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Elasticity of Demand Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Price Elasticity of Demand Cross elasticity of Demand Income Elasticity of Demand Effects of Substitutes on Elasticity Proportion of income Devoted to Goods and Elasticity Customer’s Reaction to Huge Increases in Price Elasticity and Total Revenue References Introduction People purchase goods and services according to their abilities and needs. Given the scarcity of resources, consumers are usually compelled to make choices not only on the type of commodities to buy, but also on the quantity of the commodities to purchase. The general law of demand states that consumers are likely to reduce their quantities of consumption in case prices increase. Nevertheless, the law is not specific in explaining whether quantity demanded will be reduced by a higher or a lower margin in response to increase in price. Moreover, there are other factors that affect demand besides price. This problem is solved by the concept of elasticity of demand. Elasticity of demand informs people on the direction of change in demand resulting from not only a change in other factors, but also the magnitude of the change. Price Elasticity of Demand Sensitivity of demand to changes in price varies from one commodity to another and it is measured by price elasticity of demand. In this regard, price elasticity of demand is defined as the percentage change in demand for a given commodity due to unit change in price of the commodity (Taylor, 2006). Demand of most goods decreases when prices increase because they become relatively expensive. However, for goods which people buy because they belong to a certain class, increase in prices usually leads to increase in demand. Demand of a given commodity can either be inelastic, elastic or unitary elastic as far as price elasticity of demand is concerned. Inelastic demand is when a huge change in price causes small changes in demand. This type of demand is usually exhibited by those commodities that consumers cannot do without, for example food. In case of increase in price of these commodities, consumers reduce consumption of other unnecessary commodities to sustain consumption of necessities. On the other hand, elastic demand refers to a situation where demand of a commodity changes by a larger percentage than the percentage change in price (Mankiw, 2011). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Commodities that people can do without exhibit elastic demand because people will reduce quantities purchased or even stop buying the commodity immediately the price increases. Lastly, the demand can be unitary elastic. This means that percentage change in demand is equal to percentage change in price. Cross elasticity of Demand Demand of one commodity is usually dependent on the price of other commodities. In this regard, if price of one commodity rises, quantity demanded of another commodity can increase or decrease depending on whether the commodities in question are substitutes or complements. Cross elasticity of demand is the measure of how dependent demand of a given commodity is on price of another commodity. Cross elasticity of demand can either be positive or negative depending on whether the goods are substitutes or compliments (Mankiw, 2011). Complimentary goods must be used together thus decrease in price of one commodity automatically affects demand of the other commodity. Cross elasticity of demand of these commodities is negative. This is because when price of one commodity increases, it leads to a decrease in the quantity demanded of the commodity thus decreasing the quantity demanded of the complementary commodity. On the other hand, cross elasticity of demand for substitutes is usually greater than zero. An example of substitute commodities is tea and coffee. If the price of tea increases, people will reduce the quantity of tea they take and instead increase the quantity of coffee they consume (Landsburg, 2010). Nevertheless, whether the magnitude of the elasticity will be more than or less than one depends on whether the commodities are perfect substitutes or not. Income Elasticity of Demand Consumers can only purchase the quantities that their disposable income can afford. As a result, income levels are highly influential when dealing with changes in demand for any given commodity. Income elasticity of demand refers to the percentage change in quantity demanded of a commodity arising from change in income levels of people, assuming that other factors are held constant. We will write a custom Essay on Elasticity of Demand specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the same note, it is important to note that different groups of commodities respond differently to changes in income. In this regard, taking into consideration whether a given commodity is an inferior or a normal good, income elasticity of demand can either be positive or negative (Taylor, 2006). As far as inferior goods are concerned, demand decreases as income increases. This is so because people buy luxurious commodities according to their economic and social status. Therefore, people usually change their demand of luxurious commodities as often as their income changes. Moreover, there are very many substitutes to inferior goods that a consumer may take in case of any change. On the other hand, demand of normal goods increase with the increase in the levels of income. In addition, people really do not have much of a choice on whether they will consume normal goods or not. Consequently, income elasticity of demand is positive for normal goods. However, for normal goods which are necessities, the income elasticity of demand is positive but less than one (Landsburg, 2010). Effects of Substitutes on Elasticity Consumers have perfect information concerning the products they want to consume. Moreover, consumers take into consideration all the available opportunities before making any decision. Furthermore, if a commodity becomes more costly either due to increase in price or decrease in income, consumers will compare what they will spend on substitute commodities and choose a cheaper option (Taylor, 2006). Let us take an example of coffee and tea. These two commodities serve exactly the same purpose all other factors held constant. If the price of coffee increases making it more expensive compared to tea, consumers will reduce their consumption of coffee. Assuming consumers had no other commodity to use in place of coffee; they would slightly reduce the quantity of coffee consumed but still adjust their budgets to accommodate the changes. However, since they can still take tea without being affected in any way, consumers will quickly replace coffee with tea in their budgets thus highly reducing the quantity of coffee demanded. Consequently, since substitutes increase the options that consumers have when price and/or income changes, they increase elasticity of demand. Proportion of income Devoted to Goods and Elasticity It should be noted that elasticity of demand is also dependent on the proportion of income that people spend on a given commodity. Demand of goods which consume higher percentages of income is usually elastic (Mankiw, 2011). Demand of salt will be less elastic compared to that of computers