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Effects of Unit-Based Simulation on Nurses’ Identification of Deteriorating Patients

Research Analysis Nurses are the direct line of care for patients while being treated inpatient. The Effects of Unit-Based Simulation on Nurses’ Identification of Deteriorating Patients (Disher et al., 2014) is the quasi-experimental study that is being evaluated. This journal article is a pilot research study using a quasi-experimental design with an interventional pre-post method. Disher et al. recognized that nurses historically, and frequently failed to identify when patient conditions change. This study reviewed the effects of using a high fidelity simulation to identify nurses’ ability towards the identification of deteriorating patients. This approach was best used for this review due to the ability of the researchers to evaluate the test subjects thoroughly. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether high fidelity simulations assist nurses in recognizing when patients were experiencing an acute patient deterioration event. The problems statement for this study was that there is a lack of identification and action in a timely manner for patients that exhibit early warning signs before an acute patient deterioration event. The research questions in this article entailed the nurses’ knowledge of intervening and the nurses’ confidence level in intervening during an acute respiratory event on a cardiac step-down unit in a community hospital. This study tested the nurses’ knowledge and skill level, confidence, ability to communicate, and leadership during the pretest and posttest. The pretest would then be retested after the simulation exercise. Since the outcomes for the posttest of the simulation would indicate that the nurses’ gained knowledge that indicated that the independent variable was the use of unit based, high fidelity simulation scenario. Likewise, the dependent variables were the nurses’ knowledge and skills, confidence, communication, and leadership because these skills directly influence the outcome of the simulation. Previous research supported that using high fidelity simulations increased knowledge and confidence as well (Adamson, 2015). Review of Literature This study was supported by the use of fifty resources. These resources were ranged from between two thousand four through two thousand twelve. Likewise, these sources were supported through evidence in scholarly journals, and systematic reviews. This article included both theoretical research and empirical to provide evidence. Similarly, other researchers have since published articles in relation to Disher et al., which used the same high fidelity unit based simulations for research and found similar results, Smith, Chisholm, McGee
Mock Epic Versus Real Epic. Paper details ‘The Rape of the Lock” by Alexander Pope, literally means “the violent theft of a lock of hair” and is based on a real incident. This mock epic examines the relationship between men and women in high society of the eighteenth century. A mock epic is a comic narrative poem, written in dignified language that parodies the serious epic genre by treating a trivial subject in a lofty, grand manner. As you read, create and complete a chart that directly compares mock and heroic epic poems. If a counterpart to a convention of heroic epics is not immediately apparent in the mock epic, you can leaveit blank. Conventions of a Real Epic: Long narrative poem about a quest, Written in elevated language. Narrates a larger-than-life hero who embodies the values of a particular culture. Begins with a statement of subject and theme and sometimes a prayer to a ddeity(invocation). Uses conventions of storytelling, such as repetition, sound effects, figures of speech, and stock epiithets. Often inc;ludes gods and goddesses. Includes epic or Homeric similes. In medias res: begins in the middle of the action Now write for Conventions of a Mock Epic. Rape of the Lock.pdfMock Epic Versus Real Epic
Table of Contents Introduction Definition and descriptions Causes of climate change Examples of phenomena What scientists say and latest research suggest International agreements Conclusion Reference List Introduction The weather patterns have changed over time. Scientists have revealed that the earth is in danger and action must be taken quickly. This is due to the impacts of climate change. Climate change may have different causes where some may be natural while others are manmade (Lambeck, 2010, p. 2). This essay will define and describe climate change. It will give examples and then state what research and scientists say. It will also give the international agreements on climate change. Definition and descriptions According to the Climate Fact Sheet (2010, p. 1), climate change is long-standing variation in climate of an area or globe. The wind patterns, the temperature and the amount of rainfall are used to determine the changes in temperature. Moreover, variations in climate patterns are also climate change