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Eggshell Composition, Formation and Function

Eggshell Composition, Formation and Function. Egg Shell Composition and Structure Reptiles (Lepidophores and Testudines) A mineralized egg shell membrane evolved as a synapamorphy for reptilia (1). The mineral content and structure of eggshells vary among reptilian species. Egg shells of many reptiles consist of a fibrous shell membrane connected to the albumen, as well as a calcareous layer attached to the outer surface of the membrane. The inorganic content of the reptilian shell involves mainly the outer portion and is comprised of calcium carbonate in the form of calcite (5). Reptilian eggs can be separated into three separate groups based on the structure of their shells: flexible shells with no calcareous layer, flexible shells with a thick calcareous layer, and rigid shells with a well-developed calcareous layer. Egg shell structures can be examined and studied with the use of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The SEM analysis of eggshells is used to differentiate important taxonomic characters to determine relationships among taxa. Squamate reptiles mainly lay eggs with flexible shells. In fact, all squamate eggs are flexible except for two subfamilies of keggonid lizards (1). Some of these flexible shells, such as those of Diposaurus doralis, Anolis auratus, Anolus limiforns and Natrix natrix contain no calcareous layer, only a shell membrane. This fibrous membreane is organized into an irregular series of ridges and a finely woven mat of fibers on the outer surface. In other squamates, the outer surface of the flexible shell contains a relatively thin calcareous layer. This can be shown in the network of spheres found in the SEM pictures of Figure 3A and B (3). This type of shell is found in Anolis carolinensis and Callisaurus draconoides (3). Pogona barbata is a squamate with a unique egg shell structure; it is the only flexible shell squamate egg in which the calcite crystals form columns that penetrate into the fibrous layer. This type of egg shell is also typical for the lepidosaurian sphenodon punctuates, or Tuatara (5). A study done by Osborne and Thompson on the chemical composition and structure of the eggshell of three oviparous lizards analyzes the typical flexible eggshells of squamates including the scincid lizards Lamprophois guichenoti and Laprophois delicate, as well as anagamid Physignathus lesuerurri. This study used SEM to determine that the structure of the shells of L. guichenoti, L. delecata and P. lesueurii were very similar. Their shell structure consisted of an outer calcareous layer, a fibrous shell membrane and an inner boundary layer. The calcareous layer appeared uneven at low magnification, but showed a surface consisting of protruding calcareous segments which touch to form a smooth appearance at higher magnifications. Also visible were pore like structures and fibers that were laid down in layers with alternating direction. Osborne and Thompson’s study also did an x-ray analysis using an Energy Dispersive Analysis by X-ray (EDAX) to determine the distribution of ions within the eggshell. This study showed that most of the inorganic content of the shell, including magnesium, sodium and potassium occurred in the calcareous layer. Some turtles also have flexible shelled eggs. These eggs are made of a defined calcareous layer that is as thick as the shell membrane. This calcareous layer is variable however. For example, the eggs of sea turtles have a poorly ordered, open matrix calcareous layer with undefined shell components and pores. In the flexible shelled eggs of Emydids and chelydrids, however, the calcareous layer is highly structured with well defined shell componants and pores (3). Rigid-shelled eggs (laid by crocodilian, some chelonians, dibamids and gekkonids) have a well developed calcareous layer that makes up most of the eggshell and a thin shell membrane. These eggshells are organized into shell units that fit together tightly and interlock. Turtles do not have only flexible eggs however; shell structure can be described as pliable, hard-expansible or brittle (1). Birds (Aves) Birds generate heavily mineralized, rigid egg shells (2). The shell of avian eggs consists of shell membranes along with an external layer of calcite crystals (A). Avian egg shells are composed of mostly inorganic materials with an organic matrix. The shell is made of two separate layers, the palisade and the cone layer, which make up the bulk of the shell. The palisade and the cone layer are comprised of calcite. The outer part of the palisade layer is formed from dense crystalline material. Magnesium and phosphate are minor constituents to the avian eggshell. Magnesium levels are thought to increase outwards from the inner shell toward the palisade layer and a relationship between the magnesium content and strength and hardness of the eggshell of the domestic hen has been found by a study completed by Board and Scott (c). Surrounding the true shell are shell accessory materials comprised of a distinct cover and cuticle made of organic and inorganic material. Pore canals are present connecting the cones and extend across the palisade layer to the external surface of the shell. The type of pore canals is a major variation in avian eggs. There are five types of pore systems found in avian eggshells: open, occluded, plugged, capped and reticulate. Most pores are non-branched; exceptions to this are mainly in thick shells such as those of swans, ratites, and ostriches. The simplest open pore systems can be found in the in the eggshells of pigeons and doves. Occluded pore systems have accessory materials that form a skin on the outer surface of the shell but are considered to be a variant of the simple shell form. Plugged pore systems are found in Rhea Americana, Micropara capensi, and Cuculus canorus ©. The plugs themselves are made of variable materials. Capped pore systems have pores covered with accessory materials in the form of sphere like layers. Capped pore systems include the eggshells of Guira guira, Crotophagia ani, Podiceps cristatus and Numidia meleagris ©. The reticulate pore system includes a pore in which the outer part of the palisade layer is extensively modified. This type of pore system can be found in Casuarius casuarius, and Dromaius nouvaehollandiea. ( c). Mammals The eggs of currently living oviparous mammals are composed of soft, leathery, flexible shells. The monotreme egg shell is not mineralized and lacks a calcareous covering. The parchment- like egg shell is white in color, soft and compressible (9). Little studies have been done on the egg shell composition and structure and therefore will not be mentioned. Although it is known that reptiles ovulate all eggs at the same time, the process of shell formation in reptiles is not well studied. For example, a study of the prolonged egg retention in the turtle Deirochelys reticularia in South Carolina by Buhlmann, Lynch, Gibbons and Greene were not able to determine if eggshell formation begins sequentially on each egg or if formations begins only when all of the eggs are in the oviduct. (11) It is known that formation of the shell membrane and the calcareous layer happens in the uterus. In order to form the egg shell a supersaturated solution of ions needs to be present along with a site of nucleation which acts to overcome the free energy barrier of crystal growth. These nucleators differ depending on the egg type. Eggshell Composition, Formation and Function
GMC Wk 2 English Composition Emily Grierson from A Rose for Emily Analysis.

