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Emergency Response to American Airlines Flight 587 Crash

Emergency Response to American Airlines Flight 587 Crash. Abstract Although the probability of an aircraft accident is the minimum, its effects can be catastrophic. The crash of flight 587 in 2001 was a tragic incident that left all the passengers and crewmembers dead. Flight 587 had just left the John F. Kennedy Airport when some of its parts burst into flames about three minutes later while in midair. The accident also claimed the lives of five individuals on the ground. The incidence burnt about 12 homes. Moreover, the accident resulted in the destruction of property in the Rockaway neighbourhood. Initially, various experts had attributed various factors such as terrorism, sabotage, and mechanical failure to the accident. However, NTSB concluded that the disconnection of the plane’s vertical stabilizer caused the accident. The first section of this discussion focuses on the summary of the crash, the second focuses on emergency response, while the third focuses on the information that NTSB reported on the crash regarding emergency response. Key words: aircraft accident, crash, flight, passenger, crewmember, jetliner, terrorism, sabotage, mechanical problem, emergency response. I. Summary of Crash The American Airlines Flight 587 that was heading towards Santo Domingo from New York crashed in Queens in mid-November of 2001 (Kleinfield, 2001). The jetliner had 260 people with all of them perishing in the crash. The plane was carrying nine crewmembers and flight attendants and 251 passengers. The jetliner crashed in Queens a few minutes after taking off at about a quarter past nine in the morning at the John F. Kennedy International Airport. The majority of the passengers on board were immigrants of the Dominican origin residing in Washington Heights. Moreover, the crash affected twelve homes in the neighbourhood. The crash was the fourth among the major plane crashes since 1996 indicating that it had a significant impact. According to NTSB, post-crash fire and various impact forces destroyed the plane. Post-accident reports indicate that the plane was uneventful. The flight had arrived at the airport on the previous night from Costa Rica. A. What Caused the Crash? Eyewitnesses claimed that they witnessed one of the engines bursting into flames when the plane was still in the air. The engine then separated from the rest of the plane veering towards the ground. However, they were not sure on whether it was the right engine or the left engine. After this separation, the plane twisted, turning on its nose, and plunged into the ground. Aviation experts investigating the crash had various factors that could explain the crash. These factors include terrorism, sabotage, and mechanical problems. Before the crash, the engine of the plane had various problems, and aviation engineers had to equip the plane with a pair of general electric CF-6 engines (Kleinfield, 2001). Aviation experts reported that the internal components of the engines had a history of breaking free piercing the outer parts of the engine. The most probable reason for the crash was the disconnection of the vertical stabilizer due to excessive loads. The creation of the unnecessary additional load may have been the mistake of the first officer. The NTSB believes that the officer may have injected several excessive and unnecessary inputs on the rudder pedal (NTSB, 2004). The inputs were beyond the design of the plane resulting in the accident. However, the NTSB also blames the design of the Airbus for the unnecessary inputs. Moreover, it is important to mention that the rudder is connected to the vertical stabilizer. Then, a problem with any of the two parts disables both parts. Furthermore, aviation experts argue that officers use rudders on rare occasions indicating that maybe the spoilers of Flight 587 had failed (NTSB, 2004). Spoilers control roll, but in case they become non-functional, then officers can use the rudder. Although the plane had no major issue during the fuelling process, reports indicate that the avionics officer had claimed that number two pitch trim had a problem just one hour to departure time. However, avionics experts solved the problem, and the AFS check showed no fault. The plane started experiencing turbulence issues about two minutes after take-off. These issues prompted the officers to introduce various procedures such as maximum power. Nevertheless, three seconds later, the right rear attachment of the vertical stabilizer fractured resulting to a loud thump. A few seconds later, the vertical stabilizer detached from the plane. The CVR records show that a minute later, none of the officers grunted signifying a problem. The plane then crashed (NTSB, 2004). The post-accident reviews revealed that both pilots and individuals in the aviation industry lacked clear information on the rudder systems and held wrong views about it. The pilots of Flight 587 may have held similar perceptions resulting in the wrong use of rudder systems. Consequently, this wrong use affected the vertical stabilizer leading to its separation. Expert analysis indicates that it is likely that they were unaware that the system cannot work at high airspeed. B. What Areas were Impacted by the Crash? The crash caused a serious impact on the ground and to the people onboard. The total fatalities were 265. Of the 265.251, there were passengers, two flight attendants, five people on the ground, and seven cabin crew (NTSB, 2004). The disengagement of the vertical stabilizer also leads to the destruction of the property. The separation caused the engines to rest. On the ground, the crash affected several homes on both large and small scale. The crash destroyed four homes, damaged three homes substantially, and caused minor damage to three other homes. The plane crash also caused minor damage to a gas station due to the impact forces of the plane’s left engine. The right engine affected a boat and home significantly. The crash affected the Rockaway’s neighbourhood that accommodates a significant number of police personnel and fire-fighters. The crash resulted in mental disturbance as the personnel was still recovering from the 9/11 attacks (Wakin, 2001). The incident also affected the Jamaican Bay destroying property. The vertical stabilizer of the plane’s rudder fell into the bay almost one mile from the main site of the accident. The crash affected certain areas in New York indirectly. The incidence facilitated a temporary closure of all major airports in New York. These airports include the Newark, John F. Kennedy, and LaGuardia. Nonetheless, they reopened after some time to allow incoming flights. The decision to close down the airports temporarily affected the flow of traffic at the airports scaring passengers who were already scared after the 9/11 attacks. Moreover, accident prompted the temporary closure of tunnels and bridges within New York. Furthermore, the Flight 587 crash affected business at the Empire State Building. The police had to evacuate people for security purposes. The accident also gave the customs officials at the Las Americas International Airport a hard time (CNN, 2001). A significant number of relatives of the passengers were already at the airport ready to receive them when they got the news of the crash. The customs department had a difficult time calming them down. II. Emergency Response to Crash A. What was the Local Emergency Response? Aircraft accidents can occur anywhere and at any time. Although the crashing of Flight 587 was a unique incident, the emergency following the accident was also unique. Since the Flight 587 was a large aircraft, it required additional emergency systems. Various groups and individuals showed up at the site to offer their help. The emergency response was prompt with various volunteers, fire-fighters, police personnel, and residents. Fire-fighting trucks and ambulances arrived almost immediately to offer help. In this case, it is important to note that the local emergency response was prompt as various groups cooperated to help normalize the situation. Every individual, including the young, felt that they had a responsibility in reducing the effects of the fire. Hence, they help reduce the number of fatalities on the ground. 1. Who was the first on the scene and what was the action taken? The primary responders at aircraft accidents scenes are the law enforces. However, for the case of the Flight 587, it was difficult for the law enforcers to seal off the scenes of the accident from the public. The incident attracted a significant number of individuals from the neighbourhood. The majority of these people had lost close family member or friend during the 9/11 attacks (BellaEmergency Response to American Airlines Flight 587 Crash
If the press replaces the machine every 4 years, which statement is true?.

