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ENG 101 EGCC Why the Youth Engage in Drugs and Substance Abuse Essay

ENG 101 EGCC Why the Youth Engage in Drugs and Substance Abuse Essay.

I’m working on a writing report and need support to help me understand better.

The purpose of the Informative Essay assignment is to choose a job or task that you know how to do and then write 3 full pages Informative Essay teaching the reader how to do that job or task. You will follow the organization techniques explained in Unit 6Here are the details:1. Read the Lecture Notes in Unit 6. You may also find the information in Chapter 10.5 in our text on Process Analysis helpful. The lecture notes will really be the most important to read in writing this assignment. However, here is a link to that chapter that you may look at in addition to the lecture notes: Choose your topic, that is, the job or task you want to teach. As the notes explain, this should be a job or task that you already know how to do, and it should be something you can do well. You may ask your instructor for advice if you have a difficult time finding a job or task to write on. Also, think at this point about your audience (reader). Will your reader need any knowledge or experience to do this job or task, or will you write these instructions for a general reader where no experience is required to perform the job.3. Plan your outline to organize this essay. Unit 6 notes offer advice on this organization process. Be sure to include an introductory paragraph that has the four main points presented in the lecture notes (again, while your introduction has those main points, they don’t have to be in the order given in the lecture notes).4. Write the essay. It will need to be at least 3 full pages long. You will use the MLA formatting that you used in previous essays from Units 3, 4, and 55. Be sure to include a title for your essay.6. After writing the essay, be sure to take the time to read it several times for revision and editing. It would be helpful to have at least one other person proofread it as well before submitting the assignment.
ENG 101 EGCC Why the Youth Engage in Drugs and Substance Abuse Essay

Ottawa University Computer Science Email Encryption Question.

I’m working on a computer science multi-part question and need support to help me understand better.

A.) The total word count must be 250 to 300 words in your posting. please provide references for your original postings in APA format.What things do you think make up the Web?When arriving at a crime scene, is it better to shut down the computer immediately or insure it stays on? What are the tradeoffs?B.) Create a Gmail account to be used for encryption. Download and configure Thunderbird, GnuPG, and Enigmail to work with your new Gmail account. Document your findings and observations in a 1200-1500 words with references and following APA writing standards.
Ottawa University Computer Science Email Encryption Question

ENG 201 CUNY BMCC Kafka and Le Guin Discussion.

I’m working on a english writing question and need guidance to help me understand better.

Everything you need to knowis in the attachments below. One of the attachments is a student response to the question they answer. Respond back to that question. Such as add your own information, to the discussion. You can disagree or agree with that student response. You can choose which question you would like to respond to. Only choose 2 questions to answer. 200 words is good. You can use that student response papers as an example of what you will be doing.There are 2 articles that are missing in the description . I will send it to you in the message box. the reading I put down. U don’t got to read it just pick 2 readings you like and scan through it and answer the question that is giving and response to the student response also.
ENG 201 CUNY BMCC Kafka and Le Guin Discussion