although the regular weather conditions are similar. The two periods must have a clear shift that is noticeable. Usually, the atmosphere changes in a way that the energy of the sun absorbed by the atmosphere as well as the surface is different from the previous time. The United Nations (1992, p. 3) defines climate change as alteration of the climate that has been triggered by human doings that interferes with the constituents of the atmosphere when combined with the natural changes while considering the two different periods. Causes of climate change Lambeck (2010) argues that the climate changes naturally. Historically, the sunlight intensity that gets to the earth varies hence it makes the earth to have cycles that are warm and others cool in a regular manner. The earth has been in a warm cycle for an extended period. Ocean currents are also believed to cause climate change. This is so because they can interfere with the warmth of the earth and rainfall. Volcanic eruptions are also causes of climate change. Volcanic eruptions that are very large can amplify the amount of particles in the atmosphere and block the sun. Another cause of climate change is the alterations in the atmosphere. The temperatures have been altered. The greenhouse gas may be challenging to support the plants and the animals as well as the human beings. The Climate Fact Sheet (2010, p. 1) notes that human beings are responsible for climate change. The earth’s surface has experienced changes and the ozone layer affected as a result of human beings activities. They have also led to the release of the greenhouse gases that contaminate the atmosphere. There is an increase of the greenhouse gases that have contributed to the warming of the atmosphere. These greenhouse gases bring imbalance in the atmosphere. Emissions by the motor vehicles, charcoal burning, production of electricity, industrial emissions and the fossils that are burnt pollute the atmosphere. Another cause is disposal of garbage. Rainfall water that directs the garbage to the sea contaminates the sea waters hence the marine life may die as a result. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Examples of phenomena The Middle East has been affected by climate changes. This is evident in the recent droughts that have been experienced. The region has also experienced floods in some coastal urban areas and affected farming practices in the countryside. The population in the Middle East is large and many habitats depend on the climate as many of them practice farming. Change in climate exposes many to unemployment and stagnation in economic development. Tourism and agriculture largely depend on the climate. When the sea levels rise ports may be abandoned and many people become landless. The region has water scarcity. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has also been affected by climate change. This region has seen rising sea levels along the coast. It has experienced irregular rainfall patterns and temperature changes. Sections of it are also dry land and require policies that will enable it tap and preserve its natural resources. Due to climate changes UAE may have inland migration. Moreover, the mangrove forest will be negatively affected. At the sea, the grass produced will be reduced as the coral reefs become bleached. Additionally, the fish in the sea might become degraded. In the inland, the range of biodiversity may become diminished as other ecosystems become displaced. The areas that are arid may become larger while the ecosystem in the forest and mountain become extinct as some of them are affected by high temperatures. What scientists say and latest research suggest In line with Lambeck (2010), the changes can be severe and affect a state’s economic, social and political trends. Climate change in rise of temperature will affect the wind patterns and consequently the amount of rainfall will be affected. Unpredictable weather will be very frequent as some of the weather events will be ruthless. The scientists also believe that reduction in the emission of green house gases will significantly lessen the adverse effects of climate change. They also note that failure to take action to save the world will lead to the worst. The earth’s sea levels may increase due to the melting of glaciers and the ice; hence the coastal regions will eventually become flooded. As a result, the ecosystem may be unable to survive in changing weather and some of them become extinct since they may not be able to survive. Scientist have not formed consensus on whether the effects of the climate change will get worse or will improve. Similarly predicting the changes in the rainfall patterns and other natural phenomena is challenging as the process is complicated and may require more investigations. We will write a custom Essay on Climate Change Definition and Description specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Scientists have all agreed that the climate is unpredictable. However, a consensus on how the climate change will differ in