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Electrochemical Setup Of An Electrochemical Cell Engineering Essay

Potentiostat can be defined as amplifiers that are used to maintain a constant voltage between the working electrode and the reference electrode by making current controlled adjustments at the counter electrode. [5] The main function of the potentiostat include Measurement of the potential difference between the reference electrode and the working electrode To compare the potential difference with the pre defined voltage and forces the current through the working electrode to oppose the difference between the predefined voltage and the existing voltage across the working electrode [5]. The potentiostat behaves as a controlling and measuring device .It controls the voltage across the electrochemical cell by detecting the changes in the resistance and accordingly varying the current that is provided to the cell. The relation between the current and the resistance can be defined by Ohm’s law as,[17] R= E/I where, [17] R is the variable resistance I is the output current of the potentiostat and, E is the constant potential. When the resistance is high the current is reduced and vice versa, so that a constant potential is maintained. [17]. A basic standardised potentiostat circuit consists of an input differential amplifier which compares the voltage between the reference electrode and working electrode to a desired biased working voltage. The error voltage obtained is amplified and is supplied to the counter electrode. The impedance change between the reference electrode and working electrode will affect the voltage supplied to the counter electrode so that constant potential is maintained between the reference and the working electrode. The output voltage is obtained which is proportional to the electrochemical cell by connecting the voltage follower circuit to the working electrode.The current follower hold the counter electrode to virtual ground. The potentiostat maintains the required reference -working voltage by comparing the reference electrode voltage to the required biased potential and making adjustments in the potential at the working electrode.[34] The circuit of the conventional Potentiostat circuit is as shown in the figure below.[34] Figure 1.Basic potentiostat circuit [34] Where , C = counter electrode of the electrochemical cell R=reference electrode of the electrochemical cell W=working electrode of the electrochemical cell Rf= feedback resistance V= Voltage given as , V=I sensor/Rf [34] CA = Controlled amplifier APPLICATIONS: The applications of potentiostat include Potentiostat as Ammeter with zero resistance, controlled voltage and current source Measurement of polarised resistance and red ox voltages Potentiostat as a High Fidelity Amplifier Differential voltage control Biosensors [35]. FEATURES: The special features of the potentiostat such as speed, stability in phase, O/P power, and high input resistance play a very important role in most of the electrochemical processes.[35] Significant features of potentiostat are listed below. Accuracy and wide ranges in potentials and currents. High file size, scanning and sampling rate Current resolution Series of working electrodes for controlling instruments Sweep analog generator and footprints.[35] CHAPTER 2: OVERVIEW Figure 2: Potentiostat Setup [19] A basic potentiostat setup is as shown in the figure above. i(t) represents the current carrying with respect to time(t).CE,RE and WE represents counter electrode, reference electrode and working electrode respectively. The potentiostat consists of controlling and amplifying part. Controlling part: This part maintains the voltage of the electrochemical cell at a required voltage level. The voltage between the RE (reference electrode) and WE(working electrode)is maintained to be equal to the Bias voltage. This is done by sourcing or driving the current into CE(counter electrode).[37] Amplifying part: This part converts the current of the counter electrode into equivalent voltage [37]. An input potential is applied to the potentiostat through a voltage source (ramp generator, PIC programmed to generate voltage waveform) or by the potentiostat internally. In the project we apply the time variant input hence we use external source. A PIC is used in the project to generate time varying potential which is applied as input to the potentiostat. The potential across the working and the reference electrode is controlled by the potentiostat [19] The voltage applied produces current through the counter electrode which produces a desired potential across the reference and working electrode. CHAPTER 3: PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION CHAPTER 3.1 POTENTIOSTAT The basic potentiostat circuit for the electrochemical cell with three electrode setup is as shown below [17]. Figure 3.Basic potentiostat circuit [17] The input potential Ein is applied to the non inverting terminal of the opamp1 .The output of the op-amp 1 is given through the counter electrode and a feedback is given from the reference electrode through the op-amp 3.This feedback will help to reduce the difference between the inverting and non-inverting inputs of the opamp1 and thus the reference voltage will have same voltage as of Ein. The potential at the working electrode is set to the same potential that was applied to input of opamp1 since the potential difference between the reference and working electrode is zero.[17] The reference electrode is connected to the Ein pin of the opamp1 through opamp3 of the high impedence.The current needs to flow through the counter electrode and not through the reference electrode due to high resistance and also due to the fact that it may result in uncertainty of its potential.[17] CHAPTER 3.2 ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL The electrochemical cell consists of 3 electrodes immersed in an electrolyte solution namely, Working electrode Reference electrode and , Counter electrode.[1] The working electrode (WE) is the electrode which is used to analyse the electrochemical reaction. The second electrode that is used in closing the circuit is called the counter electrode (CE).The third electrode is the reference electrode that is used to measure the potential between the working electrode and the electrolyte. [2] The experimental setup for an electrochemical cell is as shown below. Figure 4 : Electrochemical setup of an electrochemical cell [2] This setup contains a working electrode/electrolyte junction and the counter electrode/electrolyte junction. Assuming loss of voltage to be negligible in the electrolyte and the solid bulk, the voltage controlled by the battery and that applied to the system can be distributed as, V=VWE VCE [2] Where, VWE and VCE are the potential across the working electrode/electrolyte and counter electrode/electrolyte respectively. This implies that the voltage supplied by the battery is not applied entirely to the working electrode/electrolyte junction.[2] The voltage across the counter electrode will vary with time as a electrochemical reaction is stimulated by the current at the interface of the counter electrode/electrolyte(VCE)This instability will affect consistency of the voltage across the working electrode/electrolyte VWE .[2].This inconsistency can be avoided by varying the value of VCE such that VCE<< VWE and this is done by increasing the area of the counter electrode. This results in the resistivity of the Counter Electrode to be smaller as compared to the Working Electrode and thus the condition VCE<< VWE is satisfied.[2] Choosing a very large area for the CE is always not the best solution since a significant influence is caused by VCE and VWE when high current density flows through the cell. Potentiostat can be used which controls the potential across the Working electrode and the reference electrode directly. The voltage that was supposed to be applied between the reference electrode and the solution is applied as input potential to the potentiostat [2]. There are many sensitive and information based electro analytical techniques in the field of electrochemistry that provide useful information about chemical and physical properties of analytes such as potential ,transfer of electrons,oxidation,coefficients of diffusion which are very difficult to be obtained using other techniques. The electro analytical methods applied for quantitative measurements are,. 