One of the most novel ideas in education instruction is collaborative teaching. Learners with special needs learn alongside ordinary students in an ordinary class setting. A special needs teacher is supposed to assist the regular teacher in preparing materials for special learners, delivering assisted learning during and after the regular classes. The purpose of collaborative learning is to give learners with special needs an opportunity to acquire education and an environment that does not have any restrictions, thus maximizing their chances to learn. Collaborative learning employs multiple teaching and learning skills. It should not be confused with other teaching practices such as one teacher preparing material and another delivering instruction. It is an opportunity to distribute teaching activities amongst a group of individuals with different teaching skills. This paper endeavors to give a an assessment of collaborative teaching Where collaborative learning is used efficiently, students with learning difficulties reap maximums benefits, while ordinary learners acquire the skills to socialize and live harmoniously with special need students. It is therefore an idea worth implementing (Logsdon, 2011). Cushman (n.d.) also argues that this type of teaching model propagates a sense of productive interdependence amongst teacher. It is more effective when co-teachers realize that each of them is not sufficiently equipped to respond to the diversely unique needs of a class. It is also an effective way of ensuring each individual teachers account for individual responsibilities. However, collaborative teaching is not without hitches. It is time consuming and creates too much interference in terms of unnecessary movements and uncontrolled noise in a class. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It may also be disorderly when collaborative teachers have extremely diverse teaching skills (Deluca, Borman, Jump, Ratzlaff and Nystrom, 2010). Many people have suggested an alternative where there is one teacher in a class assisted by several assistants. While this may be good in having many professional with diverse skills in the same class, its implementation may be cumbersome. It is therefore more preferable to have two teachers who take their time to plan for the class. This will reduce the amount of confusion and interference in the teaching process (Haynes, 2010). Evaluation of student’s progress is usually a challenging task in a mixed abilities class. Various issues complicate the type of grading system to use. Co-teachers usually have a problem grading, given that students have different abilities and learning styles. It is also difficult to determine how to evaluate daily assignments, who evaluates them and how they reflect on the final grade (University of Kansas, 2005). There should also be mutual respect for each other personal space and opinion between the co-teachers. For ordinary education teachers who are doing it for the first time, one of the major learning points is sharing teaching space with a fellow professional (Creighton Education, n.d.). Several qualities identify an ideal co teacher. To begin with, a co-teacher must be able to share professional knowledge as well as be open to communication and criticism. They must also be inclined towards learner centred teaching. Most importantly, they must be willing team players. Absence of these basic characteristic in a co-teacher make hinder the whole process (EFL classrooms, 2010). Co-teaching is an idea that is yet to gain much support. However, the benefits of co-teaching are worthwhile. We will write a custom Essay on Co-teaching specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Learners with learning difficulties are motivated by learning in a less restricted ordinary class and get to enjoy the benefits that the ordinary learner gets. Despite the complexity in its implementation, the many professions and learning institutions should try it. Reference List Creighton Education. Co-teaching in today’s classrooms. Web. Cushman, S. What is co-teaching? Word Press. Web. Deluca D., Borman J., jump T., Ratzlaff R. and Nystrom C. (2010). Co teaching. Class Chatter. Web. EFL classrooms, (2010). Co-teaching: general guidelines and procedures. Edublogs. Web. Haynes, J. (2010). Collaborative teaching for ells: Are two teachers better than one? EverythingESL. Web. Logsdon, A. (2011). Collaborative teaching – Special education in collaborative classrooms. Guide. Web. University of Kansas, (2005). Grading considerations. Special Connections. Web. Not sure if you can write a paper on Co-teaching by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More

Using Excel to solve problems

Using Excel to solve problems.

