors for the level measurement. Triangular measurement: In this technique an angle of reflection of sharply focused beam is measured which is calibrated to measure the level. Time of refection measurement: In this technique measurement of distance using the time of reflection light is applied to the level measurement. Advantages: It is non contact type measurement. Laser level sensors are well suited for the vacuum services because light does not need a medium for propagation. As the laser beam is almost completely parallel interfering reflections from struts, welding, joints, or material build up on the walls of tank. Limitations: They produce a weak returning light signal very shiny surface can cause the errors by reflecting light laterally. Laser level sensors should not be used when the vapor space absorbs the measurement signal as is case when steam, dust, or fog is present in the space. Load cell: Load cells are used for the level measurement of the solids. This method is well suited for the continuous level measurement of the solids. In load cell the material is not directly come into contact with the material. They are non contact type sensors. Most load cell that developed by manufacturers will state the such factors input output relationships, non linearity, drift, hysteresis and temperature senstivity.Such parameters depend upon the axial or ideal loads which are normal to cell. Working Principle: Load cells measure the weight of material that is present in the tank and the weight of the tank. The weight of tank is known to us. The weight of tank is subtracted from the reading and leaving the weights of the contents in the tank. By knowing the cross sectional area of tank and the specific weight of the material. The volume or the depth of the material can be calculated. Advantages: Load cells are non contact type sensors so that they can use for the level measurement of hazardous material. Working of load cell is independent of dusty environment or material build up. Limitations: It is difficult and costly t install the load cell sensors in existing vessel. Installation and calibration cost is high. Radiation level sensors: Radiation level sensors are used where other electrical methods would not survive. Radiation level sensors are non contact type sensors. Radiation level sensors have the ability to the level of solid and liquid through the wall of the vessel. Working Principle: It consists of the gamma rays source holder on one side of the tank and a gamma detector on the other side of the tank. The gamma rays from the source are directed towards the detector in a thin band of radiation. When gamma rays penetrate the thick wall of the vessel it’s energy level afterwards are reduced. The radiation received at the gamma detector is inversely proportional to the thickness of the tank walls and the medium between radiation source and the detector. That is the thicker the medium between source and detector ,the less radiation received by the detector and vice versa. When the tank is empty the gamma rays pass only two tank walls and air in empty tank. When the material is present in the tank and its level rises the radiation beam passes through a path in the material as well as in the tank walls. The material present in the tank reduces the radiation received by the detector. The amount of radiation received is inversely proportional to the amount of material present between the radiation source and the detector. The difference in the amount of radiation received by the detector corresponds to the material level in the tank. When the material level rises in the tank the amount of radiation received is reduced. The radiation loss received by the tank walls is constant whether the tank is full o empty. Advantages: There is no physical contact with the material in radiation level detector. They are useful at high temperature and pressure. They have good accuracy and response. They have no moving parts. Limitations: Installation cost of the radiation level sensors are high. Radiation source holders may be heavy. Microimpulse level sensors: Microimpulse level sensors are non contact type sensors. Microimpulse level sensor is used to determine the level of the fine granular bulk solids. Working principle: In micro impulse level sensor the sensing element is the steel rope probe. An extremely short wave is passed through the steel probe and guided practically free from attenuation to the product surface. Here it is reflected back and travels along the probe rope to evaluating the electronics which then determines the level of solid by it’s time of flight. Advantages: Microimpulse level sensors are non contact type sensors. They have no moving parts. The measurement is independent of temperature and pressure. Limitations: The microimpulse level sensor is used for the small level measurement. Microwave level sensors: Microwave level detectors use the electromagnetic radio waves for the level measurement of he material. Wavelength can be calculated by dividing the wavelength in a vacuum by the square root of the window’s material dielectric constant. Microwaves do not pass through metal walls, but they do pass through fiber glass or plastic tank walls and through windows of plastic, ceramic, or glass that are insulated in metal vessel walls. As long as the window material has a relatively low dielectric constant and long as thickness is close to an even multiple of a half wavelength, attenuation is minimal. Side mounted microwave level detectors are used for the level measurement of solids. Top mounted microwave level detectors are used for continuous level measurement on liquid applications using radar technique. Beam breaker level sensors is type of the microwave level sensor that is used for the level measurement of solid. Working principle: In microwave beam breaker level sensors a beam is sent across the measurement zone, a signal is received at the detector. When the process material breaks the beam path, it reduces the