In this Critical Thinking exercise, you will analyze one of the main characters in either “The Life You Save May Be your Own“ or “A Rose for Emily.” In composing your post, address one or more of the following questions:What do you see as the central conflict for your chosen character? How is it resolved? How does the character change from the beginning of the story to the end?Is there a particular Literary Theory that you think would best help interpret the character? If so, mention and apply the theory in your analysis.
GMC Wk 2 English Composition Emily Grierson from A Rose for Emily Analysis

PJM 410 CSUGC W4 Portfolio Milestone Risk Management Plan Executive Summary.

Option #1: Executive Summary of a Risk Management Plan
The Project Management Institute (Project Management Institute, 2017) defines the Risk Management Plan as containing some or all of the following elements:

Risk strategy
Methodology
Roles and responsibilities
Funding
Timing
Risk categories

This is outlined in both A guide to the project management body of knowledge and the Practice standard for project risk management.
Instructions:
For the Portfolio Project that is due in Week 8, you will develop a complete Risk Management Plan and Risk Register for a project.
Select a project within your industry, or within an industry in which you would choose to work as a project manager. Submit an executive summary of your selection (high-level project charter) for a grade. You will also begin to outline a Risk Management Plan for this project and add to it each week. This will be submitted as part of your Portfolio Project in Module 8.
PJM 410 CSUGC W4 Portfolio Milestone Risk Management Plan Executive Summary

Please respond to the following discussion with a well thought out response with relating to at least one source (cite using APA). Post your main post within the week and two peer replies by midnight EST on Sunday. Research the Internet and locate an article(s) that discusses factors to project success or failure. Identify 2-3 factors and elaborate on them to your peers. Note don’t just copy and paste – synthesis into your own words. Based on what you learned from the week introduction, PMI journal article, and other research, how would you define the main purpose of monitoring and controlling a project? 