1. Potentiometry: Measurement of the potential in the electrochemical cell under no current flow. Examples include pH measurements, titration etc.[22][23] 2. Coulometry:Measurement of the current which is flowing through the circuit by keeping the potential constant at the working electrode.Examples:determination of thickness of film etc.[24] 3.Electrolytic method: In this method an external energy source is applied to initiate an electrochemical reaction. If the external energy source that is applied is potential then the current that is resulting is the analytical signal and if the current is adapted then the analytical signal is the potential that is obtained. [22][30]. The approach which uses the applied potential is termed as voltammetry method and those which use current are termed as galvanostatic methods. [22][30] In the project the voltammetry method (Cyclic voltammetry) is applied, i.e., the external applied driving force is the applied potential. [22][30] CHAPTER 3.3 VOLTAMMETRY It is an electro analytical process which is used in analytical chemistry. In voltammetry the information of the analyte in the electrochemical cell is obtained by varying the potential with respect to time and measuring the resultant current.[24] There are various types of Voltammetry such as linear sweep, staircase, Squarewave,cyclic, anodic stripping, cathodic stripping, polarography, differential pulse voltammetry etc.[24] In this project we use cyclic voltammetry for electrochemical and for electrochemical analysis. CHAPTER 3.3.1 CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY Cyclic voltammetry is one of the widely used methods for analysis of electrochemical reactions. It has ability to provide rapid information about the red ox processes and chemical reactions such as red ox potential peak location, effects on the red ox processes due to media and determination of electron-transfer kinetics.[25][26] In Cyclic voltammetry (CV), a triangular voltage waveform is applied at the working electrode linearly and the resulting current is measured .The figure below shows the triangular potential waveform applied. Figure 5: Time varying potential signal [25] Where, Ef= final potential Ei= initial potential Cycle 1, 2 .. = every cycle constitutes of forward and reverse scan. For every cycle, the potentiostat measures the current generated due to the varying potential applied. The graph obtained by plotting the potential against the resulting current is termed as cyclic voltammogram which is dependent on time and on various chemical and physical aspects. Figure below shows the cyclic voltammogram for a single cycle of the red ox species. Figure 6: Cyclic voltammogram [25] Where, Epc = peak cathode potential Epa=peak anode potential Ipc=peak cathode current Ipa=peak anode current It is presumed that initially there is only oxidised form in the red ox species. Hence in the first half cycle negative potential scan is considered where the cathodic peak current is observed. In the next half cycle positive potential scan is considered and the anodic peak current is observed. The main parameter taken into consideration in the cyclic voltammogram are the peak potentials and the peak current at the anode and cathode sweeps.[25] The peak current ip is directly proportional to the concentration C and can be defined by Randles-Sevcik equation, ip = 0.4463 n F A C (n F v D / R T)1/2[25] where, n = number of electrons transferred/molecule A = electrode surface area (cm2) C = concentration (mol cm-3) D = diffusion coefficient (cm2 s-1). CHAPTER 4: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE POTENTIOSTAT CIRCUIT The Block diagram of the Potentiostat is as shown below: Figure 7: Block diagram of Potentiostat circuit [13] The PIC microcontroller is used for the generation of the voltage waveform, data analysis and data acquisition. The PIC is programmed in the C language as it is the more efficient and powerful coding technique. A 10 bit counter is used in the PIC microcontroller for the voltage waveform generation.[9] The 10 Bit counter value is fed into external D/A converter through the SPI (serial programming interface) port of the microcontroller. The voltage waveform is level shifted using the amplifier circuit and is applied to the electrochemical cell between the working and the reference electrode of the cell.[9] The current generated from the cell is then converted into voltage and is then applied to the level shifting circuit which is used to achieve the required input voltage level that is essential for the analog input port of the PIC.The current readings are noted down for each incrementing value of the voltage.[13][9]. CHAPTER 5: SCHEMATIC OF PIC CONTROLLED POTENTIOSTAT The Potentiostat circuit is designed using a PIC which controls the operation of the circuit. The circuit diagram of the Potentiostat circuit with PIC18F46K20 is as shown below. Figure 8: Circuit diagram of the potentiostat circuit[3] CHAPTER 5.1: COMPONENTS The components used in the schematic are as below: Item Quantity Reference Part 1 4 C1,C3,C4,C5 100uF/Electrolytic 2 1 C2 2×4.7uF/Ceramic 3 1 J1 CON6 4 9 R1,R2,R4,R7,R8,R10,R11,R12,R14 R 5 3 R3,R9,R13 POT 6 1 R5 2K/0.25W 7 1 R6 1.33K/0.25W 8 1 U1 PTN78000A 9 1 U2 PTN04050 10 1 U3 LM148 11 1 U4 PIC18F46K20 12 1 U5 TLC5615 13 1 U6 SW 14 1 U7 OSC 15 1 U8 LM741/DIP8 PTN78000A: PTN78000A is a high efficiency integrated switching regulator which operates through a wide range of frequency, providing voltage conversion that ranges from negative to positive loads up to 1.[4] PTN04050:It is an integrated switch regulator with adjustable output. The input operating voltage ranges from 2.9-7V.The output voltage ranges over a wide range of values (-15V to -3.3V) and is determined by using a single external resistor .This regulator provides a very efficient positive to negative voltage conversion for loads up to 6W.[7] LM148: LM148 is an op-amp (operational amplifier) that has high gain and low offset current and bias. Each package of LM148 consists of four amplifier isolated from each other. This reduces the overall cost and the complexity of the circuit. The package is supplied with power rather than individual op-amps with ± 12V.[10]. TLC5615:It is a 10 bit Digital to analog converter is a product of Texas instruments with an input supply of 5V used in operations where space is critical. It uses a network of resistors which is buffered with Op-amp (gain A=2) for A/D conversions. Both the input and the output polarity of the LC5615 are same .[11] LM741/DIP8: it is a low cost operational amplifier which has protection of excess load at the input and output .the LM741 is free from oscillations. The operating temperature ranges from 0°C- 70°C.[12]. PIC18F46K20:PIC18F46K20 is a high performance flash programming microcontroller from Microchip with optimised C complier architecture. It consists of 10 bit ADC module used for analog to digital conversion, 16 bit instruction set,8 bit data path, and interrupts with priority levels. The operating voltage ranges from 1.8V-3.6V.[31]. CHAPTER 5.2 FLOW DIAGRAM FOR THE POTENTIOSTAT SYSTEM A/D Module setting Timer Module Setting SPI Module Setting Interrupt Enable and Data collection CHAPTER 5.3 OPERATION The Circuit operation is as explained below: A triangular potential waveform is generated by the PIC18F46K20 using a up down counter The output of the PIC is in the digital form and is converted to analog from using a digital to analog converter(D/A converter) using the SPI port of the PIC.The D/A converter using in this circuit is MAX5354[3] The variable output from the digital to analog converter is dependent of the Vref pin of the D/A converter i.e., MAX5354 .The varying output of the D/A converter is controlled by using a potentiometer which is connected to the Vref pin.