signal received at the detector due to signal reflection and due to beam absorption in the material caused by the molecular and ionic resonance. Beam breaker level detectors use very small antennas so that the beam include angle is fairy wide. Although signal amplitude falls off rapidly proportional to the square of distance which is considerably greater than with ultrasonic or nuclear techniques. The beam breaker technique is useful for detecting large and abrasive materials such as coal, minerals, woodchips and vegetable pulp. It is also useful for detecting very light materials such as dry sawdust and powder materials in fluidized bed. Advantages: In microwave measurment the emissions are very low so health, saftey, licensing or product contamination concerns are minimal. Pressence of dust, mist and nonmetallic foam has negligible effect on the accuracy of measurement. By using heavy windows microwave level detectors can withstand heavy abbrsaion on solids service. Limitations: Beam breaker type microwave level sensor is more expensive as it requires two device to install along with the separate windows on metal surface. Float level sensors: Floats level sensors can also be used to measure the level of bilk solids. Float level sensors are used for the point measurement of the solid level. Working Principle: In float level sensors the float is wound up to the top of silo and then lowered down until the slack wire limit give the signal to the sequencing logic. The length of the supporting cable paid out than gives distance between the solid surface and the top of silo. The depth of the solid can be found by the subtraction from the silo height. Advantages: The working principle of the float level sensors is the simple. Float level sensors are not cost. Limitations: Float level sensors give the point level measurement of the solids. Optical level detectors: Optical level detectors are used for the measurement of the level of solids and liquids. They are non contact type level measurement sensors. Optical level sensors can be used for either point measurement or the continuous measurement of the level of solid. Working principle: In optical level sensors a beam of the light is passed to the solids level and it is reflected back to the light transistor located in the same holder as the light source. By adjusting the transistor sensitivity the unit can be calibrated in the range of point level detection on the solids services. When the light is passing through a fixed distance in the a solid the intensity of light received at the detector can be used to determine the level of solids. The level sensors can be used as appoint sensing or continuous level detector in the sludge. The sensor can have the several light sensitive detectors permitting switch to occur more than one points. Advantages: Laser version of optical level sensors provide high precision on narrow span application. Limitations: The sensor is adversely affected by changes in reflectivity of the process.
Nike Business Strategy: SWOT, PESTLE and Porter’s Five. NIKE BUSINESS STRATEGY Contents (Jump to) 1. Introduction 2. Basic Strategy of Nike 3. Organic Growth Strategy 4. SWOT Analysis of Nike 5. PESTLE Analysis of Nike 6. Five Forces in the Sportswear Market 7. Conclusions 8. Bibliography Introduction Nike is an international company producing sports based apparel. Its origins date back to 1964 when it was initially a distributor for a Japanese sports shoe manufacturer but soon became profitable in its own right, opening its own store in 1966, in California. By 1971, Nike had parted company with the original distributor and began to produce its own range of footwear. The first range of shoes was launched in 1972 and Nike, named after the Greek goddess for victory was established. The company grew quickly and by 1980 it had 50% of the US market in sports shoes. Interestingly, the company did very little in the way of media advertising, with the first ever television advertising running in 1982. In 1988, Nike began to acquire additional subsidiaries with Cole Haan and by 2008 a further three brands have been acquired making Nike one of the fastest growing companies of the late 20th century (Ramaswamy, 2008)[1]. One of the most notable and recent acquisitions was that of Umbro, extending Nike’s reach of the sports apparel market including jerseys, T-shirts and sports kit such as tennis rackets. As well as maintaining a wide range of products, the company has also been at the forefront of design, bringing in the latest in footwear technology, namely the Air Zoom Yorker, which is a shoe weighing 30% less than competitors’ shoes. Basic Strategy of Nike The basic strategy employed by Nike is one of branding and premium positioning in terms of quality and design. Early advertising was very specialist relying almost entirely on the track and field publication, with the focus being on the benefits of quality running shoes. Branding was premium from the beginning with the relationship that it developed with the Wieden and Kennedy advertising company. In 1982, the first television advert was aired during the New York Marathon. Tag lines such as ‘there is no finish line’ were used and Nike won advertiser of the year at the Cannes festival. This development of a premium brand has been the central strategy for Nike and all of its acquisitions have been done with enhancing the brand image of Nike in mind. As well as a strong advertising approach, Nike has used premium sponsorship carefully to enhance the branding of Nike. Well recognised sports individuals such as Serena Williams and Tiger Woods further enhanced their brand image, publicly. Being recognised as a world expert of design and sports apparel has been the central basic strategy for Nike and has proved to be very successful both in design and retail, expanding its scope both in terms of geographic location and type of product (BrownNike Business Strategy: SWOT, PESTLE and Porter’s Five

Strategic Management methods used by FedEx