Q1Suppose that there are three suppliers S1, S2, and S3 in a distribution system that can supply 5, 5, and 6 units, respectively, of the company’s good. The distribution system contains five demand centers, that require 2, 2, 4, 4, and 3 units each of the good. The transportation costs, in dollars per unit, are as follows:D1 D2 D3 D4 D5S1 2 1 2 3 3S2 2 2 2 1 -1S3 3 3 2 1 2(a) Compute an optimum shipping schedule. Is the optimal solution unique?(b) Find the range over which the cost of transportation from S1 to D3 can vary while maintaining the optimal basis solution in part (a).(c) To investigate the sensitivity of the solution to this problem, consider what happens if the amount supplied from any one supplier and the amount demanded by any one demand center were both increased. Is it possible for the total shipping costs to decrease by increasing the supply and the demand for any particular choice of supply and demand centers?(d) A landslide has occurred on the route from S2 to D5. If you bribe the state highway crew with $10, they will clear the slide. If not, the route will remain closed. Should you pay the bribe?Q2The following is based on a real case.At an International Cosmetics company (referred to as C)’s board meeting, the firm’s chief executive officer (CEO) reported that C was planning its production schedule for the upcoming quarter. She stated that the firm did not have the internal capacity to meet the projected demand and that the only short-term possibility was to outsource some of the demand to a third-party supplier. She indicated that C had been reluctant in the past to use vendors in this way because of the proprietary nature of the company’s product line. However, she had been in negotiations with a local supplier that was prepared to sign a secrecy agreement. She indicated that she would need board approval before proceeding down this path. The board’s chairman asked how much of the projected product demand might have to be subcontracted out and cautioned against exposing C’s complete product line to an outside vendor. She stated that the analysis could be completed along with a recommendation within a week using C’s analytics-based linear programming model and a further review of the candidate vendor.About the company: The company C produces and distributes a wide range of cosmetics offerings through a subscription-based e-commerce model. Customers can choose fromdifferent pricing plans, and the products are delivered to their homes monthly. The subscription model provided C with a stable income stream while continuing to build brand loyalty, particularly with regards to its 3 flagship products: face cream, body cream, and hand cream.With sales approaching $150 million annually, C had experienced double-digit growth over the past few years. Its marketing department estimated that the demand for the 3 products for the upcoming quarter are 12,000 cartons of face cream, 8,000 cases of body cream, and 18,000 cases of hand cream.The manufacturing process consisted of a two-stage production procedure that used four ingredients: purified water, oil, scents and colours, and emulsifiers. Stage 1 involved materials preparation and initial mixing while Stage 2 focused on final blending and packaging. The cost for raw materials is $1 per pound for purified water, $1.50 per pound for oil, $3 per pound for scents and colours, and $2 per pound for emulsifiers.C’s available first-shift capacity for the next quarter was 15,000 labour-hours for stage 1 and 10,000 for stage 2. The first-shift hourly rate was $8.50 for stage 1 and $9.25 for stage 2. A second shift was available with a 10% reduction in capacity and a 10% increase in wage rates. C could also subcontract with a local supplier identified by CEO for face cream and bodycream at a cost of $40 per carton and $55 per carton, respectively. This vendor had the capacity to meet the demand requirements that were in excess of C’s capabilities.The production department had available 200,000 pounds of purified water, 50,000 pounds of oil, 7,500 pounds of scents and colours, and 15,000 pounds of emulsifiers.Face CreamBody CreamHand CreamLabour (Hours/carton)Stage (pounds/carton)Water8.06.07.0Oil1.03.02.0Scents and Colors0.50.30.4Emulsifiers0.50.70.6(1) Use the given labor stages and material requirements provided above, what are the costs for producing the three products in-house (i.e., the internal production costs per carton)?(2) Develop a Linear Optimization model to determine optimal production strategies, including the use of outsourcing. Specify the decision variables, constraints, objective function, and then solve using Solver.(3) Using your answer in part (2) what production schedule minimizes total cost including outsourcing, and what is the corresponding value of the objective function?(4) What labour and material resources are completely used up, and what are the corresponding shadow prices?(5) What is the production schedule if hand cream can be subcontracted out at a cost of $50 per carton?(6) Suppose that the board only allows outsourcing one product, i.e., only Face Cream or only Body Cream but not both. Under this additional requirement imposed by the company’s board, what production schedule minimizes total cost including outsourcing?
Using Excel to solve problems

ITA 101 University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Italian Grammar Quiz

best assignment help ITA 101 University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Italian Grammar Quiz.