for any typical consumer given that salt consumes a very low proportion of the budget. Not sure if you can write a paper on Elasticity of Demand by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Assume the income of a consumer is $1000 per month and the price of sugar is $3 per kilogram while that of a refrigerator is $300. Assume also that prices of both commodities increase by 25%. The new price of sugar will be $3.75 per kilogram while that of refrigerator will become $375. It can be seen that price of refrigerator increases significantly by $75 compared to that of sugar which increases by only $0.75. In this regard, equal percentage increase in price of two commodities causes different effects on the budget depending on the proportion of income spent on the commodity. Consequently, demand of refrigerator will be more elastic compared to that of sugar. Customer’s Reaction to Huge Increases in Price As a rule of thumb, consumers will always react to increases in price by reducing their demand. However, in the short run people do not have very many options. Some are very busy and cannot get time to go around and see if there are other substitutes. Therefore, there are some other people who will be compelled not to alter their demand in the short run despite increases in price. However, in the long run, people will have had enough time to look for substitutes and also adjust their budgets. As a result, demand will reduce further. Therefore, demand is highly elastic in the long run compared to the short run (Taylor, 2006). Elasticity and Total Revenue From the graph, demand is elastic when prices are between 50 and 80. Here, an increase in prices will cause more than proportionate decrease in quantity demanded thus causing reduction in total revenue. When the price is between 40 and 50 units, the elasticity of demand is equal to one. As a result, percentage change in price causes equal but opposite percentage change in quantity of goods demanded. Consequently, increase in price will leave total revenue unchanged. On the other hand, when price ranges between 0 and 40 units, a demand is inelastic. In this scenario, any increase in price causes less than proportionate decrease in quantity demanded leading to increased total revenue (Landsburg, 2010). References Landsburg, S. (2010). Price Theory
Social translucence refers to designing communication systems to enable particip.

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Social translucence refers to designing communication systems to enable particip

Narrative research on vicarious trauma Essay

Introduction Narrative research possesses various forms, and it is founded on various disciplines of both social and humanity. In qualitative research, the term narrative is attributed to any text used in inquiry mode, with a particular focus based on narratives told by people. According to Pinneger and Daynes (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006), narrative can be described as both a phenomenon and procedure of study. As a procedure, narrative is composed of events that occurred in life situation of people. Understanding and analyzing of told stories have been introduced by different writers. In qualitative design, the narrative is comprehended as a spoken account detailing experiences that are connected in sequence. The method used in undertaking this research is based on attaining data from the stories told by one or two people. The data collected is later to be defined. The various fields used for study have incorporated their own ways of undertaking the research even though the narrative research base its origins from sociology, education, history and anthropology. Interdisciplinary efforts are a crucial factor in narrative research and should be encouraged according to Josselson and Riessman (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006, p. 1). Narrative studies therefore contain a particular contextual focus that may involve either teacher or children in classroom. In addition to this, narrative may incorporate the stories told regarding organizations only that this time they may be guarded in a theoretical lens view (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006, p. 3). Types of narrative studies Narrative analysis Analytic strategies imply one of the ways used to differentiate the various types of narrative researches. According to Polkinghorne (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006), analytic strategies are used to define the various themes that sustain stories. In narrative analysis, researchers take note of the happenings and events, and summarize them into a plot. Chase approach to narrative research was almost similar to that of Polkinghorne, as it suggested that by paradigmatic reasoning researchers could undertake a narrative study thereby developing an interpretation of the interactive performances (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006, p. 2). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Biographical study This is a type of narrative where the researcher not only writes, but also records life’s experiences of another person. The traditional inquiry nature of biographical study involves an individual telling the researcher his life experiences, while the role of the investigator is to translate the story into text. According to Scruggs and Mastropieri (2006), biographical study is suggested to be an axis for personal change. The various types of biographical studies include life history, oral history, individual biographies, and autobiographies. While undertaking this type of study, the researcher involved has to explore the available written documents and records of the subject of interest and elaborate the person in terms of the different stages involved in life. The written documents of another individual are normally brought to life in the investigator’s narrative. In addition to this, the investigator possesses the ability to indicate the already existing relationship between him and the main character (Scruggs and Mastropieri, 2006, p. 5). Autobiography Autobiography involves both the writing and recording of the experiences and events involved in the life of the subject study, which also plays the role of the writer. Here, the writer brings life to his or her own life experience by writing it down. Oral history In oral history, a set of activities is undertaken. Some of these activities involves gathering of personal experiences that range from one person to many people. The effects and causes of these experiences are also gathered for analysis. Procedures for conducting a narrative research The methods used in undertaking a narrative research are not guided by a lock up stop approach; but contrary to this, it undertakes an informal summation of topics. The procedures involved are mainly guided by the procedural guide that was used as an approach by Clandinin and Connelly. We will write a custom Essay on Narrative research on vicarious trauma specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Primarily, the researcher has to decide whether the research question is best suited for the narrative research about to be undertaken. In case the researcher intends to capture detailed life experiences, the narrative research is the best way forward especially if the