the future has not been reached. They have made it clear that the earth’s temperature has increased hence the name global warming. The scientists blame human being’s activities for the changes in the climate. Such activities have intern made the sea levels to rise and the ozone layer to be affected. Consequently, the earth is endangered. Due to climate change, the ozone layer has been affected. The ozone layer that protects the earth is very thin and care must be taken because the consequences of a destroyed ozone layer are very severe. The earth’s species are endangered. The marine life for instance may be overcome by the pollution on the water. Other findings reveal that the industrial revolution on the earth led to large amounts of greenhouse gases to be released in the atmosphere. Thus the imbalance is created by human beings. Fossil fuels make contributions to global warming (Lambeck, 2010). The changes in climate are responsible for the spread of the desert. Populations migrate to the forest and are involved in deforestation. Plants are yield is deteriorated since rainfall patterns change and the quantities have been reduced and in other cases there are floods. International agreements Regions that have been affected by climate change are countless hence the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change suggested measures that can be followed to curb the problem of climate change (United Nations, 1992, p. 2). All states are required to agree with that the world is in danger of climate change and comply with the rules. Activities that lead to emission of green house gases are discouraged. The ozone layer must be protected for the survival of human beings both in the present and in the future. Natural reservoirs of the earth must be preserved such as trees, animals and generally the environment. Continuers’ research will be undertaken to investigate the climate changes. This will be supported by the individual states as well as international organizations such as World Bank. The support may be informed of infrastructure through investments, development of knowledge as in research and formulation and implementation of policies that encourage protection against climate change. Human activities must be controlled in a manner that will not interfere with the climate. The developed countries are required to be in the fore front to put measures that protect the system. As they create the environment for development, the states must reduce on waste, avoid pollution and minimize the greenhouse gases. Besides people must be ready to adapt to changes that cannot be reversed after the climate has began changing. For instance the sea ecosystem must be protected. The population can adapt irrigation for agriculture. Not sure if you can write a paper on Climate Change Definition and Description by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The causes and effects of climate change should be taught to the young generation. They should be involved in the pursuit for a better future as they are going to live in the future. Policies need to be formulated and adopted to reduce the consequences of climate change. Different regions may have different problems hence different approaches that will solve the problem must be sort. Conclusion Climate change is the variation of the climate in an area. Climate change happens naturally and has also been as a result of human beings activities. The climate changes naturally after long periods of time and the current problems are increased by human activities. The increased greenhouse gases have caused the earth’s temperature to rise. Consequently, the ice is melting and the water at the sea level is rising. The coast is in danger of flooding which will lead to landlessness and loss of property. The inlands are affected too and the plants and animals in danger of becoming extinct. In agriculture there is little yield with changed patterns of rainfall. There are many regions that affected among them United Arab Emirates and the Middle East. The scientists and research findings reveal that the human activities have largely contributed to the climate change. Actions taken to protect climate change may lead to positive change while neglecting t e climate changes may lead to end of the planet. The international agreements encourage people to conserve the environment and to adapt to the changes according to situation. Moreover, research is emphasized. It is recommended that the climate change, its consequences and how it is can be prevented be taught in school. More policies need to adopt to alleviate the consequences and save the earth. Reference List Climate Fact Sheet. (2010). Facts about climate change. Web. Lambeck, K. (2010). The science of climate change. Retrieved from United Nations. (1992). United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Retrieved from
MCCMCC Women and Sexuality how Is Sexuality Socially Constructed Discussion.

I’m working on a women’s studies discussion question and need a sample draft to help me study.