10 questions of italian 101Part 1: Date importanti (5 points). Complete the following sentences with the correct information in Italian.Oggi è mercoledì il 17. Domani è _____________________________________________.Il mese di Thanksgiving è ___________________________________________________.Dopo gennaio, c’è il mese di______________________________________________.Il secondo giorno della settimana è ___________________________________________.I mesi dell’estate sono _____________________________________________________.Part 2: Maschile o femminile? Singolare o plurale? (10 points). Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the definite article (il, lo, l’, la, i, gli, le). Some questions have more than one correct answer)._______ occhiali_______ quaderno_______ amiche_______ skateboard_______ zaino_______ università_______ tortellini_______ studenti_______ orologi_______ lezionePart 3: Che ore sono? (6 punti). Give the time using full sentences and spelling out all numbers.Part 4: Lettura (10 punti). Read the following text and decide if the statements below are true or false.Giuliano è uno studente alla University of Massachusetts. Abita con la famiglia a Medford e viene all’università in treno. Ha ventuno anni. È magro e un po’ basso, con gli occhi verdi e i capelli castani. Legge molto: preferisce la poesia ma legge anche i romanzi e i fumetti. È una persona molto intelligente. Giuliano e Carla, sua sorella, suonano il violino nell’orchestra locale. Ogni anno viaggiano a Roma e giocano a calcio con i ragazzi del quartiere. All’università Giuliano studia le scienze politiche e la criminologia e segue anche corsi di matematica. Di solito dorme fino a molto tardi e quindi non fa colazione ma beve solo un caffè. Pranza con gli altri studenti dei suoi corsi e discutono di politica e di cinema. Cena sempre con la sua famiglia, che è abbastanza grande: ha tre cugine, Angela, Michela e Roberta, e due cugini, Umberto e Salvatore. Mangiano cibo italiano, caraibico, e giapponese.VERO O FALSO?1. Giuliano è molto alto. V F2. Giuliano legge solo libri di poesia. V F3. Giuliano cena spesso con gli amici. V F4. Ogni mattina fa una grande colazione. V F5. Gioca a calcio quando viaggia. V FPart 5. I verbi regolari (–are, –ere, –ire) (10 points). Complete the sentences with the appropriate present tense forms of the verbs provided.Io (studiare)______________________________________ molto.Noi (giocare) _____________________________ a calcio spesso.Io e Francesca (rispondere) _______________________ alle mail.Tu (parlare) ___________________________ sempre al telefono!Voi (seguire) _________________________________ il baseball?Marina e Chiara (guardare) __________________ i film romantici.Io (discutere) ______________________ di politica con gli amici.Andrea (scrivere)__________________________ poesie.Io (preferire) _____________________ incontrare gli amici al bar.Susanna (dormire) _________________________ perché è stanca.Part 6. I verbi irregolari (10 punti). Complete the following sentences with the correctly conjugated forms of the given verbs.Paolo ______________________ (essere) un ragazzo intelligente.Di solito Maria non _________ (uscire) la domenica sera.Anna e Umberto __________________ (dare) l’esame di biologia.Felice e Roberto __________ (andare) al cinema con i miei fratelli.Perché voi non _____________ (venire) a casa mia domani sera?Voi non ________________ (fare) una passeggiata?Non mi ______________________ (piacere) le persone arroganti.Gianni non __________________________ (avere) una macchina.Io _________________ (fare) la spesa al mercato.Antonella __________________ (andare) a lavorare in macchina.Part 7. Gli aggettivi (12 points). Fill in the following sentences with the correct form of the adjectives in parentheses.La mia migliore amica è _________________ (alto) e ________________ (divertente).Il suo corso di biologia è _________________ (interessante) perché il professore usa due libri _________________ (nuovo).I miei genitori sono __________________ (onesto), __________________ (intelligente) e __________________ (generoso).Maria e Giulia sono __________________ (italiano), __________________ (studioso) e __________________ (gentile).La sua bicicletta è ______________ (rosso) e _____________ (verde).Part 8. Gli aggettivi possessivi (10 points). Complete the following sentences with a plausible possessive adjective. Make sure that the possessive agrees with the noun that follows the blank space and be sure to include the article… but only if you need one!Example: Giorgio legge ______________ libro  Giorgio legge il suo libro1. Maria passeggia con ____________________________________________ figlio.2. I signori Ferrari invitano ____________________________________________ vicini.3. Noi dimentichiamo spesso ____________________________________ chiavi a casa.4. Gioco sempre a tennis con ________________________________________ fratelli.5. Paolo non sa dov’è __________________________________________________ zia.6. Tu e Marco avete ancora ___________________________ quella macchina vecchia?7. Dimmi (tell me), Giulia, com’è _______________________________ appartamento?8. Io guido solo __________________________________________________ bicicletta.9. Marcello, _______________________________________ nonni sono molto anziani?10. Antonio balla in discoteca con _____________________________________ moglie.Part 9. Sapere e conoscere (6 punti). Complete with the correctly conjugated form of the verbs conoscere or sapere, as appropriate.1. Antonio non ________________________________________________ chi è Dante.2. Io ________________________________ un buon ristorante italiano nel North End.3. Noi non ______________________________________________________ cucinare.4. Voi ___________________________________________________ la città di Roma?5. Giorgio ________________________________________ il console italiano a Boston.6. Silvia e Luca __________________________________________ suonare la chitarra.Part 10. Scrittura (21 points, evaluated by rubric). Your family is going to host Enrico, an Italian high school student from Rome. Write an email to your new guest, illustrating your daily routine, describing your family, what you study, what you do for fun, etc. Write a minimum of 8 sentences using at least 4 possessive adjectives.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Extra Credit (5 points). Write 2-3 complete sentences responding to these questions: Preferisci i dipinti di Michelangelo o di Leonardo? Perché? Le opere michelangiolesche sono più belle o meno belle delle opere leonardesche?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________
ITA 101 University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Italian Grammar Quiz

Literature writing essay- -The Age of Innocence

Literature writing essay- -The Age of Innocence.