Strategic Management methods used by FedEx. FedEx Corporation (FedEx) is widely acknowledged for having sparked a revolution in just-in-time delivery. In 1973, Federal Express Corporation (‘FedEx’) changed itself from a fast service delivery company to a worldwide logistic and supply-chain management company. FedEx Corp. was founded in 1973 by Fred Smith. It has been quoted as the inventor of the express transportation industry and customer logistics management. During 27 years of operation, FedEx earned a myriad of accolades and won over 194 awards for operational excellence. In 1983, FedEx became the first US Company to achieve the US$1 billion revenues mark within a decade without corporate acquisitions and mergers. Today, FedEx is the largest express transportation company with about 30 per cent of the market share. FedEx was incorporated in 1997 to serve as the holding company parent of FedEx Express and each of their other operating companies listed, along with their functions, as follows: FedEx Express – Largest U.S. Company offering time-certain delivery of envelopes, packages, multi-piece shipments and freight up to 150lbs., within one to three business days and serving 214 countries including every U.S. address. FedEx Ground – FedEx Ground is North America’s second largest provider of business and residential money-back-guaranteed small-package ground delivery service, behind UPS. FedEx Ground provides low-cost residential delivery to nearly 100% of U.S. residences through its FedEx Home Delivery service. FedEx Freight – One of the top 5 carriers providing next-day and second-day regional LTL (less-than-truckload) heavyweight consolidated freight services, over 150 lbs in both the United States and international markets. FedEx Custom Critical – Offers non-stop, time-specific, door-to-door delivery of time-critical and special-handling shipments within the United States, Canada and Europe. FedEx Trade Networks – Provides international trade services including customs brokerage, trade advisory services, information technology, e-clearance and air and ocean freight forwarding. FedEx Services – Comprises the consolidated sales, marketing and technology support for FedEx Express and FedEx Ground and offers extensive supply chain management solutions through its FedEx Supply Chain Services, Inc. subsidiary. FedEx Kinko’s – Provides personal and business publishing/copying solutions as well as being a FedEx shipping centre, through a network of more than 1,200 digitally connected locations in 10 countries. FedEx has transformed itself into an e-business by integrating physical and virtual infrastructures across information system, business development and organizational bounds. Such techno business design and inter-enterprise process integration have in turn allowed FedEx to transform its business model from managing inventory at rest to managing inventory in motion, thus reducing inventory and making order cycle time more faster. As more companies focus on online technology, FedEx’s experience in building an e-business serves to show how a company can successfully apply its information technology (IT) expertise to pioneer customer-centric innovations with sweeping structural and strategic impact for an entire industry. FedEx was among the very first to imagine how the Internet could become a tool for tracking and conveying shipment information. In 1974, FedEx started logistics operations with the Parts Bank. In those days, a few small set-ups approached FedEx with their warehousing problems and decided on the idea of overnight distribution of parts. In 1994, FedEx launched its Website, that allowed customers to track packages online and to conduct business via the Internet. The company has grown from a $8 billion operation to a $18 billion concern today. The transformation of FedEx Corporation from a physical box mover to an e-business has been at the core of FedEx’s continued growth. It was Smith’s commitment to exploiting new technology that led FedEx to give away more than 100,000 sets of PCs full with FedEx software, designed to connect and log clients into FedEx’s ordering and tracking systems in the 1980s. These proprietary online systems were marketed under the PowerShip program. Immediately the company’s customer base was transformed into an electronic network. In 1994, FedEx earned worldwide certification to the ISO9001 international quality standard. In 1997, FedEx won recertification. While most companies register individual sites, FedEx used technology and a centralized control system to gain registration for its entire worldwide network. Originally, systems were developed as an aid to more efficient management of its express delivery business. The transportation logistics information system was called the Customer, Operations, Service, Master On-line System (COSMOS). This was the first centralized computer system in the industry used to keep track of all packages handled by the company. COSMOS maintains data on package movement, pickup, invoicing and delivery in a central database at Memphis headquarters. A barcode is attached to each parcel at the point of pickup and scanned up to 20 times (for international shipments) en route, at each stage of the delivery cycle. The COSMOS system handled 63 million transactions per day in 1999. In 1998, FedEx decided to overhaul its internal IT infrastructure under Project GRID (Global Resources for Information Distribution). The project involved replacing 60,000 dumb terminals and some PCs with over 75,000 network systems. In 19th January, 2000, FedEx announced major restructuring in the Group’s operations in the hope of making easier to do business with the entire FedEx family. In March 2000, FedEx launched FedEx Home Delivery, a subsidiary operation within FedEx Ground Services. This new service was created in response to the expanding business-to-consumer market. The National Research Federation estimated that the residential market would grow by 119 percent