research touches on individual life or collective lives of people. The researcher then has to choose one or more persons that possess stories or experiences involved in life. On attaining the subject person, the researcher has to spend considerable amount of time with them, acquiring their life stories using multiple kinds of information. These stories have been referred to as field texts by Clandinin and Connelly. The stories collected from the participants may be recorded in a diary or journal form. On the other hand, the researcher may alternatively use the observation method of observing the individuals and recording the field notes acquired. In addition to this, the researchers may also use letters sent by the subject individuals, acquire information from the subject’s individual family members, obtain memos pertaining to the subject individual, or acquire photographs and the individual’s family artifacts. These resources will guide the researcher in developing a solid record of the individual’s life experiences. Thirdly, the context information of these stories must be collected. Individual stories, for instance, are situated within the subject individual’s personal experiences that include homes or work place, one’s culture, and historical background. On attaining this, the next step is to analyze the stories acquired from the participants, and restructure them within a framework that makes sense. The process of reorganizing the stories acquired is called restoring. The frameworks under which these stories are organized into consist of gathering stories, analyzing key elements and restructuring the stories in chronological sequence whereby, casual links are provided among the many ideas. One of the main attributes of chronology is that the stories have the three sections that include a beginning, middle and lastly an end. Apart from this, a chronology may involve ideas from past, present, and future. Crucial elements like time, scene, and place are also included in the story line. Qualitative data analysis may be described as both the themes and story that emerge from the plot. Finally, the researcher has to collaborate with the participants by letting them play an active role in the research. In the process of collecting stories, the researchers not only establish relationships but also offer smooth transitions between them and the participants. In this process, there is a negotiation on the definition of stories thereby validating the analysis. Not sure if you can write a paper on Narrative research on vicarious trauma by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The story may contain epiphanies within its context, which indicates the various turning points of the story line. In summary, the story indicates unfolding events of the individuals in a chronology based on experiences. According to Clandinin and Connolly, Narrative inquiry is described as the stories that occurred and told (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006, p. 5) Limitations Narrative research has been a challenging method to use due to characteristics and procedures attributed to it. Thorough and extensive information regarding the participant needs to be acquired first in order to have a satisfactory understanding of the subject participant. In addition, maximum concentration is needed in order to acquire and identify the various sources materials attributed to the stories that capture the experiences of the participants. According to Edel (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006), it is important to reveal the entire context of the multilayered life. The participants stories need to be discussed extensively thereby emphasizing active collaboration between the researcher and the participant. In this active participation, political background and personal reflection are some of the attributes needed to restory the account. In the process of collecting, telling the participant stories, and analyzing of the same stories, a number of issues are bound to occur. According to Pinnegar and Dayner (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006), the owner of the story, who is responsible of telling the story, is at liberty to change it and the effects of the stories within the community we live (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006, p. 5). Narrative research on vicarious trauma Essay In the introductory segment on vicarious trauma, the researcher defines the present day situation of effects of trauma. In the process of introducing the subject at hand, the researcher also defines the various types of trauma according to their category. In the modern world, not only is one faced with the high chances of attaining direct trauma, but also the other categories of trauma that include historical, secondary trauma and intergenerational trauma. The mentioning of the various types of trauma introduces the topic to be researched on and provides the researcher with boundaries where the focus studies focus will be based. The narrator introduces the effects of trauma by indicating that people with traumatic experiences are seeking solutions in therapies, family members, drugs, and alcohol. Family members and medical professions are introduced as the second set of participants. The place of research is also introduced in the introductory segment of the narrative research. Small northern communities are defined to process limited options of solution to the traumatic experience. The North according to Berman has also the feature of geographical isolation that is also referred to as tyranny of space by social geographers. The introduction will also incorporate experiences obtained from a nurse working in the North. It is from this experience that the researcher can base his or her story from. Apart from the nurse working in the North, the researcher introduces Neely-Price a participant whose 30 years experience in the North will proof to be of great need when bringing life to the experience in the North (O’Neill, 2008, p. 1). Significance of the research topic In the significance of the topic, the writer uses geographical locations and people to establish a relationship that will signify the selection of the research topic. The geographical locations identified in the narrative research are located in the northern British Columbia and the participants are the Yukon communities and their specialists. The researcher establishes the relationship between the participants and the geographical location by indicating the long distance as the key hindrance, preventing people from accessing help on trauma issues. In addition to this, the writer brings life to the experiences of the people living in Northern British Columbia by indicating other factor that hinder them from accessing specialists. These other factors include cultural and economic factors. The narrator goes on to indicate the various trauma experiences that are experienced by the participants. For instance, people living in the first nation are the subjects that undergo the various kinds of trauma experiences that include historical trauma. Oral history type of narration research will be best suited for in identifying and recording of the various experiences put forward by the participants. Maximum concentration that is required in narration research