Analysing The Effects Of Forest Fires Environmental Sciences Essay

Problem Area, Facts and Figures. A forest is an area which consists of a high density of trees. It contribute a major part of the ecosystem which are dominated with trees and other woody vegetation all the living organism of forest such as (plants, trees , herbs ,fungi, mammals birds , insects, reptiles , amphibians and other microorganism ) interact with each other and with the non living part of the environment to make a forest Forest Geographical Area A recent survey by Global Forest Resource Assessment 2010 (FRA2010) was collected and analyzed from 233 countries and area of the world, the total area of the world’s forest cover in the year 2010 is estimated just over 4 billion hector which corresponds to 31 percent of the total land area, where the area of the forest is not uniformly distributed. The map of the World’s forests is illustrated in figure.1 which presented by Global Forest Resource Assessment 2010 (FRA 2010). Figure.1 The World’s Forest Global Forest Resource Assessment (FRA 2010) Forest Land Water The Russian Federation, Canada, Brazil, the United States of America and China are the five most forest rich countries. And they contribute of 53 percent of the total forest area, whereas 64 countries have no more than 10 percent of the forest land area. In figure 1.1 describe the pie chart of the regional distribution of forest level with respect to total area of the world’s forest. We observe that Europe including Russia contains 25 percent of the forest. Figure 1.1 Distribution of forests by region 2010 Global Forest Resource Assessment (FRA 2010) In addition 21 percent of the forest is covered by South America and 17 percent is existed in Africa and North and Central America. More specifically after study of Swedish forest statistics we have also find that Sweden is the second biggest country of the Europe after Russia in forestry and approximate 66 percent of the total land area is covered with forest. http://www.nordicforestry.org/facts/Sweden.asp#En http://www.fao.org/forestry/fra/62219/en/ Wildfire and Causes As from the above discussion we observe that forest is contributing in major part of the world. Forest fires are one of nature’s unpredictable natural disasters and have caused tremendous loss to the humans, the animals and the nature, forest fires also known as wildfire, a small spark or the sun’s heat in the forest can produces a destructive conflagration. Wildfire can quickly spread all over the forest in a second once a fire begins it can spread at a rate of 23 kilometer per hour, capturing everything in its path. Sometime on a peak hot day in forest a small spark from a wheel of a car or train’s wheels striking on a track can ignite a wildfire, these wildfire can also be occur naturally like when heat produces from the sun and temperature rises on a dried forest area or a strike from the lightening in the forest, Moreover temperature is the physical quantity of the material and if the temperature goes rises in the woods at approximate to 300 Celsius it will start produces hydrocarbon gases and mix with the oxygen in the air to initiate fire. As a result it is true that weather plays a vital role in the birth and growth of the wildfire and even makes it more difficult in controlling of fire. Wind in the wildfires has the biggest property to move the fire at high rate across the land and can easily change the direction of fire that can damage other human property in the forest. It also examine that most of the forest fire is due to the carelessness of human activity. Climatic change and human activities are the main cause of wildfire. Below are the common causes of wildfire: Human causes – One of the major causes of the wildfire is due to human carelessness which includes fireworks or playing with matches, throwing burned cigarettes, campfires, and improperly burning debris are the examples of human causes which result in wildfire. Lightning – Lightning is also another reason for wildfire which occur an average scale from three to five per year. Consequently lighting also brings rain in the forest, such wildfire do not cover large areas of the forest. The most recent fire is detected in United State of America and known as Wrangler wildfire, on Wednesday, October 13, 2010 in the Kistachie Hills Wilderness on the Kistachie National Forest. It is also determine that lighting are the main cause of Wrangler fire which covers 95 percent of the total area Farming – In farming for clearing the land area cutting and burring of woodlands are the common practices which results in catastrophic wildfire Volcanic Activity – Another distractive cause of the wildfire are the explosion of volcanoes that are located near the forest areas, Underground Coal – Sometime underground coal fires or mine fire are the causes of wildfires, this cause of fires continue to burn for several years and have direct effect on countries’ economic, social and ecological impacts. It also produces some kind of toxic fumes which eventually help in the destruction of human property and forest life http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wildfire#Human_involvement http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/natural-disasters/wildfire4.htm http://www.buzzle.com/articles/what-causes-wildfires.html http://www.inciweb.org/incident/2084/ Wildfire and Effects Forest fire occurs every year and burn a large cultivated area of the forest worldwide. This resulting loss and degradation of forest land and has a direct effect on human societies and forest ecosystem; it can destroy buildings, crops and plantations, loss of foods and shelters can ultimately results in loss of wildlife or in other word major assets of the land might be demolish in this natural disaster. In the year 2007 Greek forest fires produces a massive destruction in the summer seasons and spread out very quickly in the several areas of Greece and destroy farmland, olives groves and thousands of houses, and even a large numbers of firefighters also loss their lives in this incident .Greek Forest fire in August 2007 was consider as the worst wildfire recorded in past 50 years http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_forests/deforestation/forestdegradation/forestfires/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007_Greek_forest_fires Firefighter and Problems Firefighters or firemen are rescuers specialized in controlling of hazardous fires that intimidate civilian populations and their property, rescue peoples from different incidents such as road accidents , burning buildings and other crises response The goals of firefighters according to priority are own safety, saving victims’ lives, saving property, and also protecting the environment. Firefighter plays an essential role in tackling of wildfire, they faces many difficulties in extinguish the wildfire, for example as wildfire is commonly occurs in dense forest areas and therefore it become almost very hard to quickly reach near to affected area of the forest, and it is due to different obstacles in the path, Moreover It is also seen that most of the firefighter suffer with lungs problems due to the heavy smokes surround them during their job work. Wildfire A Global Problem Wildfires are the global problems around the world, apart from Middle East, Antarctica and desert regions, spend huge amounts of money annually to tackle wildfires. Each year around the world several wildfires occurs in different countries locations, below is the description of some wildfire take place from the year 2006 – 2010 and their causes and cost of damage in different countries of the world. It is also observe that at the current time wildfire in Sweden varies between few hundreds to thousands hectares in wet and dry years respectively and the number of wildfires occurrence ranges from 2100 to 3500 annually Year 2006 On 2006 March 31 Africa suffered a net loss of forest which was measured as the second highest forest lost in the world, it was due the cause of conversion the forest land in to agriculture land , and the net loss was determine in that period per year goes to more than 4 million hectares. In the year 2006 Bulgaria face a catastrophic period of wildfire, a randomly number of forest fire occurs in March, August and September, and it cause because of burning wastage vegetables and stubbles by the farmers , Moreover it was measured as 190 fires were the causes by human activities which leads to the economical damage of 270, 000 Euro. On October 29, 2006 The Esperanza Fire was started in a river wash near Cabazon, California, west of Palm Springs, California , Wildfire causes was arson and it cover 61 square miles (160 km-seq) and was 85 percent contained and gradually it reach to 100 percent which resulted in the death of firefighters , house , and buildings. The total damage from Esperanza fire was estimated as above US$9 million http://www.fao.org/newsroom/en/news/2006/1000261/index.html Year 2007 In California June 24, 2007 the Angora fire a wind driven fire was started due to the cause of illegal campfire and the fire was 100 percent contained and burned the area of 12.5 (km-seq) and destroyed 67 business structures, 242 residences and damaged 35 other homes which estimated the total fire cost up to US$11.7 million Year 2008 In April and May 2008 the Trigo wildfire was started in New Mexico, United States of America and burned 59 homes on the location and spread over 54 km-seq, Trigo wildfire badly affected the communities of Manzano , Torreon and Tajique, The direct loss of Trigo fire was $10 million which count for the destruction of 59 homes and 40 business structures where as $ 11 million was used in firefighting. In July 2008, Los Angeles Times reported that the month old Zaca wildfire had cost more than US$100 million and over US$2 million on just one of these days. Zaca fire was a major wildfire but it gives us an idea about the costs incurred by cities and nations around the world. Year 2009 In August 14 2009 Yuba fire was started in the U.S. state of California’s Central Valley , Yuba County is a part of the greater Sacramento area, which burn up the area of 6seq miter and damage cost was estimated as US$12.1 million including two residential area and power lines Also from August 26 – October 16 the Station Fire incident was detect in the Angeles National Forest near the U.S. Forest Service ranger station, The Station fire was counted as 10th largest wildfire in the history of California and the largest wildfire in Los Angeles that cost the approximate damage of US$ 93.8 million for fighting the fire including aviation cost, Year 2010 In August 15 2010 Bolivia destructive forest fires started which force the country’s government to announce a state emergency; it was the largest fire which covers the eastern part along the country’s border with Brazil. It was very hard to control the fire because low water bombing aircraft. As a result from the fire’s smoke many flights and airports were close temporarily. The cost of fighting B.C. forest fires in Canada during 2010 alone is close to CA$100 million, almost twice the budgeted costs

