EN 102 West Virginia University Lessons From the Pandemic Year Editorial Paper.
AssignmentSelect a current editorial from a major newspaper or magazine that interests you, and write a 900 -1,200 words (3 full pages) editorial analysis essay in which you discuss a cogent, analytical thesis. Make sure that it is a fairly long editorial. Your purpose with this assignment is to analyze the editorial, explaining to an audience how all of the editorial’s pieces fit together in order to make a point or persuade a reader. Do not try to discuss everything. Instead, concentrate on constructing a precise, focused argument. Remember, you are not offering your opinion; you are offering an argument.
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Process. Attempts at cloning a mammal can be traced back to 1979, where the scientist Steen Willadsen successfully cloned a sheep embryo using nuclear transfer . Since then numerous attempts have been made to replicate these results. Notably the birth of Dolly the sheep (1996) was a major development in this field; as she was the first mammal to be cloned from a fully differentiated somatic cell, using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) . This essay will describe the process of somatic cell nuclear transfer in light of mammalian cloning and the risks it poses to mammalian reproduction. The fertilization of mammalian gametes through natural reproduction is limited by the ability to preserve desirable traits after the extinction of an individual. Moreover, the reproductive success of natural fertilization is limited by the gestation length, estrus cycle, the efficiency of insemination during intercourse and Hayflick limit . Furthermore, these limitations are chiefly important in livestock agriculture; where desired traits and alleles are more favourable for propagation. SCNT enables us to extract the nucleus of a fully differentiated somatic cell (diploid cells) and introduce it into an enucleated mature oocyte which is allowed to develop into an embryo; that is genetically identical to the host cell . Other variations to this method are practised even though they all rely on the same principles. By this process, the limitations stated above become insignificant as specific mammals with the desired traits can be cloned to preserve the genome. However, this technique is still undeveloped and the success in producing cloned offspring is low. The success rate of SCNT is dependent on several factors; namely, selecting the right donor cell that will be most efficient to the nuclear transfer. In this process, fully differentiated somatic cells are selected based on their cell-cycle state and age. The G0 phase is most desired when selecting the donor cell as it has been shown to be the most effectual donor . Conversely, deprivation of nutrient to the donor cells growing in vitro can also induce the cells to adopt the G0 resting phase. The age of donor cells also contribute to the success of cloning, the more aged the donor cell the less efficient SCNT becomes. Additionally, donor cells that are derived from more genetically diverse species are favoured, as it has been shown that cells obtained from inbred animals are less likely to be successful in cloning . However, these factors are only relative to the limited species that have been examined and more factors may come to light as other species such as primates are subjected to SCNT. Once the donor somatic cells are identified, they are normally extracted from the skin of the donor mammal, using needle aspiration and avoiding unnecessary strain on the donor animal. Oocytogenesis is the process in which females produce oocytes. SCNT uses mature oocytes in metaphase-ll which are collected from the ovaries of the required animal . The mature oocytes are enucleated using micromanipulation which penetrates the zona pellucida and removes the nucleus. There are two alternative routes which can be adopted when manipulating the process of the insemination of the nucleus donor cells into the mature oocytes. First, the Honolulu technique (developed by Wakayama) which uses brain cells, cumulus cells and sertoli cells as donors that are naturally in the G0/G1 phase. The nucleus of the somatic cell is aspirated and directly micro-injected into the oocyte using a piezo-impact pipette; which penetrates the zona pellucid and delivers the nucleus into the enucleated oocyte . The oocytes are subsequently activated by exposing them to a medium containing Sr 2 that also contains cytochalasin-B which acts to prevent the formation polar bodies. Figure. 1 shows a diagrammatic representation of the Honolulu technique, highlighting that the nucleus is directly inserted into the mature oocyte. Secondly, the Roslin technique (used to create Dolly the sheep) cultures donor cells in vitro and deprives them of nutrients; forcing the cells to adopt the G0 phase. Subsequently, the enucleated oocyte is aligned next to the donor cell; such that the oocyte and donor cell are parallel to one another. Pulsating electrical currents are applied to fuse the oocyte and donor cell together, by inducing pore formation of the cell membrane . Figure.1In the Honolulu and Roslin techniques the use of chemicals and electrical pulses induce the activation of the oocyte, which can subsequently develop into an embryo which is implanted into a surrogate host for progeny development. The activation of the oocyte induces major reprogramming of the differentiated donor nuclei back to its totipotent state . This process is extremely intricate and the full biochemical mechanisms are not fully understood. However, extensive research has been completed in understanding an overview of oocyte reprogramming and epigenetic modification. The introduction of a somatic nucleus into the oocyte causes rapid deacetylation of histones on lysine residues, catalysed by histone deacetlase. Moreover, the donor chromatins also experience demethylation , which is also a method that is used to dedifferentiate the nuclei back to totipotent state. Aberrant or incomplete DNA reprogramming is thought to be a major contributor to abnormal development in embryos and clones which can explain why only 1% of SCNT are successful in producing fully developed clones. Figure.2The efficiency of the Honolulu technique and the success rate of cloning have been shown to be superior to the Roslin technique . However, the overall success rate of cloning, irrespective of the method used is still considerably low, with only 1% success rate. Figure. 