is of great importance especially when differentiating the direct and indirect psychological effect left behind by the generation ahead. Oral history type of narrative research is also crucial in identifying the different experiences of intergenerational trauma in the non-First Nation families and First Nation families. In using the oral history narration research, the narrator will be identifying the particular context of trauma that not only affects the First Nation people, but also the non-First Nation people. In order to accomplish this, the narrator will have to undertake gathering of personal information from the various people living in the two nations. In understanding the level of knowledge possessed by the specialist, the writer has no option but to investigate through asking question and recording the input data received (O’Neill, 2008, p. 2). In indicating the significance of the topic, the narrator has expounded on the limited knowledge that is possessed by the practicing practitioners. The writer describes the situation as critical as helping practitioners from outside are hired for the sole reason of providing service to the community. A relationship is said to develop between the helping practitioners and the trauma patients that results to secondary traumatic symptoms to the practitioners. The secondary traumatic symptoms are caused by repeated exposure of the practioners to the clients (O’Neill, 2008, p. 3). In the research while defining historical trauma, the narrator uses biographical type of research. The narrator describes the experiences of a particular person (Marie yellow) and records them down. According to the narrator, it is through the concept of historical trauma that Marie yellow was able to develop her seminal work. Historical trauma is hence described as traumatic events legacy (O’Neill, 2008, p. 34). Impetus for research In the narrative research, the narrator has to identify the place of research study and the subject participants who will provide the necessary experience to undertake the research. In the Impetus for research, the narrator has indicated that northern helping practioners were the subject participants as they were to be used in acquiring data. The writer has also used autobiography type of narrative research to clearly explain her own experience, having lived and worked in the North as a helping practitioner. In the autobiography type of narrative research, the narrator who is still the subject participant normally writes his or her own experiences down. In recording the experiences, life is brought forth from the writings. In the vicarious trauma research, the researcher questions herself whether the experience acquired from the clients will be equally in order to be termed as vicarious trauma (O’Neill, 2008, p. 4). In identifying the trauma issue affecting the workers in the First Nation community, the narrator will be undertaking the procedural path of narrative studies where one has to choose if the topic to be researched on is appropriate. The narrator has to find one or more people whose experience would be used to write down the data achieved from the research. In the vicarious trauma research the narrators indicates the northern helping practitioners’ experiences were used to establish the link between historical trauma and vicarious trauma. Preventing vicarious traumatization of mental health Narrative study was used to acquire experiences from six therapists that had to respond to a given question. Incorporation of typology analysis is also crucial in analyzing of data. In this case, the formation of the question or the identification of the question helps to establish and focus on the subject at hand thereby avoiding time and resource wastage on other unnecessary activities. Identification of the therapists to be questioned indicates the specific area of interest the narrator has zeroed in as part of potential source for extraction of experience. The risks posed by traumatized people to the practitioners attending to them is also elaborated and described clearly in every aspect. According to the narrator, it is the practitioners’ responsibility to bear the burden of listening to the horrific events unfolding in lives of traumatized individual. The narrator goes on to mention the aftermath effects affecting the practioners that include emotional and physical symptoms similar to those of their clients (Harrison and Westwood, 2009, p. 203) According to French, Reynolds and Swain (2001), narrative methods have gained popularity over the past decades. Narratives methods of research have been incorporated in various disciplines, which include social work and psychotherapy. In narrative researches, it is upon the researcher to be an attentive listener and the participant a storyteller instead of a respondent. In using the narrative method of research, the agenda will be particularly to entice development and bring about change based on the narrator’s experiences. In using the various approaches of narrative research a common perception will be establish that indicate that the life we live is based on stories that shape and our identity. In the research topic, vicarious trauma the experience attained is based on information attained from the therapists and the subject participants, this means that narrative is used as unit of an individual’s life due to its articulation and experienced. The experience of a person’s life is dependent on his or her character in the narrative thereby one can give an account of his or her experience (French, Reynolds and Swain, 2001, p. 220). Conclusion It is through narratives that isolated and oppressed people can attain the voice to challenge opposing stereo types and advance their strength. In the research the voices of the traumatized and isolated Yukon communities are voiced as the research indicates the trauma they undergo and the difficulties they face while trying to seek an audience with the practitioners. In using of narrative research, the respondents dictate the order of experience flow to elaborate the events and actions unfolding in their lives. In understanding the research framework of narrative research, positivist researchers will not only be interested in the accuracy and truth status of the participant’s story but also the facts related to the story. In researching the vicarious trauma using the narrative research approach the narrator will be putting in practice a life story in order to make sense of the experiences, events and actions unfolding in the lives of human beings (French, Reynolds and Swain, 2001, p. 220). References Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry. (2006). Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry. (Attachments). French, S., Reynolds, F. and Swain, J. (2001). Practical research: a guide for therapists. MA: Reed Educational and Professional Publishing. Harrison, R. L. and Westwood, M. J., (2009). Preventing Vicarious Traumatization of Mental Health Therapists: Identifying Protective Practices. Washington DC. American Psychological association. (Attachments). O’Neill, L. K. (2008). The Experience of Northern Helping Practitioners. University of Victoria. (Attached material). Scruggs, T. E. and Mastropieri, M. A. (2006). Applications of Research Methodology. CA: Elsevier Ltd.