by 2003, and that much of the growth will be attributable to the Internet. Technology has unleashed tremendous potential for enhancing FedEx’s business. It has enabled an information infrastructure that allows the managing of inventory in motion, an extension to the ability to manage inventory at rest. More specifically, FedEx has devised integrated supply chain solutions within an e-business framework so that its customers can connect to their customers and their selling and supply chain alliances, thus reducing inventory, shortening order cycle time and improving time-to-market. In fact, FedEx has been recognized by Information Week as one of the Top 100 Most Innovative Users of Technology. For example, FedEx did not invent the Internet, barcode scanning, or Wi-Fi. But, FedEx was among the very first to imagine how the Internet could become a tool for tracking and conveying shipment information. This is a big deal because tracking has made supply chain management fast and reliable on a global basis. And that’s changed the way the world does business. Speed became of significance to achieve competitiveness, not only for the transportation companies but also for their customers. The ability to deliver goods quickly shortened the order-to-payment cycle, improved cash flow, and created customer satisfaction. FedEx realizes that customer touch points abound and is committed to making every FedEx experience outstanding. 1.0 Introduction FedEx Corporation provides a collection of widespread services like business services, transportation, and e-business. It is among the top four logistics companies in the world which is currently operating various locations world wide. It had transformed itself from an express delivery company to a global logistics and supply-chain management company. 1.1 Porter’s Five Forces Michael Porter, an authority on competitive strategy, developed an important model to analyse a business’s relationships to its industry. It is based on the insight that a corporate strategy should meet the opportunities and threats in the organisation’s external environment. He contends that there are five forcers that should be considered in conducting an industry analysis. The Five Forces include: The risk of new competitors entering the industry Threat of potential substitutes The bargaining power of buyers The bargaining power of suppliers and Degree of rivalry between existing competitors In addition to the five forces, a sixth force, governmental policies is added to Porter’s model because of its influence on all the other forces. Figure 1 shows the industry analysis of the five competitive forces that are expected to have the strongest and most immediate effects on the strategic plans of an organisation. The profitability of an industry is shaped by the interactions of these forces. Figure : Five competitive forces 1.2 Porter’s five forces at FedEx Corporation Threats of new entrants There is a high barrier for new entrants to overcome because it is very expensive and time-consuming to start up a major shipping company like FedEx Corporation. Another issue affecting potential entrants is international regulations and trade tax. Most companies present now in the business have already created strong business relationship with overseas countries. New companies will have to demonstrate the same to foreign companies, suppliers, and customers. By applying new technology like IT to the business makes the barrier even more harder to overcome. Bargaining Power of Suppliers FedEx has ensured that they have the best suppliers with a scorecard system where FedEx scores its suppliers to measure its their performances while the supplier in return gets to give FedEx feedback on how FedEx can improve. Because the system helps both sides, it may strengthen the customer-supplier relationship. Rivalry among competing firms The three competitor of FedEx are DHL, UPS and TNT. Competition was fierce because the competitors cut costs to compete. And they were betting big on technology. Bargaining Power of Buyers This is a reasonable force in this industry because competition keeps the same pricing strategy. Firms can maintain higher prices than competitors are those who can add value to their services. Besides, the consumers in this industry are reactionary. They were unaware of the technology before it happens. They become reliant on the technology, service and speed obtainable by the companies in this industry and are ready to pay for the price. Threats of Substitute Product or Services The threat of substitutes is moderately weak in this industry. Shipping of cargos and packages can be done by alternative means such as trucks, boats and trains. Moreover, air freight transportation is generally preferred by consumers due to speed, convenience and low cost. None of these three are derived by traditional means of transportation. Shipping of documents can as well be made via Internet, e-mail, and Facsimiles. However, it is very time consuming to scan and load and it is uncertain that the documents reach the final destination. Shipping of documents can as well be made via Internet, e-mail, and Facsimiles. However, it is very time consuming to scan and load and it is uncertain that the documents reach the final destination. Figure : Porter’s five forces model – FedEx Corporation 1.3 Porter’s Value Chain Techniques The term “value chain” was first used by Porter (1980). Porter defined the “value chain” as a representation of a firm’s value-adding activities, based on its pricing strategy and cost structure. Porter’s approach highlights actual and potential areas of competitive advantage for the firm. Porter argued that individual firms each have their own value chains that are embedded in value networks (or “value system” in the terminology of Porter), each of which have different functions within an industry or sector that influence (and are influenced by) other actors in the network. The salience of Porter’s discussion was to highlight