Miami Dade College Week 9 Tuberculosis Microbial Disease Lab Report

essay help online free Miami Dade College Week 9 Tuberculosis Microbial Disease Lab Report.

Week 9 Lab Signature Assignment: Microbial Disease ReportYour Lab Signature Assignment is an oral report on a microbial disease. Create a three- to five-minute video response that includes the following:Select a disease that affects humans or animals whose causative agent is a bacterium, virus, fungus, protozoa, or other microorganism.Create and deliver a presentation on your chosen disease in which you report on each of the following in detail:
Causative Agent: Describe and classify the microbe involved. If known, explain how the microbe causes/transmits the disease or interferes with normal body function. Also, describe the vector and/or life cycle for the microbe (if applicable).Population(s) affected: What population(s) is/are at highest risk of contracting the disease? Are there any groups of people who should be tested? Please include statistical/geographical data and trends (from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, or other source [http://www.cdc.gov, http://www.who.int, etc.]).Course of Disease: What are the usual signs/symptoms of someone with the disease? How is the disease diagnosed? What is the usual time course for recovery? Are there complications and/or long-term effects?Interventions: Describe possible treatments and/or medical interventions. Is there a vaccine available? How can the disease be best prevented or kept under control?Videos can be recorded using any software or tool, but all videos are required to be uploaded to My Panopto Videos for assignment submission.You can also use the Panopto Desktop Recording tool to create your video.Click here for detailed Panopto instructions.
Miami Dade College Week 9 Tuberculosis Microbial Disease Lab Report