Worlds Apart Video Analysis

i need help writing an essay Worlds Apart Video Analysis. I don’t know how to handle this Health & Medical question and need guidance.

1. What was your overall reaction to watching the four unique stories shown in Worlds Apart?
2. In the first video, an issue addressed to religious beliefs, spirituality and negotiations. How might Mr. Kochi’s perspective on spirituality and health affect his decisions about chemotherapy? Do you think Dr. Fisher could have modified his approach if he understood this potential conflict? Elaborate on your thoughts.
3. In video 2, an issue addressed was family decision making and the use of authority figures. Elaborate on how decision making was made in this family versus how it is made in most American families. What roles did Justine’s grandmother and mother play?
4. In video 3 one of the issues addressed was stereotyping and clinical decision-making. Elaborate on the stereotype Robert referred to and how it might affect a physician’s medical decision to refer a patient for a transplant.
5. Video 4 addressed utilizing home remedies for complementary/alternative therapies. Why would it be important for a physician to know about their patient’s use of these remedies. How might these remedies impact the treatment being received?

Worlds Apart Video Analysis

lib107 project 1, English homework help

lib107 project 1, English homework help.

Select two broad subject areas (for example: the economy, health, or literature). Select two sub-topics for both of your broad subject areas (for example The Great Depression and unemployment for the economy OR lung cancer and obesity for health). You will be turning in four sub-topics for this assignment. To develop these four sub-topics: Consult a general encyclopedia and a specialized encyclopedia for your research (this week’s Learning Materials covers the difference between the two). Do not look for books or articles at this point. Just use encyclopedias. You must have at least two encyclopedias for each of your four sub-topics, and only one can be a general encyclopedia. You can use the same general encyclopedia for all four sub-topics. Write the following as a word processing document for each sub-topic: Your broad subject area.Your sub-topic.A description of the sub-topic (no more than a paragraph).Which encyclopedias you used?Create a search vocabulary of that sub-topic. A search vocabulary is a list of terms and phrases appropriate to your sub-topic that would be useful for searching databases and catalogs.Pay attention to the terminology used in the encyclopedias to develop your search vocabulary.You must have at least five but no more than ten terms or phrases for your sub- topic. Remember that you must submit the above for each of your four sub-topics. I have chosen these topics to write about. Please complete the assignment using these topics. My two broad topics are health and crime. My two subtopics for health are: obesity and heartattack My two subtopics for crime are: animal cruelty and legal punishment for animal abuse Broad Subject Area: Health Description of Subtopic #1: Obesity (Write a paragraph about this) Subtopic #2: Hearth attack (Write a paragraph about this) Which Encyclopedia you used? Create Search Vocabulary Term: 5 words minimum
lib107 project 1, English homework help

Politics Essays – Advertisements Campaigns Voters

Politics Essays – Advertisements Campaigns Voters. Advertisements Campaigns Voters Political Advertisements reflecting Political Orientations This paper tries to argue, and somehow support, that political advertisements during electoral campaigns reflect the political orientation of the voters. The Philippines is known for its festive mood all year round – done through fiestas and other celebrations showcasing the very Filipino among us. To bring this to home is to mention our annual celebration of the Sinulog. The Sinulog 2007 Magazine presents the colorful celebration of the whole country in honor of the child Jesus – Senor Sto. Nino. This celebration along with the other celebrations all over the country signifies the dynamics of our culture – and this had been passed from one generation to another. Making the young ones realize and appreciate its value and importance. But festivals are not the only colorful features of the Philippines, we are likewise known to have very festive conduct of elections. Yes, elections in the Philippines resemble the celebration of fiestas. In the very recently concluded May 14, 2007 Congressional and local elections the whole country have witnessed how politicians have used almost all forms of campaigning just to be properly known and eventually be voted by the electorates. In fact, as a result of campaign many of the politicians’ tarpaulin were left scattered prompting a businesswoman to convert them into bags, which were distributed to the fire victims somewhere in Metro Manila. The reason for this was the huge volume of tarpaulin spent for by the candidates all for their desire to vote. To add, flyers and sample ballots were voluminously reproduced for the same purpose. However, for those who have a broader financial base they took advantage of the mass media in airing (broadcast and print) their political advertisements. The patronage of politicians to the use of media is itself a statement of the wide reach of the latter as well as the extent of its possible impact on the decisions of the electorates. Most studies about the media try to look into how it operates in the “democratic” Philippines or how it influences the behavior of people, especially during elections. However, it is likewise interesting to explore what is reflected by the media as the society’s character, behavior and culture. Hence, this essay describes the electorates’ political orientation that is projected or reflected in the political advertisements of politicians. However, it is bounded by the following delimitations: only the political advertisements of the Mayoral and Vice-Mayoral candidates of Cebu City are considered, this is for purposes of a more focused analysis. Furthermore, I made use of only print ads from newspapers, this is due to limited access to television advertisements. These delimitations may in the end limit as well the conclusion of this essay, however this can also serve as an initial study for a broader consideration by other scholars. Culture, Politics and Media From the sociological point of view, Giddens (2002) defined culture broadly to be the way of life of the members of society or groups within a society. It is that “something” that unites a society together and that which stitches the relations of people and social structures. However, culture is by nature not easily definable due to the fact that it’s merely manifested, such as its tangible and intangible aspects. Many theorists