[3] The output of the D/A converter which is unipolar is converted into bipolar by using an op-amp level shifting circuit. Op amps are used to compare adc voltage and feedback voltage from electro chemical cell. A buffer is introduced between the voltage that is level shifted and counter electrode so that loading of previous op-amp phases obtained as a result of the current drawn from the electrochemical cell is prevented.[3] The non inverting terminal of the voltage follower circuit is connected to the reference electrode so that a constant voltage is maintained by drawing very less current.[3] The inverting terminal of the current to voltage converter is connected to the working electrode to ground the working electrode and also to obtain an equivalent voltage of the current (drawn from electrochemical cell) at the voltage converter output.[3] The converted current as a voltage is amplified and level shifted so that the voltage is brought between the acceptable PIC voltage ranges (ie,0-5V) and is given as input through the analog port of the PIC[3]. Con6 in the circuit diagram is applied with 5V voltage externally. Pin 1, 2 and 3 of con6 are connected to the amplifiers and the output pin is connected to the electrochemical cell .Con6 provides 5V input to U2,where U2 boosts the signal from 5V to 12V that is necessary for circuit operation. Input is given to U2 from U1 which produces -12V output needed for the circuit operation.U5 does the analog to digital conversion when it gets a potential waveform from the PIC and the converted values are given as input to the amplifier circuitry. LEVEL SHIFTING CIRCUIT: The circuit below shows the level shifting circuit present in the Figure 3. Figure 9 : Level shifting circuit[3] The output of the TLC5615 (D/A Converter) is connected to the level shifting circuit. Level shifting output Vout .The level shifting output voltage Vout is a function of the output of D/A converter and the offset DC voltage and is defined by the mathematical equation as shown below.[3] Vout= -(R4/R2) (Offset DC Voltage) (1 R4/R2)(O/P of TLC5615) .[3] In this project we use R4=R2=1kohm Hence, Vout= -1(Offset DC Voltage) 2(O/P of TLC5615) . The output of the level shifting circuit Vout is the representation of the current that is given to the electrochemical cell. The range of voltages can be obtained by varying the R5 (potentiometer) which is connected to the ref pin of TLC5615 and the voltage polarity can be varied by changing the potentiometer R2 of the offset DC voltage.[3] The output of the level shifting circuit is as shown. Figure 10. Output waveforms of D/A and level shifting amplifier circuit [3] CHAPTER 6: ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL The RC equivalent circuit of an electrochemical cell is as shown .the components of the circuit is as explained below. Figure 11.RC Equivalent of the electrochemical cell [15] Rrc is the resistance between the counter electrode and the reference electrode .It is defined as the solution resistance which is the most important factor of Z(impedance) in the electrochemical cell. Rrc depends on the ion concentration the nature of ions and the area in which the current is passed.[14] The resistance Rrc can be defined as, Rrc = r*l/A [14] Where, r is the is the density ,l is the length which carries a constant current and A, is the area in which the current is passed.[14] Cd is the double layer capacitance .This capacitance is present at the electrode and the electrolytic solution interface. This is formed when the ions from the electrolyte solution resides on the surface of the electrode .the Cd depends on the type of ions, concentration of the ions, temperature, layer of oxidation, impurities present in the solution etc.[14] Rs is the uncompensated resistance of the solution. It sometimes include the component present on the surface of the metal.[15].If the uncompensated resistance is very high then the separation between the voltage peaks is more and there is significant decrease in the peak currents. Rd is the resistance across the interface of the metal and the solution.[15] CHAPTER 7: DETERMINATION OF PEAK AND PEAK CURRENTS The analog-to-digital measurements are periodically taken from the special event mode of the TC mode (timer capture mode) by setting the go/done bit of the A/D converter which starts the analog-digital measurements. Once this is done an interrupt of high level is applied. [3] The stages involved in the interrupt subroutine are as shown below. [3] A/D values read from the conversion register Continuous 8 values averaged ( to eliminate noise) Store the data in an array of length=256 Disable interrupts after 2048 counts Once the interrupt is disabled the peak current of the anodic and cathodic sweeps are obtained. The slope of the left side and the knee is calculated. Then the peak of both anodic and cathodic sweeps with respect to the slope is calculated. The calibration data of the curve is stored in the PIC in terms of slope and y-intercept of the best fit line. This slope and the y-intercept are used to calculate the concentration that corresponds to the peak current values and the corresponding 8 bit data value of the current is generated. [3] CHAPTER 7.1 : BASELINE CURRENT EXTRAPOLATION The point of maximum curvature is used to determine the baseline current for both anodic and cathodic sweeps. A line is made to pass through all the points to the left side of the point of maximum curvature. [3] CHAPTER7.2 : L METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF KNEE OF THE CURVE OR POINT OF MAXIMUM CURVATURE The novel method (L method) finds the edge/boundary between the pair of lines that fits the cure closely. This method considers all points of data together at same time and is used where the curve includes sharp jumps. [27] The linearity of the region to the right and left of the line is taken into consideration in the L method. If a line is drawn fitting all the points on the left hand side and another line is drawn on the right hand side, the area that is obtained in between these two lines will be same as the area of the knee. To find these 2 lines, a pair of line that fits the curve well (i.e., that covers maximum points) is obtained. [27] Consider a graph of no of data v/s evaluation graph. Let the number of data be’d’.Hence the data range is from ‘1-d’.Let ‘p’be the partitioning of the data points. Hence the right hand side of the data points is defined to be from 1..p and the left side of the data points from p 1…d.[27] RMSEc= 1/d {p * RMSE (Lc) (d-p) * RMSE (Rc)} [27] Where, RMSEc= the mean square error in total RMSE (Lc) =the mean square error if the left hand side of the partition in total RMSE (Rc)= the mean square error if the right hand side of the partition in total. Steps to find the knee of the curve using the L method is as shown below.[28] The data points are varied from 1 to d. Using the points on the right hand side(1 to p), a line is fit and using the points on the left (p 1 to d),another line is fit. The RMSEc is calculated for each value of p. The knee of the curve is obtained by the least mean square error. The regressive line fitting is used for fitting a line to the set of data provided. CHAPTER 7.3 REGRESSIVE LINE FITTING The best fit line(regression line) is used to obtain minimum value for the mean square error(i.e., the error between the expected and the obtained values if the data points).[29] If the data points are defined by {xi,yj} then the regression line s used to obtain the equation of a straight line[29] Y=mx c Where, m=slope c =y-intercept. The values for the m and c can be obtained by using calculus and is given as, [28] m= covariance (xy) / {variance (x) – mean(x) mean(y)} c = a * mean(x) – mean(y) The peak is obtained w.r.t the baseline current and the concentration is obtained from the calibration curve. [29] CHAPTER 8: PROGRAMMING OF PIC MPLAB IDE v8.53 and MCC18 complier are used to program and load the program onto the PIC.PIC2 development debugger/programmer is used for interfacing. MPLAB IDE v8.53 is the high optimised and fast complier from Microchip used for PIC18 series of microcontrollers. It is the most useful toolset used in the development of the embedded designs.