Participants were 172 university students from the psychology faculty of an Australian university. Data was collected using a self-report on line survey. The survey used a within subjects design and consisted of two parts. Part one asked questions about alcohol consumption when using alcohol alone, energy drink alone (ED) and energy drink mixed with alcohol (AmED). Participants also completed a modified version of the Brief Young Adult Consequence Scale (BYAACQ) to assess associated negative consequences as well as a RT-18 questionnaire to assess risk taking propensity.
Part Two assessed personality raits such as depression however data collected was not used to this present study. The hypothesis that mixing alcohol with energy drink does not increase overall alcohol consumption was supported by the current studys findings. As predicted, AmED use was not found to increase overall alcohol consumption. The findings also supported the prediction that high risk taking propensity increases both overall consequences was supported.
In Conclusion, these findings, taken together with previous research suggests that AmEd consumption does not increase overall alcohol consumption, risk taking behaviour or egative alcohol related consequences. Findings also suggest that risk taking propensity is a significant variable in overall consumption and associated effects. Further studies using within subject designs are needed to explore the relationship between, risk taking propensity, gender, alcohol consumption and its related consequences to further validate these findings.
Keywords: alcohol, energy drink, risk-taking, negative consequences, Introduction High risk drinking behaviours among youth and young adult populations are a global concern (de Haan, de Haan, der Palen, Oliver and Verster, 2012). Of particular concern are the trends or practices reported to increase the consumption of alcohol and those that are reported to increase the likelihood of risk taking behaviours and negative consequences). The increased popularity of energy drinks has seen rise to the practice of mixing energy drinks with alcohol and the marketing of these beverages (AmED).
This practice has raised concerns about the interactive effects that AmED beverages may have on behaviour with recent studies suggesting a correlation between AmED drinking “sessions” and increased alcohol consumption O’Brien, McCoy, Rhodes, Wagoner & Wolfson, 2008); increased engagement in risk- taking behaviour (O’Brian et al, 2008); reduction in perceived level of intoxication (O’Brien et al, 2008; Peacock, Bruno & Martin, 2012 b) and an increase in the number of negative alcohol related events (O’Brien et al, 2008).
Energy drinks are carbonated beverages which contain caffeine and other legal stimulants such as the plant based guarana. Additional herbal stimulants such gingko biloba and ginseng, amino acids such as taurine, simple sugars and vitamins are also common to most popular brands of energy drink. O’Brien et al, 2008). These beverages are specifically marketed to the youth segment and report to offer the consumer enhanced stamina and energy (Attila & Cakir, 2011). The motivation behind the consumption of AmED beverages has been the focus of recent research.
Previous studies into the behavioural and physiological effects of energy drink consumption alone have shown that the stimulatory effects significantly improve energy levels and endurance as well as cognitive and psychomotor function (Verster, Aufrich & Alford, to offset the sedation effects of the alcohol. This reported manipulation of the ubjective experience of intoxication is also believed to “prime” AmED consumers to drink greater amounts of alcohol in AmEd drinking sessions (O’Brien et al, 2008; peacock & Bruno, 2013).
The antagonistic relationship that energy drinks (stimulant) are reported to have with the alcohol (sedative) has been identified as a one of the greatest risks of AmED consumption (O’Brien et al). In addition to the concerns that AmED usage increases overall alcohol consumption, there are concerns the interactive effects of AmED may lead to an increase risk taking and the associated negative effects.
In a study on ollege students, O’Brien et al (2008) found that engagement in risk taking behaviours and the number of alcohol related consequences was higher among students following AmED sessions relative to alcohol sessions. In an Australian community sample investigating the interactive effect of AmEd use on overall alcohol consumption and engagement in risk taking behaviours relative to alcohol only use, whilst finding overall consumption to be higher with AmED use versus alcohol, Peacock et al (2012 b) found risk taking behaviour to be less in AmED sessions relative to alcohol sessions.
These finding were further supported by Peacock et al (2013) in a review of literature exploring the relationship between AmED consumption and the effect of alcohol “priming”. Citing a study by Marczinkski et al (2012), results of a double blind, placebo controlled, between groups study assessing initial AmED dose primes the subject for an increased desire to drink alcohol, relative to alcohol alone (Peacock & Bruno et al, 2013), found that the subjective rating for “desire more alcohol” were higher in AmED conditions than alcohol alone (Peacock & Bruno, 2013).
The assignment is you write about Laura Flessel basically what she accomplished in life and if there was any issues
The assignment is you write about Laura Flessel basically what she accomplished in life and if there was any issues.
basically what she accomplished in life and if there was any issues
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