have imparted their own share of conceptualization about culture. Worth mentioning in this essay are the contributions of Jules Henry (1980). Jules Henry postulated the anthropological idea that culture is preserved and perpetuated, and it is necessarily reproduced through the process of interaction among people in society. From here it can be deduced that culture is by its very nature – transmissible therefore learned. Hence, the culture of a society is passed on to the next generations in a dynamic fashion of learning. The example highlighted by Henry is the cultural dreams turned nightmare of the Americans because of the highly consumeristic culture projected by the media. Jules Henry is decisive in prescribing the idea that the media is constructing a culture that is not reflective of the real needs of the public. From this contribution of Henry we can understand that the process of transmitting culture can be facilitated by a number of ways and means or agents. Socialization is a primary channel for the transmission of culture over time and generation. There had been a continued discourse on culture and many scholars were engaged in more cultural studies during the heights of the behavioral revolution and the participation explosion after World War II. The behavioral revolution did not exclusively affect the cultures of the world but also the functioning of polities. If in the past the study of politics was focused on the state, being the only institution which can authoritatively allocate the values to the society (Easton, 1953: 146) – the behavioral revolution had inspired other political scientists to engage in scholarships involving politics and culture. Among them were Gabriel Almond and Sidney Verba in their breakthrough study published in 1963. They studied about the Civic Culture of five countries by looking into the political attitudes as well as the practice of democracy in said five nations. In the study of political culture, culture must be understood as an individual’s psychological orientation toward social objects (Almond and Verba, 1963: 14). Almond further emphasized that political culture refers to the political system as internalized in the cognitions, feelings and evaluations of its population. From here, the specificity of culture as applied in understanding politics is clarified. Hence, political culture refers to the specifically political orientations – attitudes toward the political system and its various parts, and attitudes towards the role of the self in the system (Almond and Verba, 963: 13). Verba also contributed his definition of political culture to consist of the system of empirical beliefs, expressive symbols, and values which defines the situation in which political action takes place (1965:513). The polity’s political culture is only one aspect of politics at the same time only an aspect of culture. From such definitions we can draw the different modes of political orientations referred to by Almond and Verba, which are considered of high relevance because these help us understand how an individual may potentially react to political stimulus. They are: 1) cognitive orientation; 2) affective orientation; and 3) evaluative orientation. Cognitive orientation refers to the knowledge of and belief about the political system. Ranney added that this include the information that an individual has about political affairs (1995:65). Moreover, other scholars look into the person’s level of awareness as a way of knowing his/her cognitive orientation. Example of this is whether a person is aware of the list of local officials in their local government. Or it could be an inquiry into the various political issues s/he is aware of. From here the level of a person’s cognitive orientation is defined. Therefore, if the kind of information presented before the public is more knowledge-based we can infer that the presumption is that the public still need to be fed with pertinent information to be aware. Affective orientation refers to the feelings an individual may have about the political system, its roles, personnel and performance. This orientation includes how individuals feel for a political phenomenon. For instance, how the people feel about the cheating issues posed against the Arroyo administration last 2004 elections. The emotions or the mood developed on the individual constitute his/her affective orientation. Hence, if the information presented for the public appeals more to the recipient’s emotion, it be could under the presumption that people already know the information and have developed shared emotion with the messenger. Lastly, Evaluative orientation, this refers to the judgments and opinions formulated by individuals as a response to political objects which involves the combination of value standards and criteria with information and feelings. This is considered to be the most important type of political orientation because it determines the type of political culture of the polity. Furthermore, public opinions, to be useful, must be translated to public judgment and the latter must be manifested through public action. There is a need for an individual to translate one’s judgment to action in order to substantially affect how political objects function. Good examples for this were EDSA 1 and 2. The people’s knowledge and feelings about the abuses of Marcos’ dictatorship were eventually translated to a public judgment of discontent hence, making possible the flooding of people in EDSA as a manifestation of their feeling of discontent and disappointment, very similar to the EDSA 2 circumstances. Therefore, if an information ignites action it presupposes that the people are already aware and have similar affect to a particular issue and would just need to share such sentiment to the rest. These three will be the basis in analyzing the campaign advertisements of the candidates for mayor and vice-mayor in Cebu City. I will look into the kind of messages they have and from there try to understand the orientation they believe the voters have. Both references did not only provide definitions of socialization but went on to say that this processes proceeds from an individual’s early stage in life up to one’s old age. This only means that this is continuous and dynamic. They also added that since this process is continuous there are various agents which help transmit the necessary political orientations. These agents are but not limited to the: Family; School; Peer Groups; Church; Mass Media; Government; and International Community (Ranney, 1995: 61-65; Almond and Powell, 2004: 58).On the other hand, understanding political culture with the general concept of culture would mean that political culture is also transmissible, and is best facilitated through political socialization. Almond and Powell defined socialization to be the way in