For this Discussion Board, please answer the following question by drawing upon at least ONE of the readings from this week. You may use supplemental materials from lecture slides and videos in addition to the reading.How is sexuality socially constructed? What are some of the stereotypes surrounding homosexuality/heterosexuality/bisexuality/asexuality, etc. that inform our understanding of sexuality? What happens when someone does not fit these norms? Be sure to use APA formatting in your initial response (including in-text citations and references)Your first (initial) response is due by Thursday, March 18th . Response to a peer/classmate is due by Friday, March 19th Jonathan Katz, “The Invention of Heterosexuality.” Katz .pdfActionsSusan Stryker, “Transgender Feminism: Queering the Woman Question.” Stryker.pdfActionsJennifer Terry, “Anxious Slippages between ‘Us’ and ‘Them’: A Brief History of the Scientific Search for Homosexual Bodies,” In Jennifer Terry and Jacqueline Urla, (1995) Deviant Bodies: Critical Perspectives on Difference in Science and Popular Culture, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, p. 129-169. Please click here for link to article.Actions
MCCMCC Women and Sexuality how Is Sexuality Socially Constructed Discussion

PSY 100 Santa Barbara C College Module 5 Theories of Behavioral Learning Discussion

PSY 100 Santa Barbara C College Module 5 Theories of Behavioral Learning Discussion.

I’m working on a psychology discussion question and need a sample draft to help me study.

Compare and contrast classical and operant conditioning. Describe a situation in which you think each one would be most appropriate to use. Thinking back on your learning experiences growing up, which type of conditioning do you think may have influenced you more? From Chapter 6 in the text, find a quote that can be used to support your position for whatever option you chose. List the page number and the topic heading (if you use the ebook exclusively, there are no page numbers). First, write the quote in the body of your post. Then, leave a paragraph space and relate a detailed, specific application of what you have quoted. The quote may be a sentence or part of a paragraph. Make sure the quote and your response are specifically related to at least one topic in the chapter. Textbook URL…Please let me know if the link does not work.I will also need replies to other discussion posts which I can send after the initial discussion post is finished.The replies are only 50 words long.
PSY 100 Santa Barbara C College Module 5 Theories of Behavioral Learning Discussion

Literary Criticism About Harry Potter

assignment writing services The books about Harry Potter were written in England by J. Rowling and were published during the period from the 30th of June 1997 till the 21st of July 2007. The genre of the series is Fantasy, Mystery and Thriller. The books tell about the adventures of a boy Harry Potter and his friends Hermione Granger and Ron Weasley; all of them are the pupils at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry When in 1999 in the prestigious best-seller list of “New York Times” the first three rows were occupied by Joanne Rowling’s book about a little wizard Harry Potter, it became obvious that the Western world is faced with a new, hitherto unknown phenomenon. First English, and then other developed countries were captivated with the epidemic of reading. Suddenly, unexpectedly, children’s literature has proved its competitiveness with such monsters as pop music and game industry. Literary criticism. From the beginning, Harry Potter book has received positive feedback. The first book, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone won the attention of Scottish newspapers, such as The Glasgow Herald, which said that the book was a “Magic stuff” (Eccleshare, 10) and The Scotsman newspaper, which announced that it had “all the makings of a classic” (Eccleshare, 10). Some time later the English newspapers started to compare it with work of Roald Dahl’s The Mail on Sunday, and called Harry Potter “the most imaginative debut since Roald Dahl” (Eccleshare, 10). When the book “Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix” was being finished, a lot of representatives of literary schools started to give critical reviews. So, Harold Bloom, who is the professor in Yale and literary scholar and critic, said “Rowling’s mind is so governed by clichés” and that her dead metaphors were not the proper way of the writing style (Bloom, 2003). Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban got a critical observation from the critic Anthony Holden in 1999. His opinion about the book was not positive – “the Potter saga was essentially patronising, conservative, highly derivative, dispiritingly nostalgic for a bygone Britain”; he also mentioned the “pedestrian, ungrammatical prose style”. At the same time Ursula Le Guin said, that she didn’t have great opinion about it. She added that when many adult critics were talking about the rare originality of the first book, she read it and remained somewhat puzzled. She understood it as a lively kid’s fantasy mixed with a novel about school, good fare for its age group, but it was ordinary in stylists, imaginatively derivative, and ethically rather mean-spirited. The author Fay Weldon, admitted that the series of books was not what poets expected, but nevertheless it was not a poetry, but it was readable, saleable, it was for every day. The movie critic Charles Taylor (Salon Columnist. 