the interdependences and linkages between vertically arrayed actors in the creation of value for a firm. Figure 3 groups ‘primary activities’ and ‘support functions’ together, all of which are essential to the value chain. A resource analysis would not only note the particular primary (or support) activities that gave a distinctive advantage to the organisation, but also the strengths that emerged from the combination of all the activities. Figure : The Porter Value Chain Model can be used as a support to help understand the situation of a business process and a linked technical-solution space 1.4 Value Chain analysis for FedEx Corporation The value chain analysis for FedEx Corporation begins with the gathering of packages from various locations. The value-added services for FedEx customers are as follows: The invention of the air/ground express industry in1973 Overnight delivery market Worldwide express delivery The possibility of package pick-ups just about anywhere and anytime Assuring timely delivery of the packages Ability to deliver goods quickly, therefore creating value Expansion into logistics management activities such as order processing, purchasing, production and customer and sales services First big transportation company that launch a Website that included tracking and tracing capabilities e.g. (the centralised computer system, COSMOS in 1979) The launch of the Powership programme in 1984, which provides customer with online services such as storing of frequently used addresses, label printing, online package pick up requests, package tracking etc FedEx Home Delivery Management teams continue to examine additional cost reduction opportunities as they focus on optimizing their networks, improving their service offerings, enhancing the customer experience and positioning FedEx to increase cash flow and financial returns by improving their operating margin. Customer service is the final crucial part. Support is provided as well as after sale service by this function. Moreover, FedEx offers customer service during the use of the service by letting customers track their package while it is in route. Extreme value is created for consumers as they can check their packages at any point in time thus ensuring security. FedEx provides the right ingredients to achieve the objectives of creating value for FedEx customers while at the same time improving profitability for the company. 1.5 Core competencies and capabilities of FedEx Corporation between 1973 and 2000 In Management, core competencies are special capabilities are resources and it is also a unique bundle of skills, knowledge and expertise that allows an organisation to remain competitive and thus are the building blocks to future opportunities. Figure : Model of Competitive Advantage Core Competencies are not believed to be fixed. They are meant to change due to the complex and turbulent external environment of a firm. They are flexible and develop over time. As a business develops and adapts to new circumstances and opportunities, so its Core Competencies will have to adapt and change. Furthermore, FedEx’s competitive position has been strengthened. Its core competencies are now in express transportation and in e-solutions (providing holistic solutions to customers for managing their selling and supply chains). FedEx’s primary competitive advantage has been its IT infrastructure, client-provided software, and website. FedEx has prepared the ground works for enormous potentials in e-business in the future. Competencies at FedEx are not that much distinctive, as it has strong existing competencies. These include brand name, and a fierce dedication to innovation and technology. In the 1980’s FedEx set a few records with breakthrough technology. These existing competencies enabled FedEx to become the leading express delivery company in the world. Due to these competencies will enable FedEx to make inroads and finally gain a competitive advantage in the shipping industry even though FedEx still pursue UPS and DHL in terms of competitive advantage. The capability of FedEx’s corporate strategy was to use IT to help customers take advantage of international markets. By 1988 the company spent billion on IT developments plus millions more on capital expenditure having an IT workforce of 5,000 people. Also the issue of Hand-held scanners to its drivers alerting the customers when packages were picked up or delivered. FedEx became the first big transportation company that launch a Website in 1994 which included tracking and tracing capabilities Understanding of business success or failure is crucial for creating a successful corporate strategy and is the most important task for managers. For the creation of an efficient strategy, the employment of prescriptive tools, methodologies and models is insufficient and must be accompanied with in-depth conceptual knowledge. Managers should be aware that each business strategy is unique and that a strategy is neither ‘wrong’ nor ‘right’ in any absolute sense. Strategy is about building the competencies needed to dominate future markets. Figure 5 shows how to use technology to stay competitive Figure : Using Technology to Stay Competitive While FedEx had pioneered many logistics solutions that had helped it to achieve economies of scale faster than its competitors, the advantages were quickly eroding as newer technologies became even more powerful and less expensive. 