Drugs, Alcohol, and Sexual Assault

Drugs, Alcohol, and Sexual Assault Chapter 9 in the textbook addresses the issue of sexual assault. Reported incidents of sexual assault on college campuses, including military academies, continue to rise. Reported incidents of “date rape” and gang rape at parties and other social gatherings are also increasing. Unlike the laws concerning stalking that were discussed in this week’s reading, laws about sexual assault are clear, direct, and unambiguous. Yet, many offenders (and witnesses to sexual violence) have stated they did not interpret their actions, or those of the actual perpetrator(s), as sexual assault. What type and degree of social influence may be impacting this reported lack of understanding and awareness of sexual assault as a crime? What steps would you recommend, or endorse if they are already in place, as necessary to address this situation? Include information from your review of a relevant scholarly journal.  Required Resource Text Bartol A.,

BUS362DiscussionsWeek 5 – Discussion 1

BUS362DiscussionsWeek 5 – Discussion 1.

OverviewLoosely based in principle on the movie, Brewster’s Millions starring Richard Pryor, this exercise is designed to push your thinking about what it means to grow your business. More specifically, we want you to think about your business in the largest scope possible so that you will be encouraged to push through mindset barriers to optimum success.What to Do (and How to Do It):Prior to beginning this exercise, review Chapter 16 in the text, and review the short video, Brewster’s Millions 1985 ‘Look at All That Money…’ (Links to an external site.) (Jet-One, 2014).Similar to the plot in the movie; you will be given an initial sum of money as dictated by the terms of the will of your recently departed Uncle Rich. The funds must be spent within a prescribed amount of time on ideas to grow your business.In this exercise, you are going to draw two pictures of the visions you have for your business; one at the beginning as a baseline reference and another at the end of the exercise.Using the business idea that you described in your Week 3 Interactive 2: My Business Canvas Model, complete the following steps:Draw a picture in any way you would like using Web Whiteboard (Links to an external site.) to describe what you envision your business will look like in five years if you follow your current business plan. You may include prompts such as the size of revenues, number of employees, scope and scale of the market, and so forth, as best describes your vision.According to the terms of Uncle Rich’s will, $50,000 has been donated to your business. You will not have to pay the money back providing you spend this money within the next six months on great ideas for growing your business. Make a list of the five most critical things you would do with this money to grow your business.Emboldened by the decisions you have made, the attorney has donated additional funds, this time in the form of a check for $500,000 with the same proviso that it must be spent within the next six months on really great ideas. Make a new list of the five most critical things, in addition to those on your first list that you would use this money for to grow your business even further.Thoroughly enchanted by your entrepreneurial decision making, the attorney has decided to authorize an additional $5 million with the usual stipulation that all of the money be spent within the next six months. So, make a third list, in addition to the previous two, of the five most critical things you would like to have to grow your business as much as possible.Taking into account the effects of the investments that have been made, draw a picture of the vision you now have of the business on a new page using the Web Whiteboard app.Compare the two visions of your business, and respond to the following questions:What were the key thoughts you had in drawing your original picture? What led you to this vision?What was different about the new vision as compared to the original? Explain.What was on the first list? The second? The third? Were there any themes or patterns that you noticed about the items on the lists that stand out to you?Post a summary of your analysis to the discussion forum for Interactivity 1: Uncle Rich’s Will, along with links to both of your Web Whiteboard drawings.Review and respond to the posts of at least two classmates by Day 7.For each response, provide a brief analysis of how effective you believe the additional resources would be for growing the business.What suggestions might you make to further optimize the growth of the business?FAQsI am not good at drawing using whiteboard tools. Do I have to use Web Whiteboard?No, you may create your drawings using any application, but you must provide links for both pictures in your discussion forum post.I Need Help! I Can Help!Do you have questions/issues with Web Whiteboard or this activity? Or maybe you have a helpful tip to share? Please post to our Week 5 Help Forum so others can benefit!Guided Response: Your initial post should be at least 200 words in length. Support your response with examples from required materials and/or other scholarly resources, and properly cite any references. Respond substantively to at least two of your classmates’ posts.
BUS362DiscussionsWeek 5 – Discussion 1

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