A printing press is considering buying a printing machine. They have two quotations from two different companies.Company A: The basic cost is $9,500, and a repair contract of $75 per month covers unlimited repairs.Company B: The basic cost is $13,500, and the company offers a repair contract that charges $150 per repair.The probability of the number of repairs to the printing machine offered by Company B is given in the table.Number of Repairs0123Probability0.320.290.250.14If the press replaces the machine every four years, which statement is true?
If the press replaces the machine every 4 years, which statement is true?

read three articles and respond,. I need an explanation for this Writing question to help me study.

2 pages minimum.
Minimum of 2 outside sources please.

Read three articles on the impact of GMOs:

“GMOs Are Nothing to Fear” by Pamela Bailey.
“Ethical Concerns and GM Foods” by Ian Murnaghan.
“GMOs Haven’t Delivered on Their Promises — or Risks” by Rachel Ehrenberg.

Use the GMO Organizer to track each author’s argument and the support they provide for their position. Take note of any convincing evidence and ideas.
Decide what position you will take and use the GMO Organizer to construct the argument for your op-ed. In addition to the three articles you will have already analyzed, use information from other resources to support your argument. Be sure your argument addresses the following questions:

Is the use of GMO’s in food products good or bad?
Should labeling be required for food products containing GMOs?

Be sure to discuss the moral and ethical issues related to this topic. You must also cite your sources throughout the article using APA format.,…-a0442780226
read three articles and respond,