1.6 The main advantages and disadvantages of international trade to FedEx Corporation 1.6.1 Advantages of international trade to FedEx Corporation FedEx’s business model supports 24-48 hour delivery to anywhere in the world with a fully integrated physical and virtual infrastructure. FedEx has designed an infrastructure that provides integrated services from the point of managing inventory at rest to managing inventory in motion. On the one hand, FedEx has positioned itself to respond to the trend in the globalization of business and markets by building a physical distribution network and a virtual information network to provide global reach for its customers. FedEx has reduced distance, making the world smaller. This has changed people’s way of communicating and doing business. Companies can now start selling in distant markets without the time and cost restraints. FedEx has facilitated the traditional limitations of reaching new geographic markets, such as establishing distributorships, regional warehousing and overcoming regulatory hurdles. FedEx has devised supply chain management solutions within an e-business framework where its customers can connect seamlessly to their customers and their selling and supply chain alliances. FedEx’s e-business model creates value for its customers in several ways: it provides better communication and collaboration between the various parties along the selling and supply chains; efficiency gains is promoted by reducing costs and increasing order cycle; and organisations are transformed into high performance e-businesses. 1.6.2 Disadvantages of international trade to FedEx Corporation External factors affect international trade. The company should perform a PEST Framework Analysis which involves Political Aspects, Economic Aspects, Social Aspects and Technological Aspects. Unpredictable energy prices; a considerable decrease of oil supplies from oil-producing regions or refining capacity and other events as well causing a substantial fall in the supply of aviation fuel. It could have an adverse effect on FedEx operations. The rising expenses in transportation security and insurance, especially in international freight due to the continuing threats from terrorism. High implementation, maintenance and failure cost associated with the adoption of sophisticated information technologies. Many of FedEx Express’ competitors in the international market are government-owned, government-controlled, or government-subsidized carriers. It means that they may possess greater resources, lower cost, less profit maximising sensitivity, and more favorable operating conditions than FedEx does. Substitute Products for business and personal data exchange pose a threat to FedEx. Although alliances may help FedEx expand its services, the primary product (shipping) is standardized and alternative suppliers are plentiful. Buyers are thus able to retain a large degree of bargaining power. Although the shipping industry is quite competitive, there are various opportunities and threats in the form of strategic alliances and acquisitions that pertain to its domestic and international express segments. Whittington’s ‘Classical’ and ‘Evolutionary’ Schools of Thought in the context of strategy development at FedEx Corporation from 1973 to 2000 In ‘Classical Strategic Management’, the important characteristics is the ‘unity of direction’ linking the strategic goals determined at the ‘head’ of the organisation with the actions to be carried out by all the lower divisions and departments. The activities of the FedEx Corporation are in effect pre-programmed, needing only to be monitored and controlled to keep within specification. In this approach, the critical environment is the competitive one of buyers, suppliers, market entrants, purveyors of substitutes and direct competitors. On the other hand, ‘Evolutionary Perspective’ emphasises populations of similar organisations. Therefore, strategy has an interest in innovation. Firms who do not produce their own innovations will almost certainly change as a follower, forcing them to mutate into new forms. Table 1 shows evidence for each of Whittington’s two paradigms Table : Evidence for each of Whittington’s two paradigms From year 1973 to 2000, FedEx Corporation has been continuously making sudden moves, growing steadily and surviving lean times. Since its foundation in 1973 Federal express had became a worldwide logistics and supply-chain management company. Even the competition was intense the company continued to innovate and implement successful projects such as the invention of air/ground express industry in 1973. FedEx continued to launch a series of technological systems to provide rapid, simple and suitable service options for its customers. So as to widen their gap to other competitors, FedEx apply e-business systems so as to increase customer satisfaction as well as their overall business with the customers. In 1979, the COSMOS (Customer, Operations, Service, Master On-line was implemented as a centralised computer system to track every transaction in the process of delivery. 2.1 Applying the two Schools of Thought to FedEx Corporation The strategic expansion of FedEx was in fact based by the school of thoughts of Whittington. Table : Different perspectives of the strategy’s elaboration approach (Whittington, 2001) FedEx used the method of ‘Classical Management’ theory to cut costs when competition put pressure on pricing, increase productivity by applying new technologies, re-examine organizational efficiency and effectiveness. Through the ‘Evolutionary Perspective’ weaker members of the population are in danger of perishing when conditions become more difficult. FedEx is largely at the mercy of its wider environment, and its priority must be to scan its surroundings for threats and opportunities. The company should be vigilant and have a clear idea of its own market characteristics. This will help protect the organisation from dangers and ensure survival within a population or niche. FedEx learned to adapt marketing strategies applied by product innovators to become adept at delivering game-changing services in light of the unique characteristics of service innovation. FedEx has created an innovative culture and has been recognized for this with national and international awards. But more important than the accolades is the value delivered to customers. When FedEx asked its customers what they wanted, they said they want FedEx to help them grow, to collaborate with them, and to expand their markets. FedEx innovations help