2  shows the percentage of embryos surviving prior to implantation with surrogate and post implantation. Moreover, there are several risks associated with clones derived from mammalian SCNT. These risks also have ethical implications that follow. Phenotypic abnormalities that are associated with clones derived from SCNT ranges from aberrant telomere length (which can lead to premature ageing) to large offspring syndrome and irregular placenta development during embryonic growth. The telomere length and ageing of clones are thought to be directly correlated. Telomeres are situated on the ends of chromosomes and consist of numerous repetitive DNA bases that function to stabilise and prevent deterioration of the chromosome . Experimental observations show that some species of mammals are prone to shorter telomere lengths in comparison with a control. It is also thought that the telomeres are not fully restored to the original length during SCNT. Such implications can suggest that the sizes of the somatic cell telomeres are inherited by the clones; therefore producing clones that have already aged . Dolly lived until she was 6 years of age (half the age of an average sheep) and was shown to have shorter telomeres in comparison to a control (19 kb vs. 23 kb) implying that she died prematurely. However, shorter telomeres in clones are not universally applicable as in mice, bovine and cattle all showed similar lengths to their respective control, if not longer . The occurrence of shorter telomere lengths in some species suggests that the donor cell species and genetic background govern it. Nevertheless, the exact cause of short telomere length is still not yet fully comprehendible, yet some studies indicate that it might be caused by incomplete reprogramming . Large offspring syndrome (LOS) is characterised by larger than normal clones that have oversized organs and aberrant limb formation which all can lead to an increase in prevalence of organ defects and cardiovascular difficulties. These characteristics have been observed in cattle and can contribute to higher abortions rate and deformities in skeletal structure. However, offspringâ€™s derived from cloned mammals diagnosed with LOS, were shown not to have LOS . This suggests that again irregular epigenetic reprogramming during SCNT is a contributor to LOS as the progeny of the clones (which are born naturally) fail to have LOS. Embryos that are derived from SCNT have been shown to have abnormal/enlarged placenta development (placentomegaly) during embryonic growth. The abnormalities occur in both bovine and mice  and can cause the developing fetus to die during pregnancy. The aberrant placenta in mice is shown to have an increased amount of insulin- like growth factor which can cause LOS in clones. Moreover, failure for the placenta to develop accordingly during the pregnancy of clones can cause immune-mediated abortion . The risks to mammalian reproduction stated above can produce clones that are phenotypically defective which raises ethical concerns. The abnormalities in clones can cause harmful side effects and can lead to cloned mammals suffering. We have seen that some mammals show premature ageing which can ultimately lead to premature death. The welfare of these clones seems to be disregarded in the experiments that are conducted. Moreover, there are concerns that a small proportion of cloned animals can enter our food chain, which is thought to be unsafe. However, recent studies show that consumption of cloned animals is safe to homosapeins . The prospect of human SCNT also has deep ethical implications. Current legislation in all countries prevents SCNT in humans. Nonetheless, the proposed benefits that SCNT offers (therapeutic cloning) may one day outweigh the ethical concerns. If this occurs, it would shake the foundations of tradition, as humans can be â€™producedâ€™ asexually with their genomic sequence known . This can lead to â€˜gene discrimination by other non cloned humans, and by cooperate companies who can prevent human clones (that may be prone to specific dieses) from obtaining insurance, for example. In conclusion, Somatic cell nuclear transfer has been successfully used to clone mammals from fully differentiated somatic cell. However, this technique is largely inefficient and a major Impediment is that only 1% of somatic cells successfully developed into clone. The lack of understanding on oocyte reprogramming can be contributed to the inefficiency of this technique. Moreover, this has lead to some clones showing abnormal phenotypic features which has major ethical implications. Nevertheless, somatic cell nuclear transfer shows great promise in the fields of medical therapeutics, agriculture and conservation once all aspects of its process are understood. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Process
Columbia Southern Importance of Ethics and Social Responsibility Discussion.