Read: The Age of InnocenceWriting instruction1)Close readings should be 600 words.2)Your close readings do not necessarily need to have a thesis but should focus on one or two interrelated themes you see in the passage. You should tie these themes to some element of form in the text, such as metaphor, point of view, narrative chronology, use of place. Introduce these themes and formal elements in the beginning of your essay. For example, you might have a sentence like this in your first paragraph: “The metaphors and images in this passage invoke an interplay between freedom and constraint, escape and entrapment.”3)Be sure to quote from the passage (or describe illustrations in detail in the case of Fun Home), explaining how the images and metaphors are working in particular sentences and phrases.4)Your interpretation should tie the passage to larger themes of the novel, revealing your knowledge of the novel as a whole. One way to demonstrate this knowledge is to show connections between an image or metaphor in the selected passage and another appearance of that image or metaphor in another section of the novel.5)Your interpretation might also show connections between the passage and contextual material you’ve explored on the course website. For example, a discussion of a passage from Under the Feet of Jesus might refer briefly to the conditions of farmworkers in California and problems with access to health care.
Literature writing essay- -The Age of Innocence

Is the Family a Fabricated Thing? Argumentative Essay

Introduction The family has traditionally occupied a central place in society with communities hailing it as the basic unit of society. Families provide the social core in all societies and the nuclear family is present in all societies in the world. The unifying function of the family has been credited with the development and advancement of societies since time immemorial. For this reason, the family unit is unanimously considered as the basic building block of a successful and functional society. This is the ideal institution within which children are created and brought up in a protected environment until they are able to take care of themselves. The family also serves as a tool for socialization since the shared moral and social values of the community are inculcated in the children withing the family setting. For these reasons, the family is assumed to be an innate experience with some authors suggesting that the family is a natural institution. However, this notion has been questioned by anthropologists whose studies have led them to question the “naturalness” of the family unit. The findings of these scholars have led them to conclude that the family is not a natural thing but rather a construction of the society. This paper will set out to discuss the ideas of some of the most outstanding anthropologists of the 20th century, Adam Kuper, David Schneider, and Claude Levi-Strauss, in order to show that the family is a fabricated thing. The Idea of the Family The family is regarded as the basic unit of society and at its most base level; it is made up of a man, woman, and their children. Kuper (1982) states that the family preceded the formation of the society and in these early stages, it comprised of a male figure who exercised jurisdiction over his wives and children. Each family paid no regard to the other and acted in its own self-interest. The aggregation of families was the next step in social evolution and the ties of kinship became the basis of societies. The family provided the basis on which societies were ordered with expanded extended families serving as the social core. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reproduction is universally considered to be the basis of family relations since each person must have a biological father and mother. This simple parent-child relationship makes it possible to perform genealogical tracing since it is a biological fact that a man and a woman must be involved in procreation. Therefore, the concept of kinship was formulated based on this blood relation and relationships though marriage unions between previously unrelated parties. The naturalness of the family has been presupposed for many centuries due to the prevalence of this social grouping. However, the arguments made by anthropologists suggest that the family is a cultural construct. Family: A Fabricated Concept Adam Kuper’s Ideas Adam Kuper suggests that the family was formulated as an organization through which people could live in harmony and accomplish greater exploits. Before the concept of family, each individual acted at his own discretion and there was no order or system of laws in place. Kuper (1982) records that the original state of human society was characterized by promiscuity rather than family life and this status quo was detrimental to the raising of children. This primitive existence was unsustainable since violence and anarchy reigned. The family unit emerged as a more ordered system of procreation within which the child could exist in a more secure environment. As the family concept became more sophisticated, legal paternity became recognized and the child could grow in an environment where he/she had a mother and a father. The extended patriarchal family group provided the basis for jural order and continuity (Kuper 1982, p.73). The earliest form of government was therefore based on the family concept. The political ideas were grounded in the assumption that “kinship in blood is the sole possible ground of community in political functions” (Kuper 2008, p.723). The family was formulated as the best structure to foster social stability and encourage good governance. The prohibition of some relationships in some cultures while the same relationships are allowed in others is further proof that kinship is a culturally constructed concept. Human beings formulate the laws governing who should marry whom and therefore forms a family and they vary from society to society. We will write a custom Essay on Is the Family a Fabricated Thing? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kuper (2008) documents that in the nineteenth century, there was no crime in incest, and there were no rules articulating which marriages were allowed or forbidden. Before the 1880s, incest was an acceptable practice in England and there were no laws against the practice. The social perception of incest only underwent a radical change when the danger of sexual relations between fathers and daughters, or brothers and sisters began to be publicized by the National Vigilance Association. Following this, incest came to be conceived of as an offence with a victim. Because of this change in public perception, the British Parliament passed a Law in 1907 that made incest a crime and criminalized sexual relationships between members of the immediate family. As such, the family is a fabricated institute that is prone to changes based on the public needs. Kuper (2003) argues that the family was necessary to ensure survival in the primitive societies where division of labour was necessary. In these pre-modern societies, the nuclear family comprised of male and female enabled the parties to specialize in various activities for sustenance. The males typically acted as the hunters while the females were gatherers within a nuclear family setting. This economic function increased the value of the family and kinship was integral for survival Kuper (2003). It is conceivable that without the economic need of family, this institution would never have been created. Further reinforcing this supposition is the observation by anthropologists that with the rise of the individualist modern society, the economic functions of family have shrunk and each sex can manage to exist without the need of the other. Another indication that family is a fabricated concept is the difference in preference placed on a particular side of the family by different cultures. While some cultures emphasize on matrilineal descent (kin from the mother’s lineage), others emphasize on patrilineal descent (kin through the father’s lineage). In addition to this, the location of residence differs with some cultures promoting marriage residence at the mother’s family house while most promote residence at the father’s family house (Kuper 2003). Not sure if you can write a paper on Is the Family a Fabricated Thing? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If the family was a natural construct, there would be universal preferences and all cultures would follow the same conventions. The fact that different ideals are practiced by different cultures proves that family is a human construction. The rapid changes in society that were experienced in the 1950s and 1960s demonstrated that the family was not an integral component of the society. During this period, consensual unions became widespread and the traditional family unit was dismantled in some circles. Some people began to view the family as a major source of discontentment within the society and this greatly discredited the nuclear family as an unshakeable institution. The sentiments of the time are best articulated by Leach who asserts, “far from being the basis for the good society, the family with its narrow privacy and tawdry secrets, is the source of all our discontents” (Kuper 2003, p.332). The nature of partner relationships has also experienced significant changes over the decades with a marked decline in the importance of the social origin of a partner being exhibited in all modern societies. In the past, great weight was placed on marriage with major kinship involvement in the process (Dykstra 2006). Today, marriage unions are primarily a matter of personal choice and preference with the families on both sides of the partners being involved only marginally. In addition to this, the frequency with which family unions are dissolved has risen tremendously. The increased rate of marriage dissolutions is blamed on the heightened emphasis on the emotional side of relationships, which leads to higher expectations and demands by both partners on each other (Dykstra 2006). In traditional marriage unions, emphasis was placed on the social and material benefits of the union. Claude Levi-Strauss’s Ideas Claude Levi-Strauss is credited with advancing the Structuralism theory in which he argued that the phenomena of the external world are apprehended as having distinct characteristics because of the way our senses communicate these perceptions (Voss 1977). Human beings are predisposed to categorize things into separate units or segments and assign these things named classes. Any material object of culture or belief system is in imitation of human apprehension of nature (Levi-Strauss 1970). Man’s perception of nature as segmented is therefore responsible for his view of society as ordered. Advocates of the family as a natural unit might argue for the “natural” nature of the family structure since it exists universally. Both primitive and civilized societies have some concept of family, which is typically made up of females and at least one male figure either related to the female(s) by blood or by marriage. Levi-Strauss refutes this assertion by highlighting that cultures are bound to have some similarities since they are all products of human minds (Voss 1977). For this reason, universal features such as the family unit can occur. Levi-Strauss suggests that the basis of marriage rules was to create bonds between otherwise unrelated people. He argues that the since pre-historic times, communities had the option of intermarrying among themselves or giving away their women to other communities (Johnson 2003). The communities that gave away their women cemented political alliances and thus reduced the risk of being annihilated by superior enemies. The incest taboo was formed out of the need to enforce exogamy and therefore increase the society’s chances of