customers grow their businesses. This is true customer-driven innovation. When your customers grow, you grow. That is the bottom line and FedEx knows this to be true. FedEx can be said to be an innovative entrepreneur and also an exploiter of change in the Evolutionary Perspective. To maintain market superiority and continued growth and profitability, one of FedEx’s top strategic priorities is improving customer experience. The company struggle for the best performance allowing them to survive and progress. In my point of view, an Evolutionary approach allows an organisation to develop better tools to deal with evaluating threats and opportunities as well as balancing exploration and exploitation in changing environments. This approach is based on the natural selection principle which means on the market the strongest survives. In this context the manager’s individual strategic decisions are not considered important and his role is limited to maintain the costs low. With this approach the environment is the one that leaves a mark on the strategy’s structure. Only through constant improvement of operational effectiveness, enterprises can reach and maintain profitability. For Weick (1979) the evolutionary model is essential for understanding how individuals and groups make sense of their world and how they organise processes. Here, sense-making is the main mechanism for individuals to understand the environment that surrounds them (Weick, 1995). Contrary to the competitive approaches of the classical perspective it could be argued that if organisations need to find and fit into a competitive niche in order to survive then their strategies are not deliberate, but emergent. 3.0 ‘Processual School of Thought and the implications for strategic management of each of the four loops Decision-making lay fully in the domain of managers and leaders. Stacey’s (1996) analysis tries to capture the problem of strategic change and decisions arenas. He suggests that some outcomes are ‘close to certainty and some are ‘far from certainty’. The processual view of strategic change is without a doubt a useful mechanism for understanding how organisations devise, develop and implement strategic initiatives. To complement this view, there is a need to understand how individuals interact with each other and how information changes influence strategic activity. For these reasons the perspectives of ‘appreciation’ and ‘information’ must also be considered within the processual view in order to reflect the complexities and issues involved in strategic organisational change. The rational loop The rational decision-making perspective involves the rationale application of knowledge to a situation, covering: what are the alternatives, the consequences, the desirability and the criteria for choice. The ‘rational loop’ of discover-choose-act is the ‘classical’ starting point of strategic management for Stacey, though the strategic manager takes an incremental approach. The ‘discoveries’ about the organisation in relation to its environment generate the necessity to ‘choose’ from many possible course of action. When choice is decided, the decision-makers ‘act’, and in the effects of their actions, new discoveries are made about the state of the organisation in its environment, and so on. The rational loop is essentially ‘unitary’. The overt politics loop When considering power and politics (the political perspective) one must remember that these aspects are not necessarily a negative aspect of organisational change but can be vital during the strategy process in that power can be used by strong leaders and groups to influence people and their actions. More importantly, power and political manoeuvring may not just be concerned with individuals but also broader interests across the organisation. This political process is ‘overt’, in that it is part of the inevitable bargaining for resources that takes place in any organisation that aims to achieve its goals through different functional activities. The arguments, in public at least, are based on differing ‘rational’ perceptions of the organisation in its environment. The covert politics loop New and threatening situations provoke complexities, and responses are made to that in a way that is largely unconscious. The differences between individuals give rise to different ‘coping’ mechanisms. Some people deal with the fear of failure and the challenge that arises from change. They continue to stagnate in their ways they find more suitable refusing to adapt with the new change. Thus, they may gather several same opinions and may form into groups. People see changes as a negative thing, something that creates instability and insecurity. Stacey talked of ‘the organisational defence routines’ in the convert politics loop, where people do not admit due to the frustration and anger which is driving their actions. However, they may form a group and take action to feel secure again. The culture and cognition The ‘culture and cognition loop’ sustain the unitary organisation in its ‘shared mental models. The mental models explain how the world around us might limit what we are able to perceive, or discover. As long as everyone subscribes o the organisational culture, and the world does not produce any major surprises, then what is ‘discovered’ over time is likely to fit in with the agreed ‘rationality’ of the organisation. If, however, changes in the environment or the effects of earlier organisational actions produce unexpected consequences then the stability of the culture is shaken. It is very distressful to see individuals implementing the change, and recognize that the old ways cannot be integrated into the new. If they accept the change they should start to mentally prepare themselves. Thus, they challenge or approach issues with different models of how the world works. Hence, contradictions and conflict are introduced, and the unitary organisation begins to fragment into pluralism. 4.0 APPENDICES 4.1 APPENDIX A Figure 1: FedEx’s Organization structure 4.2 APPENDIX B Figure 2: FedEx Solutions for the Entire Supply-Chain 4.3 APPENDIX C An integrated customer order process management: National Semiconductor Figure 3: The Information Flow Value of Integrated Services to NatSemi’s Customer 4.4 APPENDIX D The Value Chain Model Figure 4: The Value Chain Model of an organization 4.5 APPENDIX E FedEx’s transportation business growth had to face a number of external factors that FedEx was quick to capitalise on. It was based on PEST analysis, that is, Political Factors, Economic Factors, Social Factors and Technological Factors. These include: Government deregulation of the airline industry, which permitted the landing of larger freight planes, thus reducing operating costs for FedEx Deregulation of the trucking industry, which allowed Strategic Management methods used by FedEx