[32] MCC18 is the MPLAB C complier which is integrated into the MPLAB IDE .This provides compatibility for the MPLAB to program in C language. It controls the path and the declarations of source files header files, linker files etc that are needed in the programming.[33]. CHAPTER 8.1 MICROCONTROLLER SETTINGS The PORTS of the PIC are configured as inputs and outputs. In this project PORTC and pin 4-7 of PORT D are configured as output and pin1-3 of PORT D as inputs. PORT A behaves as an Analog input port. The ADC, SPI, TIMER registers for A/D conversion, Serial data transfers is as shown. ADC Register: The features of Analog-Digital converter module are: Auto data acquisition capacity External channels(13),10 bit resolution Conversion is processes during sleep Fixed reference voltage of 1.2V [38] SETTINGS: 1.ADCON 0 register[38]: Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 – – CHS3 CHS2 CHS1 CHS0 GO/DONE ADON – – 0 0 0 1 1 ADCON – A/D conversion starts when ADON=1 ,this is automatically cleared when the A/D conversion is done [38] CHS[3:0] : Analog Channel Select bits.[38] 0001= channel 1 is selected. 2.ADCON 2 Register: Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 ADFM – ACQT2 ACQT1 ACQT0 ADCS2 ADCS1 ADCS0 1 – 0 0 0 0 0 1 ADFM- defines the format in which the A/D conversion values are stored. ADFM=1 stores the values as right justified i.e. ADRESL = b7-b0 and ADRES=b9 and b8. ADCS[2:0]- select bits for A/D clock conversion ADCS[2:0]=001 selects FOSC/8.[38] 3.SPI (Serial Port interface)[38]: SPI module is used to transfer / receive synchronous data of 8 bits simultaneously between the microcontrollers or peripheral devices such as A/D converters , shit registers ,EEPROM etc.[38] The master SSP module has 4 registers assigned for SPI operation. These are: • SSPCON1 – register for CONTRL • SSPSTAT – register to define STATUS • SSPBUF – Buffer to send the data in serial/parallel • SSPSR – register for shift.[38] SSPSTAT register (status register)[38]: Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 SMP CKE D/A P S R/W UA BF X 0 X X X X X X CKE – Clock bit select for SPI CKE =0, the data O/P changes when the clock transition takes place from idle to active.[38]. 4.SSPCON1 Register (control register)[38] Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 WCOL SSPOV SSPEN CKP SSPM3 SSPM2 SSPM1 SSPM0 1 X 1 1 0 0 0 0 WCOL- Write collision detect , WCOL = 1, the SPI buffer register is written and data is simultaneously transferred. SSPEN- synchronous serial port enable data SSPEN= 1 ,Serial port are enabled and pins are configured CKP-Polarity of the clock CKP=1 the clock is idle when it is at high SSPM3[2:0] – selection of synchronous serial port mode SSPM3[2:0]= 0000, Master SPI mode and the clock frequency = FOSC/4.[38] Timer and CCP (capture compare PWM) register: The PIC14F46K20 consists of two registers each consisting of 16 bits. Each of the register can function as PWM /capture/compare register.[38] 5.CCP2CON (CCP Control register)[38] Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 – – DC2B1 DC2B0 CCP2M3 CCP2M2 CCP2M1 CCP2M0 X X X X 1 0 1 1 CCP2M[3:0]- Mode selection register CCP2M[3:0]= 1011,SPI event trigger,A/D conversion, starts when COP2IF bit is set 6.T3CON (Timer 3 Control Register)[38] Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 RD16 T3CCP2 T3CKPS1 T3CKPS0 T3CCP1 T3SYNC TMR3CS TMR30N 1
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp In order to optimize the security and resilience of the countries critical infrastructure, it is essential for a concerted approach that integrates all relevant partners and stakeholders. The healthcare and public health sector are crucial partners towards this end. The continuity of healthcare operations in times of emergency is quintessential. They role is disaster response and response makes them an asset and elevates their importance to national security beyond mere stakeholder status. The necessity for a sector-specific plan that optimizes the relationship between the players in the healthcare and public health industry and liaising with the department of homeland security has become vital. In the contemporary society, threats to the countries critical infrastructure have evolved diversifying into digital and biological platforms. The Healthcare and Public Health (HPH) Sector-Specific Plan (SSP) is created to champion cross-sector effort sector and collaboration towards enhancing security and resilience of the industries critical infrastructure covering all hazards. The guidance of the SSP is meant to customize the guidance to be relevant to the applicable industry players. This entails ensuring the strategic guidance is compatible with the risk landscape and unique operating landscape of the healthcare and public health sector. The above prevents the sector layers from expending energy on extraneous factors. The National Infrastructure Protection Plan 2013 has been instrumental towards that end. The sector has formulated an integrated approach to managing the risks to industry’s critical infrastructure and corresponding workforce. The approach involves identification and preparation for the potential threats as well as hazards. Preparedness assumes that the all hazard risks are always imminent. In order to consider all dimensions of attack, the cross-sector councils are allowed to leverage simulation technology to visualize the full range of consequences in the instance of a biological attack (Almklov
Referent power plays a very important role in marketing communication, following report look in to different influences groups and referent power. How referent power affect one. How affective a referent power is? How a marketer can use it to his advantage. What are the factors which make referent power effective? Different theories have been discussed. This report will be looking critically on evaluating the role of referent power in marketing, evaluate the role it will play in future, and provide a future marketing plan. This report of “Referent power and why it can be a potent force for marketing appeals” was written as a final assignment for the Consumer Behavior module. Humans are social animals and they always looks to other for appreciation, they want acceptance in the social circle. They identify themselves with some groups and consciously or subconsciously they imitate members of the group “to fit in”. They try to imitate those qualities by copying the referent’s behavior. What we think of ourselves is influenced in our social interaction by the reaction of others whose values we share or judgment we respect. Our attire, vehicles we use and career make statements about us, and our behaviors and lifestyles are the presentation of ourselves to our influence groups. By wearing a particular brand T shirt bring us closure to our group. Advertisers have different task while creating a promo or advertising depending on what are their target segment. Marketers use all three major influencing groups before launching a campaign. There are three form of reference group; Informational, normative and identification When an individual is not sure he uses the behavior and opinion of reference group members as potentially useful bits of information and try to copy it. In this case individual may have similarity with the other members of the group or expertise of the member group. So a person sees members of group using the same brand of tea he may decide to try same for Himself because he has evidence that it may be a good brand. Ads which wants to use informational power will quote something like” they used it will you?” ” Intelligent people like only one thing…” REFERRENT power is the power of prominent people to affect others’ consumption behaviors by virtue of product endorsement ( 50 cents for Reebok)(Pic 1.1), distinctive fashion statements On the cover of US Magazine today. Celebrity Baby Jessica Alba’s little princess, Honor Marie Wearing Ooh La La Mama’s FLY SPIRIT onesie). or championing of causes. Campaign began with identifying three major sports figures who had a connection to lung cancer (Troy Aikman, Joe Buck, and Cal Ripken, Jr ( Pic 1.2) To understand this mechanism an example is helpful. Suppose there are two restaurants and a group of people on the street outside deciding which one to eat at. The most well-informed individuals (those with higher precision in making these types of decisions) will decide first and everyone will see some people start to line up outside of one restaurant. If the others know this person is of higher precision (and even if they don’t) a few people will follow their lead and join the line. Each new person who lines up outside of the restaurant sends a signal to the rest of the group (and in particular their friends and family) that this is the restaurant to pick. The more people who follow the signal, the stronger it gets and you have an Informational Cascade. Pic 1.2 The idea is presented in rigorous detail in a paper called “Theory of fads, Fashion, Custom and Cultural Change as Informational cascades”” written by Sushil Bikhchandani, David Hirshleifer and Ivo Welch and published in 1992. To paraphrase: An informational cascade occurs when it is optimal for an individual, having observed the actions of those ahead of him to follow the behavior of the preceding individual without regard to his own information… The prediction that a low-precision individual imitates a higher-precision predecessor is consistent with the evidence of numerous psychological experiments demonstrating that a subject’s previous failure in a task raises the probability that in further trials he will imitate a model performing the task (see Thelen, Dollinger, and Kirkland 1979, p. 146)… Reference group doesn’t have equal power for all types of products and consumption activities. Question is does consumers search rationally or it depends on NEED It has been seen that search is more in consumers who are moderately knowledgeable, when the product is low in perceived risk. There are two dimension that influence the degree to which referent power can work they are whether the purchase is to be consumed publicly or privately and whether its luxury or a necessity. Referent has more power over purchase which re for luxury rather than necessity and second important place where we can see the referent power is when the purchase is socially visible to other(William.,O, et al,1982) Referent power is inferred to the influencer by their subordinates. Project team members who have a great deal of respect and high regard for their project managers willingly go along with decisions made by the project manager because of referent power. If one admires the quality of a person or a group will try to imitate by copying referent behavior Prominent people celebrities can affect people’s consumption behavior by virtue of product endorsement, fashion statements or championing cause . referent power is important to many marketing strategies because consumers voluntarily change to please or identify with a referent 3.2. Normative influence Also known as utilitarian influence, occurs when an individual follows group expectation to gain a direct reward or to avoid a sanction ( Fischer et al, 1998). You may purchase one brand of beer to win acceptance by a friend or won’t wear one particular brand for of teasing by friend. This influence is directly related with the bond of a person with its group Strongest the bond strong will be the influence. Mostly younger consumer are powered by this influence. A teenager starts smoking under this influence. 3.3. Identification Influence Also known as value-expressive influence, occur when consumer has adopted all values and attitude of group and identify himself with the. Here to influence advertiser will show the brand being used by socially active group It has been seen that teenagers and young one get influenced by this groups as they live under peer pressure(Auty,s.2001) You will hear in super market a child convincing his mother to buy a particular brand of cereals cause His friends use it , or a particular brand of shoes because his friends told him they are the best. It is these influence which leads them to cigarettes alcohol consumption influence as well. These influences can be used directly or indirectly by the marketer. Many researcher have researchers have come to conclusion lineage is also a very important factor where mother daughter and sisters will use the same brand and will have same shopping pattern (Miller, 1975; Moore-Shay and Lutz, 1988). .4. Celebrity as a referent power in advertising Celebrities like movie stars, sports person, Television stars help grab attention and communicate easily with consumers who admire them or wants to be like them. Its also known as “ubiquitous feature of modern Marketing” ( Mc Cracken, 1989), and approximately 20 percent of all promotions and advertisement uses use some type of celebrity endorsement (Bradley, 1996) . Marketers spends huge amount of money on celebrity contract on the belief that celebrity are effective spokesperson for their product or brand. Its very common that one celebrity becomes identity of one particular brand or product but in some cases more than one celebrity are being used. Like Pepsi uses superstar Shahrukh khan for his brand promo. Selection of a celebrity is very important characteristics of celebrity should match up with the brand to communicate effectiveness.( Kahle, Homer, 1985),Some companies used multiple celebrities to communicate. In the context of celebrity endorsement advertisement consumer may ask whether endorsers are promoting the product because she really believe in it? Or just because she has been paid to promote it. It’s the attributes of celebrity which should match with perception of consumer. Thus sometime using multiple celebrities to endorse the product may help the product to reach the consumer (Mowen and Brown, 1981). Market also assumes that to reach target audience the celebrity should be like the consumer. Celebrity should have credibility attractiveness, Integrity and the main thing Plausibility he/ she behaves as referent influence, if referent Is not plausible it will not be effective . Here referent will be effective and will hold power by their influence as they are aspiration associate group. Celebrities with a bigger Halo will have bigger effect. Despite more and more celebrity are pitched in, many commercials using celebrity endorsers do not live up to the expectations (Miciak and Shanklin, 1994). However, if used appropriately, celebrity endorsers can play a very important role in developing brand equity and enhancing a brand’s competitive position. Like Andre Agassi fits well with, and enhances, the image of Canon’s “Rebel” line of cameras. And Nike and Michael Jordon are synonymous when one thinks of Jordon they think of Nike, they have become part of each other. Before endorsing a product with particular celebrity marketer should do research that how well the celebrity and the brand belong together and how celebrity represent the product.. If there is great ease and relation of brand an d celebrity they get more quickly develop an association. 5. Degree of Reference Group Influence If one sees critically around us we can clearly sees that consumer does not decide abruptly. Referent power of any kind is always playing at the back of his mind. It suggest that rational persuasion, inspirational appeals are effective in influencing final decision(Farrell and Schroder(1996).while the influence of personal appeals, coalition or any kind of pressure were ineffective in any decision outcome( Case etal., 1988). So one can say that things which does not personally appeal or internalize favorable attitude one are not effective or will not have a very strong motivation in buying behavior. As it is well said “Power is the ability to effect change” (Kohli and Zaltman, 1988.,Ghoneim, 1987) These influencing power can be used by marketer A number of authors have well said that “power is the ability to effect changes”. Conversely, power bases depends on the characteristics of an individual that afford Referent power will have different impact on different people in different situation, or may be the category of the product used, or the brand used As the purchase is done to influence the group, the product or brand should be visible, for example product like watch, shoes, here product category ( watch), and brand (Swatch) are all visible. The consumption of some tonic is private .Referent power is quite visible when the product is visible to the group and he get accepted or appreciated in the group for his buy. High involvement Low involvement Significant Differences between brands Complex buying behavior Variety- seeking buying behavior Few Differens between brands Dissonance-reducing Buying behavior Habitual buying behavior (Table 5.1) If the need is high there is less power of referent for example when one want to buy a microwave. Reference group influence will be higher if one wants to buy things which is less necessary e.g. in buying clothes or in simple words on can say that decision to buy toothpaste tennis racket, a personal computer, a refrigetor are all very different. Expensive and complex purchase or things which involve more knowledge involve more participant and more suggestion from peer are taken.