survival. Voss (1977) best articulates this idea by stating that “if survival of a society is dependent upon alliance, strong sanctions against incest must be interdicted” (p.28). The family concept was formulated as an important unifying force through which the social cohesion was fostered and propagated. Levi-Strauss formulated the alliance theory in which he argued that sibling groups were linked through the exchange of sisters in marriage thus extending sibling solidarity to larger groupings (Kuper 1982). Levi-Strauss argued that “all the pre-modern societies of the world were organized on the basis of cross-cousin marriage” (Kuper 2008, p.726). He further stated that the family as a function of marriage was an institution that was formulated to create and maintain alliances. These alliances took place through the exchange between groups as people married for strategic reasons such as to strengthen political alliances (Levi-Strauss 1969). Kinship served the practical purpose of preventing war by setting up a diplomatic alliance between groups. The class structure that is based on family status is a cultural construction. Levi-Strauss considers the practice of totemism an expression of the differences among members of the society. Totemism, which is the naming of individuals or clans after particular plant or animal species, was a widespread practice since historical times (VonSturmer 1970). This practice emerged from the need of man to develop a system of social ordering by giving different class structures. Human beings are able to distinguish each other according to their mutual social status, which is normally articulated in the form of social classification. David Schneider’s Ideas Throughout the 19th century, Americans held the view that the family relationship was biologically given and of huge importance to the society. Many Europeans also shared this assumption and they presumed that kinship was a biological outcome. However, Schneider argues that if this were the case then the same set of ideas would have been developed by other peoples across the world. This is not the case and the family structure varied from continent to continent, and tribe to tribe. For this reason, David Schneider suggested that kinship was a function of civilization and not a feature of primitive society. According to this anthropologist, there is nothing natural about kinship and it is the production of the society. Social conventions alone may lead to a family relationship even if there is no biological relationship between or among parties. This view is corroborated by Johnson (2003) who reveals that a person is regarded as family based on some socially prescribed duties and privileges that the person fulfils in his/her relation to others. The manner in which people act towards each other is based on the concept of kinship, which is a construction of man. Schneider (1984) argues that there is no such thing as kinship and that “kinship” is in fact a creation of anthropologists and it has no concrete existence. Schneider (1984) suggests that family is a social construction that is useful for the allocation of rights and their transmission from one generation to the next. The family was formulated as an entity through which continuity could be guaranteed. Patrilineage in many societies served as a landholding corporations with parents leaving property to their children. Dykstra (2006) notes that resources are “passed down from one generation to the next, in the form of gifts or inheritances for example, or in the form of financial support” (p.1). Schneider (1984) theorizes that biological kinship is culturally constructed and it was formulated to help establish paternity with a fair degree of likelihood. He elaborates that primitive man lived at a time when promiscuity prevailed and there was no way of establishing who the child’s father was. The concept of “marriage of pairs” was formulated to help establish paternity and this was the earliest and greatest act of human intelligence. The bonds and ties that are attributed to the sexual reproduction that occurs in the family setting are not natural but a function of the society. Schneider (1984) observes that sexual relations can occur and have significance even outside kinship. However, the social and cultural attributes that are created when sexual reproduction occurs in a nuclear family setting are formulated by the society. Biological relations are for this reason afforded special qualities by the society. This has led to the ties being regarded as natural and inherent in the human condition. The ties between biologically close members are not natural since they would not be special without the social and cultural connotations ascribed to them. The socialization process is responsible for inculcating the concept of kinship in children. As a child grows up in the family, he/she is taught the logic by which his/her specific culture classifies kin and these concepts become ingrained in him/her. The child is often ignorant as to what kinship terms such as “uncle”, and “aunty” mean but he/she is brought up to attach special meaning to the relationships. Schneider (1984) points out that the classifications of “relatives” may extend beyond the simple biological and genetic relationships with stipulated descent being included in the categories. Without the socializing process, the concept of the family would die out as individuals would not be confined to this socially prescribed structure. Schneider strongly rejects the understanding that family has to do with reproduction and he assertively declares that kinship is essentially undefined and vacuous which since it has little that can justify it (Read 2003). The inadequacy of blood relationships for a definition of family is accentuated by the inability for this consanguinity to account for practices such as adoption that still make fatherhood and motherhood possible. Read (2003) argues that it would be more convincing