EN 102 West Virginia University Lessons From the Pandemic Year Editorial Paper
Corporate social responsibility is an emerging trend for businesses in today’s environment. Regardless of the nature of the industry, corporations are held to higher ethical standards. This assignment will give you a chance to think as an executive and take into consideration the importance of ethics and social responsibility.You are tasked with choosing a corporation and discussing the importance of ethics and social responsibility in relation to that particular corporation. Think about the stakeholders associated with the corporation and how they benefit if the organization displays social responsibility. Start with a brief introduction of the organization, and remember to think from the perspective of the leader of the organization.Your submission must be a minimum of two pages in length. Be sure to cite any sources using APA format.
Columbia Southern Importance of Ethics and Social Responsibility Discussion
Process Improvement Studies Across a Variety of Industries Paper
Process Improvement Studies Across a Variety of Industries Paper.
Hi, how are you doinglast thing I need,part 1from main article pdf there is Introduction , I would you like to summarize in half pagepart 2those articles you summarized as a pointes I would like to make each one in paragraph (need 15 paragraph) with the possibility of returning to the previous references and taking some information to helpRegarding hypothesis, in some articles you will see questions, please put it in the paragraph, such as (they are trying to answer these questions Q1 , Q2 , Q3 and they are found ……….. )part 3Conclusion:conclusion in one paragraph for part 1 and 2Regardes
Process Improvement Studies Across a Variety of Industries Paper
TCC Volar and A Pair of Tickets Analytical Review
essay writer free TCC Volar and A Pair of Tickets Analytical Review.
Read and review the Lesson notes below on “The Fiction Essay” Read and review the guide and resources included below Select a story (or stories) assigned for this class to write about Create an outline according to the essay assignment specifications Complete and submit a fiction analysis essay according to the assignment specifications Apply conventions of MLA: format, in-text citations, and Works Cite 1) Start by reading these notes over the fiction essay. 2) Choose one of these 9 prompts to be the basis of your essay. Do not attempt to cover more than one! 3) Write a Final Draft. 4) Write a Final Essay.
TCC Volar and A Pair of Tickets Analytical Review
8-9 page written for constitutional law final exam
8-9 page written for constitutional law final exam.
