Election Campaign Financing Essay, Research Paper
Chris AlibaruhoBA 243 Topic Report When researching for this paper, I found that the general consensus showedthat particular involvement funding is a turning influence on the results of elections inrespect to election run funding. As you will see I have identified the problemsand so proceed to discourse possible reforms with usage of a? pro and con? method. The first of the chief jobs in the issue of run funding are theindependent outgos. Harmonizing to the Federal Election Committee ( FEC ) , anindependent outgo is? an outgo of money for communications expresslyadvocating the election or licking of a clearly identified federal campaigner which is notmade with the cooperation or consent of, or at the petition or suggestion of, anycandidate or any of his or her agents or authorized commissions. ? In other words, they are political outgos or outgos often made to payfor telecasting and wireless advertizements, imperativeness conferences, political mass meetings byindividuals, groups, or parties seeking to advance a specific message about issues orcandidates during an election season. These outgos have the possible to affectthe result of the race because they imply which campaigner is the best withoutdirectly stating electors which candidate to take. Although they are independentbecause they are produced without confer withing the campaigner or his run, peoplecriticize them for holding the same negative impact as direct parts. This is whyindependent outgos can be seen as a job. The 2nd country that needs to be tackled in the issue of run funding issoft money. Besides referred to as? nonfederal financess? or? sewer money? , soft moneyrefers to run money raised and/or exhausted outside the restrictions and prohibitionsof the Federal Election Campaign Act ( FECA ) . Harmonizing to the FEC, soft moneyoften includes corporate and exchequer financess every bit good as single parts inexcess of federal bounds. These can non be lawfully used in connexion with federalelections ( elections for the US Senate, US House of Representatives, presidential term andvice presidential term. ) The first premise of today? s run finance Torahs is thatpeople, non organisations, are vulnerable to the potentially caustic influence ofpolitical money. The 2nd premise is that province and local political parties andtheir grass roots activities are valuable characteristics of our civil civilization that the federalgovernment should non interfere with. This explains why most federal election lawsdo non cover parts that support province and local? nonfederal? parties. Private money is raised by national parties to back up province party organizationsand does non profit specific people running for federal offices. Therefore, it is neitheruncommon or illegal for parties to raise every bit much as $ 1,000,000 from persons andorganizations, some of which are banned from lending straight to candidates.This is one of the many loopholes found in run funding. For illustration, thefederal authorities is permitted merely to modulate the manner in which campaigns forfederal offices are financed. It is left up to the single provinces and municipalities todetermine how runs for the province legislative assembly, governor, and local populace officesare to be financed and how province and local political parties are to be regulated. Here isthe loophole ; national political parties can set up? nonfederal histories? to supportstate and local political activities. These histories are non regulated by federalcampaign finance Torahs because technically they have nil to make with federalelections. Many soft money critics point out that campaigners, subscribers and otherspecial involvements can technically obey the? missive of the jurisprudence? , but by utilizing soft moneyto get around the part and disbursement bounds, they violate the? spirit? of thesame jurisprudence. The last of the issues I shall be covering with in my essay are the issues ofout-of-district distributions and out-of-state distributions. An out-of-state orout-of-district distribution is one of those footings that tries to capture a batch ofinformation in as few words as possible therefore excluding the of import inside informations aboutthe whole construct. After some research, it became evident that out-of-districtcontributions refer to money donated to the House of Representatives and PAC? sresiding outside the territory in which the campaigner is running. There are 435 Housedistricts in the United States, hence an out-of-district part refers to anycontribution made to a House campaigner by a pe
rson living in any of the other 434districts. An out-of-state contribution refers to money donated to a candidate for theUnited States Senate by individuals and PAC?s residing outside the state in which thecandidate is running. Of course there are 50 states so an out-of-state contribution isany contribution to a senatorial candidate by a person living in any of the other 49states. After looking at the above points, I realized there are many ways of reformingcampaign financing to correct what some people may see as problems in the system.When looking at independent expenditures, critics object to the growing use of thismethod to influence political campaigns. It is seen as just one more way for specialinterests and rich citizens to get around direct contribution limits. So as not to runafoul of the supreme court rulings concerning political speech, proposals to changethe current system of independent expenditures have generally focused on offsettingthe benefits that independent expenditures bestow on candidates rather than outlawthese benefits altogether. With this in mind, I believe one way of reformingexpenditures would be to allow increases in a candidate?s spending depending on hisor her opponent?s expenditures. For example, if a candidate has agreed to voluntaryspending limits and his opponent has benefited from expenditures, the candidatewould be allowed to increase his or her spending by the amount of expenditures.However, like in many situations, there are pros and cons. One con to this is that anyattempt to limit expenditures directly may be ruled unconstitutional by the SupremeCourt. Also independent expenditures provide opportunities for a wide range ofgroups to support the interests of their members. A reform on independentexpenditures would affect the ability of these groups to participate. One last con oflimiting expenditures is that it strengthens the major parties thus making it harder foroutsiders to challenge them. One of the pros of reforming the laws concerning expenditure is that all limitscan be enforced and regulated by existing institutions and authorities. Also, limitingexpenditures would reduce the power of special interests who try to influenceelections outside the current regulations on contributions to candidates. Reformingexpenditures would reduce the overall amount of money flowing into campaigns,making it easier for citizens to run for office without having to be somewhat rich. Many argue that regulating soft money is the solution to the problems incampaign financing. The loophole has allowed contributors, candidates, and politicalparties to take advantage of inconsistencies between federal campaign finance lawsand state campaign finance laws to give and spend a lot more campaign money thanfederal laws permit. ?So called soft money is exploding. The parties raise soft moneyin huge quantities, supposedly to strengthen the party machinery but it is regularlychanneled to individual candidates. ?Issue advertisements? are the latest dodge. Theads display images of the candidates but avoid using words like ?vote for? or ?elect?-thus avoiding limits on party spending for candidates.?- Kenneth Wheaten,Washington Post.Critics say that soft money has the practical effect of helping cash-strapped federalcandidates even though such money is supposed to be used only for ?non-federal?party activities. Private interest groups will continue to enjoy privileged access tolawmakers, as well as special influence with them, unless soft money contributors areprohibited. In my opinion, the best way to honor the intentions of federal campaignlaws is to subject soft money to the same regulations as other federal campaigncontributors and expenses. However, soft money contributions are used to fundthings like voter education programs and registration drives, which encourages theparticipation of citizens. Regulating soft money would have a negative impact on this. When looking at the pros of reforming soft money, it can be seen that softmoney contributions make a mockery of federal election laws designed to control theinfluence of wealthy individuals and groups. Soft money provides a way forpresidential candidates to get around the voluntary spending limit that they agree to inorder to qualify for partial public financing of their campaigns, thus making somewhatof a dishonest presidential candidate. I think its best that curbs be made on softmoney because as long as it is allowed, political parties and candidates will continueto concentrate on the concerns of big money contributors rather than on issues thatconcern the general public.**
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Instructions:after reading your “role sheet,” groups must meet for a minimum of 30 minutes to discuss their strategy. After meeting, students must individually complete the below planning document that will be used in the head to head negotiation. Modifications to this document are ok as long as they help you become more prepared for the negotiation!
Assigned role in the negotiation:
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