( Table 5.1)( Henry 1987) Relationship, bondage of of an individual with the group is another very important criteria which can affect on purchasing decision. More one feels committed to the group more he get influence by the referent power . One will be more careful when in dressing up when joining a group whom he wants to influence than when he wants to go for dinner with group he doesn’t feel related or committed. It also depends on activity in which individual is involve with a group , How relevant is the activity for example going for office dinner is more important than going out with your friend for a match. There is clear evidence that individual differ in tendency in getting powered by influence (keillor et al,1996)Reference influence is also related to a reward or punishments, reward may be in the form of acceptance in the group, promotion gain trust with your peer and punishments may be in the form of rejection or hatred. In preteen group it may be severe and of social consequences. So to it can be said that referent power should have authority to implement both. We can still argue that referent power should not misuse legal power or illegally pressurize as he might use credibility Refrent power is someone which is look upon by individual and if it loses credibility and trust power will be gone. So we can say that the greater the referent power, the lower the use of legitimate pressure (Farell et al.,1999). In this context its interesting to know about the balance theory (Heider, 1946) Every individual have some preconceived ideas and perception which remain at his subconscious level. And while purchasing it plays a very important role. The greatest power one has over other is when one is sufficiently intimate to permit other to facilitate, because the relation between influencer and consumer is cohesive. Referent power involvement Let’s take an example I want to purchase a very expensive notebook I have seen advertisement of Dell, hp and Acer now I m confuse I want to buy something g which is very important but I don’t have much knowledge what will I do I will not just go an d purchase it from the counter I will go to one of my friend or family member who has knowledge about it I will involve his opinion. But if at the same time I m hungry and I want to buy a packet of biscuit I will just go to the supermarket and choose any packet or may be the one I have been using from the shelf I would not involve others and take opinion from others for purchasing a pack of biscuit. So opinion leader are needed where there is high purchase involve with no knowledge of product while when low purchase involvement is there I won’t take any opinion even if I have less knowledge( Table 1.1) PRODUCT/ PURCHASE INVOLVEMENT Product knowledge High Product knowledge Low HIGH Moderate High Low Low Moderate (Table 6.1) Consumers, especially gen X, tend to follow their peer what they feel trendy and worn by the `in crowd’ (Agins 1999; Spiegler 1996). Here we can see their deep-seated willingness and thirst to belong, often becoming image- and brand-conscious consumers. Now `what is trendy’ is what they drive from word-of-mouth communications. Retail Entrepreneur of the Year, Anne Yuri Namba, has found to be quoted as that her home business was initiated and stimulated entirely by word of mouth. As her fame spread, so did the demand for her unusual, highly distinctive fashions (Chain Store Age 2000). Marcus (1999) reported that word of mouth plays an very important role along with demographic information when decisions are made in the fashion industry. One can say, fashion demand may be generated by the simultaneous presence of local externalities and word-of-mouth communication (Corneo and Olivier 1999).Individual sharing information about with other highly target consumer plays a very critical role on consumer decision and market success. Our friends and relatives are the main source of information, when we are in group we observe their styles, what product they use or by directly asking the opinion. One research shown that half of American agrees that that they often seeks advice of others before making any purchase and 40% feel that people come to them for advice. (Walkes, p 40). The internet has changed the term a little now it can be called Word Of Internet. Where one seek advice from a complete stranger. There are some individual who actively filter, interpret, or provide brand or product information to their family and friends, They are called opinion Leaders they play very strong referent power influence over other WE just can’t credit only referent power involved in purchasing decision of an individual we can’t pass anything to them making it look like their group or brand image Research have shown that decision to purchase particular product is also influenced by the image and credibility of the companies that market and manufacture consumer products (Lafferty and Goldsmith 1999). If the company is positively portrayed, and has a good image consumers generally maintain a positive disposition toward the company and its products. However, if the company has some rumor some ethical or cultural issues in the backyard , less favorable feelings may subsequently influence whether consumers decide to purchase the company’s products (Lee and Bernstein 2000; Ligos 1999). How Much Does It affect During 1996 one rumored was spread about Tommy Hilfiger, stating that company had made some bad remarks African-Americans and Asian which were their core clients. The rumor was mostly on internet. Hilfiger websites denied the rumor completely and there was call to was call to boycott Tommy Hilfiger clothing, especially in the African-American. T The strength and persistence of the strength of rumor suggested that it will affect the sale of brand in African-American market African-American magazine telling them not to buy who doesn’t respect ( Graves 1998) here the referent power was internet, mouth to mouth and magazine community, the whole impact was studied and recorded( kImberly 2001) One implication of these recordings was that the staying power of the rumors had eventually harm sales of the Tommy Hilfiger brand in a core target market. Wall street Journal article reported a 28 per cent decrease in sales for the Tommy Hilfiger company (Agins 2001). Company denied the rumored took African-American model and try to recapture the market and used integrated marketing scheme strategically. In retail market consumer is very important and referent power play a very important role Thus retail clothing market should take careful measurements to track their image all designers, regardless of popularity, must follow up their image and communications with their consumers. In one of the similar case Reebok has been forced to clarify itself for more than a decade against a rumor that company produce its products in South Africa and supported apartheid ( Turnet 1992). Initially company didn’t take much notice and didn’t think much of it but later company suffered protests and boycotts and then company has to come out its forceful