2000) doesn’t agree with Byatt’s criticisms in some point. He agrees that she may have “a valid cultural point-a teeny one-about the impulses that drive us to reassuring pop trash and away from the troubling complexities of art” (Taylor, 2003). But at the same time he doesn’t agree that the books are lacking in serious literary merit. Charles Taylor pointed out the progressively darker tone of the books, which we can see in the killing of a classmate and a friend. He is also sure that that Philosopher’s Stone, which is considered to be the most lighthearted of these seven books, disrupts the childhood reassurances (Taylor, 2003). The well-known Stephen King called the books “a feat of which only a superior imagination is capable”. He thinks that the book is “a good one”, but he feels boring to read the beginning of every book, which starts with description of Harry at home with his terrible uncle and aunt (Wild About Harry. 2000). He has also joked that “Rowling’s never met an adverb she did not like!” (Heilman, 112). Beatles and Harry Potter. Russian critic Vladimir Alexandrov compares Harry Potter with the Beatles. He drew attention to the fact that the morning after the first performance of “The Beatles”, the Herald Tribune reported that they consist of: 75 % of advertising, 20% of hairstyles and 5% of music sobs (Giselle, 45-48). Meanwhile, for all subsequent years, no one has achieved the same fantastic success. They were still are a social phenomenon with a pronounced the world-historical significance. Indeed, thanks to “The Beatles” in the 60’s the entire planet has taken a unique attempt to unite not motivated by the ideas of permanent revolution or Islamic fundamentalism, but on the basis of music. Millions believed in “Beatles”, and were ready to go after them. This, of course, was a utopia. Joan Rowling may be the same phenomenon. Today, a lot of people compare Beatlemania and Potteromania. Reasons for this are easily seen: deafening world popularity; the almost complete rejection of the original highbrow critics, and the continuing attacks from religious leaders and organizations. Especially revealing is a third reason. The increased anathema to Rowling clearly demonstrated the recognition of her popularity. Recently, “Book Review” reported about the demonstration burning books about Potter. The Pastor Fletcher Brothers, the creator of the site with the eloquent title “Village of Liberty”, has supplied its antipotter comments links to Gospel. In the 19 states of the USA there were attempts to prohibit by law the books of Rowling. They were understood as the propaganda of paganism and Satanism. Harry Potter the Urban Mowgli. The Books about Harry Potter have unbelievable success. The authoritative opinion of Western criticism tells that a phenomenon explained by the fact that book is about the most important children’s fears – fear of being abandoned, fear of loneliness, fear not to meet the expectations of parents. The Books of Rowling convince children that they can cope with all the difficulties. If to go through the history of the series, we see that the first book “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone” tells about the boy who miraculously survived after the tragedy that took the lives of his both parents, one year old Harry is in a completely alien to his environment. He lives with strangers in a strange world of Maglov. This world is the “stone jungle” which tries to devour the child, teach him to live by the laws of most jungles. It sounds like the story of Kipling. He leaves his hero on the threshold of adulthood. The same happens to Harry Potter. The miracle finds him on the threshold of adolescence. He gets the invitation to wizards school Hogwarts, when, he should lose faith in magic. Every kid has his Hogwarts. Little children read Harry Potter with excitement, because they feel that the story is dear for them. For them, Hogwarts is something that is in the neighborhood. They will not strive to get there, because they are already there. For young people Harry Potter is a sort of potent tranquilizer-antidepressant. Alone with him, they feel quite comfortable, despite all the trickery of age. As long as a child lives in the soul of an adult, he will believe in Potter. He will believe in the triumph of good over evil. May be it is not inconclusive, but temporary, as is the case with Rowling. Conclusion. Starting from the 30th of June 1997, when the first book “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone” was published, the series became very popular and got positive criticism from all over the world. Some critics think that there are book that are not appropriate for children, such as “Harry Potter and Deathly Hallows”. By the June 2008, it was sold more than 400 million copies of the books all over the world and it has been translated into 67 languages (Allsobrook, 2003), and the last four books successively set records as the fastest selling book in the whole history. Nice story Joanne Rowling, which combines the attractiveness of fairy tales, detective, thriller and role-play, would have no reason to still be a literary event and would not be worth ships gossip, if not unexpected dimensions of success.