The Development of Children’s Scientific Thinking

This research aims to seek further into the concept of flotation and sinking surrounding two participants in varying age relating to the findings of Piaget, Vygotsky and Selley (1993). Piaget’s views are based on constructivism that we learn with age, and Vygotsky’s is based on social constructivism that social interaction is also needed. Selley states about a way of measuring how far learning has developed in relation to using hypotheses for flotation. Two participants were observed using a small-scale investigation and the information was recorded, collected, coded and compared accordingly to whether objects sink or float, and the reasoning why they do either. Constructivism, social constructivism and Selley’s hypotheses on “Why do things float?” were all taken into consideration, along with zone of proximal development, cognitive conflict and scaffolding. My findings do ascent with Piaget, Vygotsky and Selley’s in that as we get older we come to realise that our scientific thinking is elaborated and enhanced so we have a better understanding of why items float or sink. INTRODUCTION This study researches into assessing two participants understanding that objects either float or sink. Common sense tells us that objects sink because they are heavy for a given size, so therefore lighter objects must float. This is a general everyday life theory but science tells us that we should be more exact with our thinking, and how is it that we come to think like this. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) focused on understanding the development of cognitive functioning in the child in which children pass through a series of cognitive stages at varying ages. The development of intelligence is naturalistic and biological and the result of a dynamic interaction between the child and the environment. On the other hand, Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) stresses the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition, as community and peers, especially teachers, play an important role in making sense of the world around us. In contrast to Piaget, social learning tends to precede development, not just social but also culture needs to be taken into consideration. So, how do these theories differ in relation to thinking about items that sink or float? Piaget’s theory is that we should already know what floats or sinks depending at what stage we are cognitively, and as we get older we know more about what objects will do. Through cognitive conflict (what the child knows and what s/he experiences) is achieved through assimilation (similarity of objects) and accommodation (modification of internal schemas). Vygotsky says that we will learn from others and enhance and develop our understanding through “zone of proximal development” which refers to the distance between what a child can do with assistance, e.g. teacher or skilled partner, and what the child can accomplish without assistance. So, the teacher, in this case Professor Nunes can guide the two participants to gain more knowledge and develop higher mental reasoning providing explanations of floating and sinking objects. This also relates to “scaffolding”, in that it is a teaching strategy that provides individualised support to learners/participants. The scaffold facilitates the learner/participants ability to build on their own prior knowledge and use new information. The scaffolding is only temporary as the learners/participants abilities increase and the scaffolding is then no longer needed. Nicholas Selley (1993) “Why do things float” also is taken into consideration for this research who came up with several different hypotheses, firstly, Hypothesis 1 – things float if they contain air; Hypothesis 1A – things float if they contain enough air; Hypothesis 2 – things float if they are light for their size; Hypothesis 3 – things float if their density is less than the density of fluid, and Hypothesis 4 – equilibrium where objects have buoyancy partly in and partly out of water. This is a progression of intelligence of floating and sinking through increased knowledge. To investigate further into these findings an observation was carried out to attain information from two participants. The answers were then put into data sheets, which has proven difficult to do, especially as some answers could go into several of the codes, i.e. what I have placed into one code could have gone into a different one quite easily. Moreover, another person may also interpret the answers differently and put them into a contrasting code as well. Furthermore, older children may give a false answer to a question so that it might make them look better, and they may deduce the answer that they feel the observer is looking for. The hypothesis is to establish if a younger child will think differently compared to older children who will have more scientific knowledge and concept of flotation and sinking. METHOD DESIGN The study is aimed at showing how our scientific thinking changes as we get older, in relation to floating and sinking objects. The observations were designed and carried out by The Open University in conjunction with Professor Terezinha Nunes in March 2005. Firstly, the two participants were informed of what was going to happen (de-briefed). They were then shown some varying objects and asked to separate them on the table into two piles of objects that would float or sink, and asked why they thought that would happen. Professor Nunes then got the aquarium and put it on the table, and in turn put each of the objects in it to find out whether the objects floated or sunk. The participants were asked for a second time why they thought the objects floated or sank. They were then given another pile of objects, asked again whether they would float or sink and the reasoning why, then put the objects in the water, and asked why they floated or sank. Professor Nunes then asked general open-ended questions about flotation and sinking objects in general to find out more detailed information and then used some scales to weigh two tins with lentils in them before immersing them in the aquarium as well, and continued with some more questions to ascertain about why the participants thought some items sunk and some floated. PARTICIPANTS Two people took part in the study, both were female. The researcher did not know either of them. One female is 8 years old and the other is 12 years old. The observations were carried out on an individual and confidential basis and were based in a primary school in Oxford, and only their first names have been used. MATERIALS Both participants were given the same objects to use and also hand paper was used to wipe up water spills, and an identical see-through box with water in it (i.e. aquarium) to put the objects in. Plastic scales were also used to weigh objects. Also, the observation was filmed by a film producer, two camera operators, a sound recordist and a member of the course team. PROCEDURE The participants were informed that they do must be as honest as possible, and that there were no right or wrong answers and that they were not being tested as it is for research purposes only. The participants were made to feel at ease and as comfortable as could be throughout the observation. The observation was recorded, and they were asked questions throughout the observation by Professor Nunes. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS The observations were carried out in accordance with The British Psychological Society’s code of conduct for psychologists. Consent was obtained from the children’s parents and they were debriefed before the observations took place, and advised that they could stop, pause or leave at any time if they were not happy. All the information maintains confidential and other than their first names used, no further personal information is used. Professor Nunes did also not know any of the participants personally. The observation was conducted in a professional manner. Although there were quite a few adults in the room, care was taken not to put the participants under any unnecessary pressure and to make them feel at ease. RESULTS The results for both participants were put into data sheets for stage 1 (floaters and sinkers), stage 2 initial explanation of what each object would do and causal codes and stage 5 what new objects would do and why and stage 6/7 explanations of what happened (see Appendix A and B), and then a table showing the frequency of causal themes identified for both participants and the statistics of correct predictions. There is only a 4 year age gap between both participants, but the scores for stage 2 were both higher predictions than for stage 5. The older child shows signs of predicting more items that will float or sink in stage 5 than the younger child. The trend towards the older participant does show that on average they can predict the objects for both stage 2 and 5 more equally than the younger child. Both participants could predict the items that were more likely to sink in stage 2 (both scored 100%). Also there were more causal codes for Jessica, the older participant as she knew more about the objects, although weight was still the main reason for deciding whether objects should float or sink. These results do substantiate that the older the child, the more scientific knowledge they have for both Piaget and Vygotsky’s views, and also higher the hypothesis number for Selley’s research, on the elaborate objects that could sink or float. DISCUSSION The investigation shows that both participants chose descriptions more towards the weight of the objects to determine whether or not the items would sink or float, although it did decrease slightly with age as the participant used other reasoning. This however is a very over-generalised and simplistic set of findings, as only two participants were studied. Also, as people get older people have more knowledge anyway. The younger child still did exceptional to get 100% correct predictions on stage 2 and this was better than the older participant who scored 88%, and in stage 5 the younger participant only scored 36% compared to the other older participant who scored 82% of correct predictions. The statistics varied greatly though between stage 5 predicted floaters and sinkers, although they both predicted more floaters than sinkers. Also when the Professor continued to probe more into why items float and sink the older child knew far more about density/mass than just weight, but the younger participant did try to explain about gravity and texture/material of objects. When scales were used the younger participant started to question whether items sunk because they were heavier so scaffolding and zone of proximal development took hold. The older participant also started to question their own knowledge when in conversation with Professor Nunes, but not as much, so teacher influence appeared to be quite high. Although, after Professor Nunes tried to find out from the participants more reasoning behind why items sink or float and used the tins with lentils in them, the younger participant predicted the outcome wrongly by saying that both large and small tins would sink, and the older participant was also incorrect in saying that both tins would float. Also, in relation to Selleys hypotheses, Remy the younger participant, seems to be at Hypotheses 1/1A and Jessica the older participant, is at Hypothesis 2, so with age comes more scientific knowledge and understanding. The main concern I associated with this study is coding the children’s explanations, more so as sometimes they gave more than one answer. It might have been more productive and valid if the coding had been done by two different people, and then got together to see what was put where and the reasoning behind the chosen codes. This procedure may well have diminished the margin of error and biased results from the researcher, as the researcher can influence the result by trying to place explanations into certain codes to achieve a desired and more favourable result, so the results cannot be completely deemed to be realistic given these circumstances. Also, this is not real world, and the participants (there were only two of them as well) might have said what they thought the Professor wanted them to say as there were far more adults than children in the room as well. CONCLUSION To conclude, the results from this particular piece of research show that older children through presumably more scientific knowledge, can predict more intricate shaped items (stage 5) whether they will either float or sink and use far more reasoning. Whether this is from Piaget’s constructivism or Vygostsky’s social constructivism is less known. I concur that younger children do have a tendency to describe items more based on weight as a determining factor for whether items will sink or float, but there is no set proof. Therefore, in retrospect Piaget’s and Vygotskys’s views are still relevant even nowadays. But, it is still onerous to measure and explore the concept of using scientific thinking and the concept of items that float or sink just from these results. Far more research is needed to explore this idea.