campaign `Reebok is NOT in South Africa’ (Kazi-Ferrouillet 1990). And till now company addressed the issue on its website ( Referent influence has been examined in the context of consumer vulnerability to interpersonal influence (Bearden et al., 1989) where influence is the extent to which an individual’s consumer choices are influenced by other people. In impulse buying it’s the cognitive behavior which is seen where a consumer cannot get the information from any one so He doesn’t come under informational power but high level of normative influence comes in existence and affect the purchase decision, thus we can say that normative consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence is positively related to the affective component of impulse buying. When will it effect We have to understand stages in purchasing decision of a buyers Information search Refrent group Internet search promo Check option Pricing Brand image Purchase decisions He decide to purchase Need Awareness May be prompted by marketing Post buying behavior, Reinforcement from media friends (Diagram 8.1) Stages of Consumer Buying Behavior 1. Need Awareness: A need may arise or been establish by promotion of a company’s marketing. Refrent power here may or may not be very influential 2. Information Search: Buyers search and ask Internet has made research easier for buyers. He may read on websites of different company .Here referent power play a very important role. As he is seeking the information company may use its influence with promos, handout an updated websites or trial samples distribution 3. Check Options: Once information is collected customer will evaluate all option he will search for price and company credibility.. 4. Purchase Decision: The last step just sell and close the deals at this moment any influencing may harm. If he is still hesitant u can still recommend and help your buyers for the best deal .5. Post Buying Behavior: Todays marketer knows very well that to keep loyalty of a customer is very important as now he himself will be a referent power over the other potential buyers. Even at this stage any negative reinforcement will bring remorse and he may not recommend it to others. Influence of referent power also depends on at what stage is a brand once a brand mature its brand image itself is good referent power but at introduction stage a company needs good referent power. 9. Conclusion Referent power is very effective in certain cases and marketer should use that power but at the same time they should keep in mind that for that power to be influential they have to keep certain points in mind Referent power to be effective should bring a connection with the consumer, or he should look up to it or relate to him Message used by referent power should be used as simple as possible it should not be complex or confusing Celebrity power will be more effective if used repeatedly as it strengthen the relationship of brand with that celebrity and so it brings trust in the target audience When choosing a celebrity marketer should be careful that he is already not strongly associated to some other brand or services, but nothing comes without a drawback. If celebrity or your referent power get into negative publicity it brings down with him the product. A wrong selection will tarnish the whole image Referent power is effective if your target audience is young and not much knowledgeable about the brand or product. Its more affective on one who does not have much knowledge and have low self image It so one can say its most effective with children. Referent power does not only influence at the time of purchasing but also post purchasing as after purchasing a product Consumer look at his influence group for appreciation and even any negative comment at that stage will disheartened him and He may not buy the product again A company should not try to play its own trumpet but can bring trust and credibility through awards, media or testimonials of other customers Make a purchase an happy ending for him offer him warranty period or an extended trial period will help in Him becoming a potential referent power over other buyers

Grossmont Cuyamaca Mod 12 Social Structure of the Turkic & Mongol Tribes Discussion

Grossmont Cuyamaca Mod 12 Social Structure of the Turkic & Mongol Tribes Discussion.

I’m working on a history discussion question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

Module 12.2 | Discussion Post: Asia and the Mongol Empire2525 unread replies.2525 replies.For this week, we get to explore China, Japan, and the Mongol Empire. Be sure to read before you begin.Option A: Discuss the rise to power and expansion of the Mongol Empire. What was the significance of the Mongol invasion and occupation for world history? The following cc videos are optional, but interesting.Option B: Discuss Golden Age China (Links to an external site.) during the Tang (Links to an external site.) and Song (Links to an external site.)periods. What major developments and inventions made this such a great and vibrant period in Chinese history?The following cc videos are optional, but provide a good look at the Golden Age. Option C: Please discuss the development of Japan during the Tokugawa period (Links to an external site.), being sure to discuss daimyo and samurai (Links to an external site.), as well as Shinto (Links to an external site.) and Buddhism for the Bushido code. (Links to an external site.)This cc video is excellent if a bit dramatic (aren’t they all) Please watch the first half. I can’t get this to delete – ignore it please 🙂
Grossmont Cuyamaca Mod 12 Social Structure of the Turkic & Mongol Tribes Discussion

“Peter Pan” a Story by James Matthew Barrie Essay

essay writer “Peter Pan” by J.M. Barrie is a unique story, which tells tales about children in a tone more typical for an adult literature. The main character of Barrie’s books is a magic boy who does not grow older. There are three main propositions concerning Peter Pan. The first one is the result of his unique ability – the time does not pass for him (there is no past and no future). The second proposition is that he doesn’t differentiate between what is “real” and what is “make-believe.” The third proposition is that Peter doesn’t love anybody except himself. All the above-mentioned propositions are interrelated in Barrie’s depiction of Peter in a way that often creates new qualities of the character and violates initial propositions. Barrie introduces his character as an ordinary boy. In his physical appearance, Peter Pan does not differ greatly from the ordinary children. He is described as “a lovely boy, clad in skeleton leaves and the juices that ooze out of trees but the most entrancing thing about him was that he had all his first teeth” (Barrie 10). The character of the boy is determined by his connection with the world of magic and the Neverland island in particular. Numerous adventures disclose different traits of Peter’s character, showing him as an adult person rather than a “lovely boy.” The first proposition about Peter Pan is a little boy who whom there is no past and no future. Peter is self-centered to the extent that prevents him from following the course of events. Peter does not have a concept of exact time and time flow. When he is asked about his age, he replies “I don’t know… “but I am quite young” (Barrie 23). Specific perception of time that Peter possesses is closely connected with his self-consciousness. The boy easily forgets what happened to him and lives in the now. For example, when Wendy warns him that sewing his shadow might hurt, the boy replies “Oh, I shan’t cry”. Peter says this because he “was already of the opinion that he had never cried in his life” (Barrie 10). Peter utterly forgets that he was crying a moment ago. Peter’s special perception of time influences his memory it is difficult for him to remember his friends. The second proposition concerning Peter Pan is that he doesn’t differentiate between what is “real” and what is “make-believe”. For Peter imaginary and unnatural things and actions are quite natural. The entire world around him is the reflection of