Effects Of The Sri Lankan Civil War Sociology Essay

The two major ethnic groups of Sri Lanka, the Sinhalese and the Tamils, both had very different viewpoints on how the country should be run. Fears of a stereotypical government and the ideas of inequality occurred during passings of discriminatory state policies (Sri Lanka, Relations with.) A policy that was most looked down upon was the deprivation of Indian Tamils from having citizenship and representation. Another reason the Tamils believed that the Sinhalese were in more control was due to the difference in representation, the Sinhalese were more obligated to express their own culture and religion; which mainly consisted of Buddhism. Lastly, in 1956 it was declared by the Sinhalese that Sri Lanka’s only official language should be Sinhala, the language of the Sinhalese people. The Sinhala Act Only of 1956 is one of the most notable policies, it is directly stated, “Sinhala language shall be the one official language of Ceylon.”(The Sinhala Only Act) These policies made Tamil people infuriated, and made them have a greater need for independence. Militant Tamil youth groups were formed in order to fight for a separate Tamil state, thus starting the Sri Lankan Civil War(Sri Lanka, Relations with.). The main point made was that the Sinhalese people were always use to being the supreme force and majority of Sri Lanka, while the Tamil people also felt like they should be recognized and acknowledged as a part of Sri Lanka. The main reason the Tamil people weren’t given much recognition and independence was due to them not being natives of Sri Lanka; they were all of Indian descent. It is also important to note the differences between the Sinhalese and Tamil people, most of the Sinhalese people practiced Buddhism, while most of the Tamil people were either Muslim or Hindu. Both the Sinhalese and Tamil had their own language. Lastly, a majority of Sri Lanka was composed of Sinhalese, while only about 18% of the population was Tamil (Sri Lanka, Relations with.) It is important to note these differences because it only makes it much more harder for the Tamil and Sinhalese people to agree upon certain standards. The Tamil people were originally descendants of india, thus making them not Sri Lankan natives. The Tamil people felt that the Sinhalese decision of passing the Sinhala Only Act was only to estate a sense of dominance and prejudice. One of the biggest issues caused by making Sinhala the official language of Sri Lanka was that Tamil people had less of a chance to uphold a government position. Dr Colvin R de Silva, a former member of the parliament famously said, “Do we… want a single nation or do we want two nations?”(Colvin R De Silva) Silva’s quote shows that the Tamil people felt like the nation was starting to be divided up into two different regions. The quote also shows that the Tamil people were willing to negotiate, just so that Sri Lanka may remain as one nation. The Tamils eventually responded to these policies by protesting against the Sinhalese, these protests ended up becoming violent. These protests were encouragement for the Sinhalese to pass more discriminatory policies against the Tamils. The policies passed were looked at as discriminatory against the education and employment of the Tamil people (Ethnic Prejudice.) The Tamils constantly being blocked off from chances at employment and receiving education lead to a need for separation. The Tamil people were willing to fight for their independence in Sri Lanka, and the suppression being put down by the Sinhalese(policies) weren’t going to discourage them. The passing of the Sinhala Only Act ended up encouraging the Tamil people to riot against the Sinhalese Government. The formation of Tamil Youth Groups gave India a much bigger role during the Civil War. After many failures at establishing a multicultural government, The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam(LTTE) were formed in 1975. The purpose of the LTTE was to fight with as much force necessary to establish equal rights, and to potentially make a separate state called Tamil Eelam (The History of the Tamil Tigers.) The violence that the Sri Lankan army (Sinhalese) initiated on the Tamil youth groups with caused many Tamils to leave Sri Lanka, and seek refuge in Tamil Nadu; a southern part of India. The people and press of Tamil Nadu emphasized sympathy