which political values are formed and the political culture is transmitted from one generation to the next (2004: 52). Austin Ranney also gave his conception of political socialization to be the developmental process from which people acquire their political orientations and patterns of behavior (1995: 58). Each of these agents has their respective ways of influencing an individual about the political. Among the most popular of these are family and mass media. In fact, most literature describing the political culture of Filipinos propound the idea that it is governed by familism, kinship ties and patron-client relations (Lande, 1965; McCoy, 1994; Sidel, 1999). On the other hand, the next most popularly regarded to influence an individual’s political orientation is the mass media. In fact, scholars have concluded that the media really have social and political effects to the public. Furthermore, they contend that “every culture has means of preparing and conditioning its members to adopt expected social roles and activities and the mass media often times have an unrecognized role in this process.” Hence, the importance in looking into how the media influence or reflect the public is very much important. Most often the influences of these agents are best manifested every time an individual takes part in a democratic exercise – such as elections. The paragraphs to follow will be devoted into discussing the relevance of the media in politics as well as the evolution of the conduct of elections in the Philippines. Media In general terms, understanding the media inevitably requires understanding of communication – which, in its simplest context, is the act of sending ideas and attitudes from one person to another. Moreover, communication of people may either be intrapersonal, interpersonal, or through mass communication. Communicating within one person is intrapersonal communication. While, communicating with another person is interpersonal. Lastly, communication between a person or a group of persons to a larger audience through a transmitting device is mass communication. In mass communication there are important elements that need to be present: a) sender or the source who is responsible in putting in the message on the channel; b) channel, which is the medium that delivers the message to the receiver, an example of this would be the television, newspapers, magazine and the like; c) receiver, who is the intended (or unintended) audience of the message – the public; and d) the feedback from the receiver, this occurs when the receiver responds to the message sent by the sender. Mass communication is best characterized by: a) the message is sent out using some form of mass media (newspaper or television); b) the message is delivered rapidly; and c) the message reaches large groups of different kinds of people simultaneously or within a short period of time. The idea of mass media really brings as much information to as wide an audience as possible, this makes the transmission of information easier and corollary to this would mean a more precise message. There is more to mass media than merely transmitting messages. Other theorists propounded that “a person who takes a steady diet of mass media messages may be conditioned to believe that the world presented by the media is an accurate reflection of reality.” This is very much related to the concept of Jules Henry wherein the media, through its various advertisements, create a “cultural dream” for the public as evidence by growing consumerism among the people (1980). This brings me to the book of Dan Nimmo and James Combs Mediated Political Realities (1983). The book centers on the public having mediated realities. Walter Lippman said that “people act on the basis of pictures they carry around in their heads, pictures of the way they think things are” furthermore, he added “these pictures are derived from and changed by one’s direct experiences as well as those which they don’t deal directly.” This only means that not all realities are experienced firsthand, rather, our realities are complemented by things we are made to believe to be realities – this is facilitated by a medium which is the mass media. Hence, it becomes a valid inquiry of whether the realities we see reflected by the media are in fact real. The authors went on to postulate that “each of us forges our own reality” which means that what we may consider reality may not be conceived similarly by others. In addition, a situation may mean various realities to various people hence, there cannot be a universal reality because they are all mediated. The concept of mediated realities is brought by the influx of other means of communications, which is mass communications – sometimes complementing and in competition with other means or agents (Nimmo and Combs, 1983: 5). The authors went on to say that “social reality is constituted, recognized, and celebrated with media.” Meaning that the media indeed has a huge role to play in the process of making and unmaking realities. This pushes us to another level of looking into realities, whether they are truly real or otherwise. From here, a caveat is better put in place, that what we see and experience through the media may simply be a construction we are made to believe or could be a reflection of what is truly real. The second postulation is taken adeptly by this essay for a number of reasons: a) the context of this essay is in the Philippines wherein a number of legislations are in place to govern the media; and b) such regulations highlight the importance of responsibly delivering the news to the public. Media in the Philippines As initially stated above, studies about media are often centered on its role/s in a society. For example, the role of the media during the time of Marcos – it was noted that the media during the Martial Law years were either under the payroll of some politicians or were frankly against the reign of Marcos. Furthermore, Sussman also mentioned that there were over twenty journalists documented to have been killed during the time of Marcos for expressing disagreeable opinion against local warlords. The struggle for press freedom was also strong but was forcefully countered by a number of Presidential Decrees issued by Marcos to curtail any free expression through the press. Marcos even ordered the closure of media companies which were directly countering the mandates of his government, one of them was ABS-CBN of the Lopezes. However, the tides took a different turn on the eve of EDSA 1, the airwaves were useful when Cardinal Sin through Radio Veritas urged the people to pray and defend democracy. The remaining media strength who looked into the political situation in the Philippines were the foreigners as they covered most of the fraudulent activities, especially during the conduct of previous