I need someone to write me a 8-9 page constitutional law paper. It must be 8-9 page Time Romans font with double page in MLA format THIS IS NOT A RESEARCH PAPER!!!! So, DO NOT USE OUTSIDE SOURCES. The source I have attached is source(book) you will need, which is the book called Constitutional Law and Politics: Struggles for Power and Governmental Accountability (Tenth Edition) (Vol. 1). Page 512- 685This assignment is about one issue, at core- does congress have the power to pass Unborn Protection at all?You are either for or against the constitutionality of the Unborn Protection Act. I want you to argue for the constitutionality of Unborn Protection Act. YOUR JOB IS FIGURE OUT WHAT IS WRONG WITH THE CASE/ FIND THE LEGAL REASONING I will attach the fictional story. PLEASE read ALL PAGES of the story very CAREFULLY!! Including the instructions and assignment page (page 7)and Hints and Final Summary(page 10). I will also attach an example of how it can be done. YOU DO NOT HAVE DO USE ALL OF THE CASES FOR THE STORY. YOUR JOB IS TO PROVIDE GOOD ANALYSIS AS TO WHY BE FOR THE UNBORN PROTECTION ACT!!Here are the cases McCulloch vs Maryland Gibbons vs OgdenUnited States States vs E.C Knights CoHammer vs Dagenhart National Labor Relations Board vs Jones and Laughlin Steel CorporationsUnited States vs Darby Lumber Company Wickard vs Filburn ; Heart of Atlanta Motel vs United States Katzenbach vs McClung United States vs Lopez Reno vs Condon City of Boerne vs FloresUnited States vs Morrison Gonzales vs Raich National Federation of Independent Business vs Sebelius Baker vs CarrGoldwater vs Carter Steward Machine Co vs Davis South Dakota vs Dole Cooley vs Board of Wardens of the Port of PhiladelphiaSouthern Panigic Co vs Arizona Bibb vs Navajo Frieght Lines , Inc, Maine vs Taylor Pennsylvania vs Nelson ALL READ THE ATTACHED DOCUMENTS. THERE ARE SUPREME COURT CASES YOU MUST READ FOR THIS ASSIGNMENT. ALSO, GRAMMAR ERRORS OR PLAGIARISM. Thank you and good-luck. I want someone who is really good at analyzing Supreme court cases to do this assignment. This assignment will be tough!! I attached the key example of what the paper can look like. I also attached the directions to the assignment.
8-9 page written for constitutional law final exam
Writer’s Choice Essay
Writer’s Choice Essay. n this discussion, you are to explore the effects of addiction on the individual by providing an holistic assessment of a hypothetical client’s potential difficulties. You have reviewed many effects of addiction on individuals, including these ones related to alcohol. Consider again please and apply these websites’ insights on alcohol addiction’s individual effects: Foundation for drug-free world (2008). Short- and long-term effects(Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (Links to an external site.). In The truth about alcohol. Retrieved from http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/alcohol/short-term-long-term-effects.html (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (Links to an external site.) S. Department of Health and Human Services (2004). Alcohol’s damaging effects on the brain(Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (Links to an external site.). Alcohol Alert, Number 63. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Publications Distribution Center. Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa63/aa63.htm (Links to an external site.) After reviewing all of the readings and viewings of the module, please choose an addiction (e.g., substance abuse, alcohol, gambling etc.), then imagine that a new client of yours has this behavioral addiction. For this client, write an initial post that: Identifies the possible difficulties that the individual client may experience in each of the major life areas (e.g., personal health and wellness; family and social life; workplace or school; and, legal or financial difficulties). Explores in some ways how this type of addiction differs from others (such as alcohol), or brings with it unique individual difficulties. Evaluation Criteria Your initial post should be at least 250 words and must substantively integrate the assigned readings in the instructions with proper APA (Links to an external site.) style formatting. For assistance with APA style formatting, visit the Library (Links to an external site.) or the Excelsior OWL (Links to an external site.). Your initial post is due by Thursday at 11:59 PM EST. Your responses are due by Sunday at 11:59 PM EST. After you have posted, read through the postings of your peers. Choose (at least) two of your peers’ posts to respond to. The posts you choose to respond to do not necessarily have to be classmates’ initial posts. Each response to a peer should be (at least) approximately 100 words in length and should contribute to the discussion in progress. All responses to classmates should be substantive. That is, they should go beyond simple agreement or disagreement with classmates’ posts. Also, be sure that your responses are respectful, substantive, and consistent with the expectations for discussion, as stated by the prompt. Be sure to monitor and respond to feedback to your major thread post throughout the module. Be sure also to reply to your classmates’ postings and that your responses are within the designated due dates for this discussion activity. Please direct any questions you may have to your instructor.Writer’s Choice Essay