to state that family is a social convention rather than a function of procreation and parturition. Schneider argues that the family is a fabrication since some cultures do not have words that can reasonably translate to “father” or even “child”. In his ethnographic work among the Yapese, Schneider noted that the relationship between the biological father and offspring could not be translated as “father” and “child” in the English sense of the word (Schneider 1984). The Yapese people were able to exist without this genealogically based kinship relationship and even the passing down of property from generation to generation was not done on the basis of biological relationships. Further Evidence In addition to the thoughts of the renowned anthropologists referenced herein, current developments in the family structure provide more evidence that the family is a cultural construct. The traditional gender-specific division of labour has had to change with the increased participation of women in the labour market. Dykstra (2006) notes that the interaction between the partners who make up the family has become “more of a matter of negotiation” with the traditional gender-specific notions being all but discarded in most developed nations. The recent legitimization of gay and lesbian family formation in many Western countries further reinforces the assertion that family is a fabricated concept. For centuries, homosexual relationships were frowned upon by societies with severe penalties being imposed on individuals who engaged in these unions. Schneider (1997) reveals that the notion of sodomy was so abhorred in Western culture that if “justified killing and enslaving so many in the 15th and 16th centuries” (p.271). This has changed and homosexual unions are today tolerated on a greater scale. Schneider (1997) notes that gay and lesbian rights are today asserted with antidiscrimination laws and fringe benefits being accorded to this previously marginalized sub-group. The traditional notion of family has had to be reinvented as non-heterosexual couples form relationships and become “families”. Discussion The idea that family is a fabricated concept has led to the fall of kinship studies as modern anthropologists have abandoned the subject due to the many internal problems and theoretical weaknesses contained in it (Kuper 2003). In spite of the different approach taken in their arguments, the three thinkers analysed in this paper, Levi-Strauss, Kuper, and Schneider all contend that family is a cultural construct. The paper has demonstrated that the prevalence of families in all communities is not an indication of their naturalness. Renowned anthropologists such as Levi-Strauss have demonstrated that the seemingly universal concept is not an indication of the naturalness of the family unit. Rather, it is a statement of the scientific operations of classification of objects and phenomena which occurs in both Western and primitive societies. The universal family structure as we know it is a product of identical mental manipulations, which explains the seemingly self-consistent systems exhibited all over the world. The fact that the family unity is “not what it used to be” is proof enough that the family is a fabricated unit that keeps evolving with the culture of the society. In the recent past, alternative household organizations such as single-parent families and singles have become prevalent hence necessitating a review of the importance of the nuclear and extended family. These realities suggest that the assumption of genealogy or biology as the basis of the family is faulty since if this were the case, the family structure would remain static through time. In spite of the understanding that the family is a fabrication, this unit will continue to play an important role in society. The nuclear family is still the engine-room of socialization and it continues to bestow economic benefits for its members. Even Schneider (1984) acknowledges that kinship is a privileged institution since it is the major building block out of which all social systems are constructed. Conclusion This paper set out to examine the ideas of prominent anthropologists in order to demonstrate that the family is a fabricated thing. A review of these ideas has revealed that family is an ideological illusion constructed by man over the centuries. The paper has demonstrated that the concept of family started from the individual actor playing for economic and political advantage and using the family as a tool for social cohesion. The paper has convincingly shown that most aspects of kinship are not natural but rather the social construction of various societies over the centuries. The family relationship is not primarily one of genealogical and reproductively, instead, it is culturally specified and the manner in which it is expressed and perceived is a fabrication. It can therefore be authoritatively stated that family is not inherently human or universal; rather, it is a cultural construction that is arbitrary and variable in nature. References Dykstra, A 2006, Family relationships: the ties that bind, Amsterdam Study Centre for the Metropolitan Environment, Amsterdam. Johnson, C 2003, Claud Levi-Strauss: The formative years, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Kuper, A 1982, ‘Lineage Theory: A Critical Retrospective’, Ann. Rev. Anthropol, vol. 11, no. 1, pp.71-95. Kuper, A 2003, ‘What Really Happened to Kinship and Kinship Studies’, Journal of Cognition and Culture, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 329-335. Kuper, A 2008, ‘Changing the subject – about cousin marriage, among other things’, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol. 14, no.1, pp. 717-735. Levi-Strauss, C 1969, The Elementary Structures of Kinship, Beacon Press, Boston. Levi-Strauss, C 1970, The raw and the cooked, John and Harper, New York. Read, D 2001, What is Kinship? 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