himself. Peter easily perceive the idea of sewing his shadow to his feet, he talks to fairies, fights with pirates and flies in the most natural way and teaches his friends to fly with the help of fairy powder. For Barrie’s character the world is not divided in to real and unreal. Everything exciting and created by imagination is real. A good example of a “make-believe” reality is the Neverland where Peter brings his friends. The unreal island often becomes the stage for rather mundane events. The third proposition about Peter Pan is that Peter doesn’t love anybody except himself. This quality of Peter’s character is revealed in his communication with children. When Wendy helps Peter to attach his shadow he does not reveal any gratitude. “How clever I am!” he crowed rapturously, “oh, the cleverness of me!” (Barrie 22). The author points out that “It is humiliating to have to confess that this conceit of Peter was one of his most fascinating qualities” (Barrie 23). Barrie clearly states that “there never was a cockier boy” (23). Peter’s selfishness is revealed in his careless and even ruthless actions when they fly across the sea. He lets his friends fall asleep and start to fall down and saves them at the last moment. The author states on the subject “it was his cleverness that interested him and not the saving of human life” (33). The complicated character of Peter Pan sometimes reveals qualities contrary to the initial propositions. For example, the proposition that Peter loves nobody but himself is violated when Peter says to Wendy that “… one girl is more use than twenty boys”(Barrie 23). Peter’s caring attitude to fairy Tink also contradicts with his selfishness. Peter reveals his affection to Wendy when she is believed to be dead, which also proves that he is not indifferent to others. The violation of the “real” and “make-believe” rule can be revealed in Peter’s attitude to mothers. On the Neverland island, many boys miss their mothers, but Peter prohibits even to talk about mothers. Peter “despised all mothers” (Barrie 62). Nevertheless, Peter asks Wendy to be his mother, and mother for all of the boys. This awkward request shows how vulnerable Peter Pan is. It explains that Peter’s love for himself is a compensation for not being loved by anybody, especially his mother. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Barrie creates Peter Pen as a real human with bad and good traits of character. The bad qualities are easily seen from the very beginning of the story, but as the narration develops positive traits of character and new propositions appear. The author creates the propositions about his main character to make the story easier to read. He violates those propositions to engage the reader’s interest, to apply the reader’s personal experience to the perception of the story. “Peter Pen” is written in a way that helps every adult recognize himself in a certain period in life. Work Cited Barrie, James Matthew. Peter Pan. Collector’s Library, 2008.

Grand Canyon University Language Acquisition Factors Paper

Grand Canyon University Language Acquisition Factors Paper.

The most effective strategies, approaches, and methods for teaching ELLs are supported by language acquisition theories. English language acquisition can be promoted by understanding language as an interconnected system and by integrating the discourse and rhetorical features of ELLs within instruction.Each scenario in the “Language Acquisition Factors: Scenarios I and II” includes factors that affect language acquisition. Think of the language factors present for each student.Choose one scenario, and answer the following questions in a 500-750 word analysis:Based on your chosen student’s first language and the assets they bring to the classroom, which language acquisition theory or theories (behaviorist theory, nativist theory, social interactionist theory, cognitive theory, etc.) should inform the instructional practices for this student and why?Which elements of language (phonetics, phonology, morphology, lexicon, semantics, syntax, and pragmatics), as they relate within verbal and written expressions, should teachers of your chosen student focus on and why?Support your analysis with at least three scholarly resources.Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.This assignment uses a rubric. Review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.Attached: Rubric and Module two template and Scenarios.References: Read Chapters 2, 4, 5, 19, 20, and 24. URL: “What a Case Study Reveals: Facing the New Challenge and Learning the Basics in Second Language Acquisition,” by Li, Mitchell, and Howard, from National Teacher Education Journal (2011). URL: “Do Early Literacy Skills in Children’s First Language Promote Development of Skills in Their Second Language? An Experimental Evaluation of Transfer,” by Goodrich, Lonigan, and Farver, from Journal of Educational Psychology (2013). URL: “Myths and Facts Regarding Second Language Acquisition in Early Childhood: Recommendations for Policymakers, Administrators, and Teachers,” by Kim and Plotka, from Dimensions of Early Childhood (2016). URL: “Unlocking Language for ELLs,” by Greene, from Instructor (2015). URL: “Theories and Research of Second Language Acquisition,” by Malone, located on the SIL International website. URL: the Key Terms in the ESL Database.URL:
Grand Canyon University Language Acquisition Factors Paper

Strayer University Capital Investment Evaluation

Strayer University Capital Investment Evaluation.

Shoals Corporation puts significant emphasis on cash flow when planning capital investments. The company chose its discount rate of 8 percent based on the rate of return it must pay its owners and creditors. Using that rate, Shoals Corporation then uses different methods to determine the most appropriate capital outlays.This year, Shoals Corporation is considering buying five new backhoes to replace the backhoes it now owns. The new backhoes are faster, cost less to run, provide for more accurate trench digging, have comfort features for the operators, and have 1-year maintenance agreements to go with them. The old backhoes are working just fine, but they do require considerable maintenance. The backhoe operators are very familiar with the old backhoes and would need to learn some new skills to use the new backhoes.The following information is available to use in deciding whether to purchase the new backhoes:Instructions1. Evaluate, discuss, and compare whether to purchase the new equipment or overhaul the old equipment. (Hint: For the old machine, the initial investment is the cost of the overhaul. For the new machine, subtract the salvage value of the old machine to determine the initial cost of the investment.)Calculate the net present value of the old backhoes and the new backhoes.Discuss the net present value of each, including what the calculations reveal about whether the company should purchase the new backhoes or continue using the old backhoes.Calculate the payback period for keeping the old backhoes and purchasing the new backhoes. (Hint: For the old machines, evaluate the payback of an overhaul.)Discuss the payback method and what the payback periods of the old backhoes and new backhoes reveal about whether the company should purchase new backhoes or continue using the old backhoes. Calculate the profitability index for keeping the old backhoes and purchasing new backhoes.Discuss the profitability index of each, including what the calculations reveal about whether the company should purchase the new backhoes or continue using the old backhoes.2. Identify and discuss any intangible benefits that might influence this decision.3. Answer the following: Should the company purchase the new backhoes or continue using the old backhoes? Explain your decision.This course requires the use of Strayer Writing Standards. For assistance and information, please refer to the Strayer Writing Standards link in the left-hand menu of your course. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.The specific course learning outcome associated with this assignment is:
Strayer University Capital Investment Evaluation