Morrison Company’s Operation Management Case Study

term paper help Introduction This report presents a case analysis of the Morrison Company that produces smart tags in both pharmaceutical and retail lines. The paper details the major facts about the organization and its products, as well as providing information about its earnings and the manufacturing process. The problems the firm encounters are addressed and analyzed. The report includes a capacity and utilization analysis, discusses the lines’ competitive advantages, and offers recommendations for improvement of the company’s position. Major Facts The presented study features the Morrison Company, an organization that manufactures goods that use ratio frequency identification (RFID) technology. Products include smart labels for retail and pharmaceutical industries (Wheelwright

Ashford University Wk 5 Workplace Bullying and Harassment Discussion

Ashford University Wk 5 Workplace Bullying and Harassment Discussion.

Discussion one – Due Sept/3In a 250-300 word response, describe a conflict situation you have experienced in the workplace. Explain the impact that the communication process played in resolving or escalating the conflict? What was the resolution? If positive, how could you incorporate that conflict resolution style in your communications? If a negative result, what recommendation could you make to improve the communication process. Use references to support your findings. Respond to at least two of your fellow students’ posts with some suggestions or ideas of your own.Discussion two – Due Sept/3In a 250-300 word response, relate an organizational example of the use or lack of use of ethical standards in management communications. The example may be from your own workplace or from a business situation with which you are familiar. Support your answer by indicating why you believe it is an example of communicating in an ethical manner and why you believe the decision was made to communicate in the particular manner. Use references to validate your analysis. Respond to at least two of your fellow students’ posts by commenting on the examples they have given.Assignment Due Sept/6Review the Wiedmer article regarding workplace bullying.Develop a two- to three-page APA- formatted paper that responds to the following:Provide a review of the article. Describe the impact of workplace bullying on both the victims and the organization.Reflect on a time when you may have witnessed workplace bullying. Discuss at least two practices of workplace bullying addressed in the article that were applicable to your scenario.Recommend at least two techniques from the article that management should implement to provide a positive impact on workplace bullying. Support your response with additional information from the textbook or additional research.Your paper must be two to three pages (not including title and reference pages) and must be formatted according to APA style as outlined in the approved APA style guide. You must cite two scholarly sources in addition to the textbook.Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.) for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.
Ashford University Wk 5 Workplace Bullying and Harassment Discussion

Please write minimum of 550words on this discussion topic

Please write minimum of 550words on this discussion topic. I’m working on a Computer Science question and need guidance to help me study.

: Computerized Operating Systems (OS) are almost everywhere. We encounter them when we use out laptop or desktop computer. We use them when we use our phone or tablet. Find articles that describes the different types of operating systems (Linux, Unix, Android, ROS, z/OS, z/VM, z/VSE, etc). Do not select MS WINDOWS. Write a scholarly review of comparing any two or more OS; attach a copy of the article to your postings. Remember, this assignment is to be scholarly; it is not enough for you to simply post your article and add cursory reviews. Cited references are required. In addition you must read the postings of the other students and comment significantly on those areas. Please see Discussion Forum of the class syllabus for additional details on content. The primary goal for the discussion forum assignment is to simulate the free sharing of ideas among peers that is typically experienced in graduate courses delivered in the more traditional, face-to-face environment. Evaluating a student’s performance on the assignment is not, therefore, very concrete. There are a number of factors that impact the quality of a student’s participation. The content of the contributions is, of course, one rather obvious factor, but the context in which the contributions have been made is equally important. In evaluating performance on this assignment, the following factors will be considered: Add value to the content of the discussion by posting well-written, on-topic contributions.Share resources with others by providing support for you contributions in the form of citations from the literature.
No Plagiarism please, use APE format write in MS WORD
Please write minimum of 550words on this discussion topic