1) RR Communications Case Study – page 156-159

essay writer 1) RR Communications Case Study – page 156-159. I need help with a Computer Science question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

1) RR Communications Case Study – page 156-159
1) List the advantages of a single customer service center for RR Communications.
2. Devise an implementation strategy that would guarantee the support of the
presidents for the shared customer service center.
3). Is it possible to achieve an enterprise vision with a decentralized IT function?
4). What business and IT problems can be caused by lack of common information and
an enterprise IM strategy?
5). What governance mechanisms need to be put in place to ensure common customer

data and a shared customer service center? What metrics might be useful?

1) RR Communications Case Study – page 156-159

The Effects of Energy Drinks and Alcohol on Neuropsychological Functioning Essay (Critical Writing)

The article by Curry and Stasio (2009, pp. 473-481) acts as a literary source of information when a clinician intends to gather data on a clinical trial. However, a critical review of this article reveals that there are several issues that the authors fail to adhere to. The evaluation carried out in the current paper seeks to point out these areas. According to Brody (2012), a research article is expected to provide adequate and reliable information on its subject matter. That notwithstanding, the evaluation conducted in this paper highlights the relevant issues addressed by Curry and Stasio in this article. The article is titled The Effects of Energy Drinks alone and Alcohol on Neuropsychological Functioning (Curry

ENG 124 CC Zlateh the Goat & Analyzing the Heros Journey Essay

ENG 124 CC Zlateh the Goat & Analyzing the Heros Journey Essay.

Analyzing the Hero’s JourneyWhere We’ve BeenIn this first stretch of our trek through English 124, we have learned about Joseph Campbell’s concept of the Hero’s Journey, and we have read and discussed various stories about individuals who find themselves on the hero’s path. We’ve also considered how our own lives might reflect the Hero’s JourneyWriting Prompt (Review):Choose one of the assigned readings for class (Beowulf, “Zlateh the Goat,” or “Scheherazade”), and write an academic essay in which you explain Joseph Campbell’s concept of the Hero’s Journey and provide at least three strong examples (including quoted evidence from the chosen text) about how that story reflects (or deviates from) established stages of the Hero’s Journey. Conclude with a reflection of the story, the Hero’s Journey, and what we, your readers, can gain or learn from your analysis. Aside from the story and sources about the Hero’s Journey, students are not expected to do additional research for this assignment.Directions (Review):Write a 4- to 6-page academic essay in MLA format.Begin with an introductory paragraph that begins with a hook, provides background information about the Hero’s Journey and your chosen story, and leads seamlessly into a clearly stated thesis. Develop body paragraphs which incorporate quoted and detailed evidence from outside sources (use your chosen story and information provided in Unit 1 about the Hero’s Journey) while using proper MLA format to cite the texts. Quoted evidence should be incorporated thoughtfully and thoroughly into the essay by establishing context, introducing the quoted passages, and explaining how the passages support the main ideas of the body paragraphs and the essay as a whole. Conclude your essay with a reflection of the story, the Hero’s Journey, and what we, your readers, can gain or learn from your analysis.Include a Works Cited page
ENG 124 CC Zlateh the Goat & Analyzing the Heros Journey Essay

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