for the Tamils in Sri Lanka. The main action Tamil Nadu did to help was demand that the Indian government(in New Delhi) take action against the Sinhalese (Sri Lanka, Relations with.) India became much more involved in the situation with Sri Lanka, India helped train and fund the Tamil youth groups to aid in creating a stronger force. Another way India helped was by helping set up negotiations and compromises between the Tamils and Sinhalese (Sri Lanka, Relations with.) India’s attempts at trying to estate positive relations between the Tamils and Sinhalese had little success. The Tamils responded violently to the policies passed by the Sinhalese. After many failed attempts at negotiating, the Tamil rebels took it upon themselves to form the Tamil Tigers. The Tamil Tigers were one of the most pressuring Tamil Forces against the Sri Lankan government. The LITE was most well known for their elite guerilla warfare tactics, this played a key role when the Tamil people rebelled. The Tamil people’s protest grew substantially bigger as the Sinhalese tried to suppress them, this only encouraged the Sinhalese to use more force. In 1981, Sinhalese forces burned a Tamil library in Jaffna, and terrorized the Tamil people with violent acts, including bombing raids on Tamil villages. The Tamils reacted to this with more violence and rioting, which only made the Sinhalese make more violent decisions. The Sinhalese retaliated to the rioting by burning the remaining Tamil homes and Businesses in Sri Lanka. At this point India sent 80,000 troops to step in so that this violence may come to a short halt, though these troops were asked to leave shortly after the violence; which they did obey. The Tamil Tiger’s key role was that the violent acts by the Sinhalese only ended up giving LITE more encouragement to obtain their goals. More force had to be used by the Liberation Tigers to achieve their goal of Tamil Eelam, suicide bombing began to occur. On July 5, 1987, Tamil rebels rammed a truck with explosives into a building containing Sri Lankan soldiers; this was the first act by Tamil rebels regarding suicide bombing (The History of the Tamil Tigers.) Another instance of suicide bombing was when Sri Lankan Defence Minister, Ranjan Wijeratne, was killed in a car bomb explosion; this was considered to be the biggest suicide act to have been performed by Tamil rebels. A year before his death , Mr Wijeratne informed the press: “I am going all out for the LTTE. I never do anything in half measures.”(Sri Lankan hardliner among 19 killed in blast.) This quote shows that the Tamil Tigers are pressuring the Sri Lankan government in a much more brutal way. The Tamil Tigers started to target government officials as ways of taking out individuals that are higher in command. The Tamil Tigers main method of fear was to cause chaos in Sri Lanka. The Sinhalese government responded to most of the Tamil rebel’s violence with violence. The thought that the Sri Lankan government had was that they had to fight fire with fire in order for the Tamil Rebel to back down. In 1987, Sri Lankan President J.R. Jayewardene and prime minister Rajiv Ganhdi tried to resolve this conflict by making the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord. The Indo-Sri Lanka Accord declared that Sri Lanka is “a multi-ethnic and multi-lingual plural society.”(Sri Lanka, relations with.) Tamil and English were added on to be the official languages of Sri Lanka. The accord was soon challenged by Colombo’s Ruling Party, which was lead by Prime Minister Premadasa. The accord wasn’t support by many militant tamil groups, including the Tamil Tigers.(Sri Lanka, relations with.) The introduction of the Tamil Tiger didn’t seem as much of a threat at first, but suicide bombers quickly changed the perspectives that the Sinhalese had. Suicide bombing was one of the most brutal tactics the Tamil Tigers had used for violence, and the targets of these were mainly Sri Lankan government officials and law enforcement. Eventually Sri Lanka wasn’t the only nation to view the Tamil Tigers as a threat, India banned LTTE as a terrorist organization in 1993(Sri Lanka, Relations with.) Talks between Tamil and Sinhalese leadership emerged in the late 1990’s, but were quickly ended and war was resumed. The Sinhalese were making an attempt at finally making peace with the Tamils, but the new policies weren’t satisfactory