elections. Moreover, the change of government from dictatorial to democratic also paved way for a freer mass media. To further ensure its free exercise, the same is guaranteed in Sec. 4, Art. III of the 1987 Constitution – Freedom of Speech and Expression and of the Press. The “press” specifically cover every sort of publications: newspapers, periodicals, magazines, books, handbills, leaflets, other written materials, television and radio broadcasting are also included. This only proves how much we regard, in terms of importance, the sector of the media in our country. Media and Philippine Elections The conduct of Philippine elections is likewise filled with a rich experience. The Documentary Eleksyong Pinoy is actually a very rich resource in terms of the evolution of our electoral exercise. To make it very comprehensive, the producers included personalities who have been actively engaged in the conduct of elections in the country such as former Commission on Elections (COMELEC) Commissioners Haydee Yorac, Christian Monsod; former National Citizens Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL) Chairperson Jose Conception; Philippine Center for Good Governance (PCGG) Chairperson; His Eminence Jaime Cardinal Sin (due to his role in EDSA 1); a UP History Professor and other significant personalities. In all the documentary showed how elections were so limited in the past. In fact, it presented that the elections during the later part of the Spanish colonial rule were exclusive only to those who have the stringent qualifications biased for the males, literacy, taxing capabilities, ownership of properties and others. Corollary, the chance to run for public office is also limited to those who have landholdings and were educated. But this limited access have been widened by the institutionalization of the democratic institutions by the American colonial rule as prepared by a number of US legislations. These organic acts essentially installed democratic ideals upon which people are given the chance to actively participate in the affairs of government, initially through elections. Proof to this was the right to vote granted to women in 1937 after a massive success reaped from a nationwide plebiscite on the matter. Philippine elections have long been open to the participation of the public, though there were interruptions as to how free it is during the Martial Law years. In fact, based on the well-researched documentary, elections during the time of Marcos were noted to be fraudulent ones due to massive cheating and anomalies. Elections according Mojares is a “collective rite of collective passage, with liminal phases, beginning with the preliminal period of ‘presubjectification’; the ‘limen’ of Election Day; and the postelection period of resubjectification during which results are validated, winners are proclaimed.” As for the progress of this essay, I will focus on the presubjectification period or the course of campaigns. It was noted that the way Filipinos conduct campaigns are actual replica of that of US. Luz Rimban, writing for the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism, stated that when US introduced elections in the Philippines it likewise included in the package its own style of campaigning, and this includes the use of mass media to somehow ‘manipulate public images’; the hiring of public relations and advertising professionals, and employing other sophisticated tools for campaign. The mass media had since then been useful in projecting the image of the Filipino politician – the newspaper, radio and television were proven useful. The mass media exposure includes presentation of news coverage of the affairs of politicians. However, the use of mass media was strengthened by the passage of Republic Act 9006 otherwise known as the Fair Elections Act in February 2001. Section 3 of this legislation provides that: Lawful Election Propaganda. – Election propaganda whether on television, cable television, radio, newspapers or any other medium is hereby allowed for all registered political parties, national, regional, sectoral parties or organizations participating under the party-list elections and for all bona fide candidates seeking national and local elective positions subject to the limitation on authorized expenses of candidates and political parties, observance of truth in advertising and to the supervision and regulation by the Commission on Elections (COMELEC). This opened the doors for a free use of the mass media as a means of launching a politician’s campaign. The most common among these mass media is the television. In fact, aside from the television and newspapers, other politicians made use of new technologies such as mobile phones and launching ‘text brigrades’, while others used the world wide web to introduce and sell themselves to the voters, especially the younger ones. In fact, for this May 14 elections, many political parties and candidates used Friendster as a means of inviting potential voters. Hence, the old type campaigning buttressed by the new legislation truly expanded the campaigns of running politicians. Included in the list, and the focus of my paper, are newspapers. They are as well tapped by politicians to place their advertisements in. Therefore, we can really say that the media has a huge role to play in Philippine elections. It is then a challenge to look deeper into these campaign ads and determine what particular political orientation are projected about the Filipino, in particular Cebuano, voters. How to look into this? I will look into the used and the face value of the print advertisement and from there analyze themes or connotations that would somehow clearly define the political orientation of the voters as reflected by it. To call this process content analysis or semiology would be an overstatement. Rather, this analytical framework is simply innovated. Campaign Ads: Cebu City Elections The candidates for Cebu City mayoral and vice-mayoral posts are Tomas Osmena VS. Mary Ann delos Santos and Michael Rama VS. Raymond Alvin Garcia, respectively. Both Tomas Osmena and Michael Rama are incumbent Mayor and Vice-Mayor of the City. Mary Ann delos Santos, on the other hand, was the Barangay Captain of Lahug, while Raymond Alvin Garcia is the son of former Cebu City Mayor Alvin Garcia. Each camp had been organizing their respective campaigns: the use of streamers, tarpaulin, leaflets, mobile ads and print advertisements were taken advantage. Hence, for the latter I decided to look into one of the leading local newspapers in the islands: Sun-Star Newspaper. I was able to scan the consecutive issues of Sun-Star Newspaper from April 1 up to May 12, 2007. Among the 42 issues the following were the breakdown: Politics Essays – Advertisements Campaigns Voters

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