to most Tamil rebel groups. The Sinhalese groups are still persistent over trying to stop the Tamil rebel groups from causing so much disruption in their society. The Sinhalese and Tamil are two very dominant cultures that have been fighting for many years. The whole Civil War seemed to be an argument of whether or not the Sinhalese people should get all the glory for being there first. The thought was that Tamil people weren’t descents of the Sri Lankan region, thus they shouldn’t too many rights. The Tamil people disagreed with that idea and rioted for changed. The changes made weren’t satisfactory enough for the Tamil people, thus having them riot and engage in even more violence. The Sinhalese people fought fire with fire, and engaged in violence with the Tamil people. The Tamil people technologically advanced their ways or retaliating by introducing suicide bombing as a tactic, this completely shocked the Sinhalese people. It’s seen that the Tamil people weren’t going to back down, and kept on pressuring the Sri Lankan government to change. It is also seen that the Sinhalese people did whatever they could to suppress the Tamils from causing too much disruption, which only made them even more encouraged. The Sri Lankan Civil War was a huge changing point in history, it showed that both nations with very different perspectives each wanted something for themselves. It almost seems as if the Tamils were trying to express nationalism by trying to make their cultures a bigger part of Sri Lanka, and having the Sinhalese people take part in it.

Using Gel Filtration To Study Ligand Protein Interaction Biology Essay

Using Gel Filtration To Study Ligand Protein Interaction Biology Essay. The purpose of this experiment is to seperate particles as complex and the other small ones by helping gel exlusion chromotography and calculate affinity as a percent. THEORY Gel filtration chromatography is a method for separating proteins and peptides based on their size.The chromatographic matrix consists of porous beads, and the size of the bead pores. They can define the size of macro-molecules that may be fractionated. Those proteins that are too large to enter the bead pores are ‘excluded’and thus elute from the column first. Since large molecules do not enter the beads, they have less volume to pass through, which is why they are the first to elute from the column. Smaller macromolecules that enter some, but not all of the pores are retained slightly longer in the matrix and emerge from the column next. Finally, small molecules filter through most of the pores, and they elute from the column with an even larger elution volume. This method is also called gel permeation, molecular sieve, gel-exclusion, and size-exclusion chromatography. Since no binding is required and harsh elution conditions can be avoided, gel-filtration chromatography rarely inactivates enzymes, and often is used as an important step in peptide or protein purification. [1] LIGAND Atom, or molecule attached to a central atom, usually of a transition element, in a coordination or complex compound. It is almost always the electron-pair donor in a covalent bond. Common ligands include the neutral molecules water (H2O), ammonia (NH3), and carbon monoxide (CO) and the anions cyanide (CN-), chloride (Cl-), and hydroxide (OH-). Rarely, ligands are cations and electron-pair acceptors (electrophiles). Organic ligands include EDTA ( chelate) and nitrilotriacetic acid. Biological systems rely on ligands such as the porphyrin in hemoglobin and chlorophyll, and numerous cofactors are ligands. In chelates, the ligand attaches at more than one point, sharing more than one electron pair, and is called bidentate or polydentate having two or many “teeth.” The ligands in a complex may be the same or different. LIGAND -PROTEIN INTERACTIONS Ligand molecule can bind and make a complex with biomolecule for biological purpose. It binds those molecules with intermolecular forces such as ionic bonds, h-bonding and Van der Waals forces. Therefore; the reaction between Ligand and protein is reversible. Ligand Receptor Ligand-Receptor If Ligand and receptor makes covalent bond, the reaction becomes irreversible. This situation will block the biological processes. Serum albumin is the most abundant plasma protein that is in humans and other mammals. It is required for maintaining the osmotic pressure that is needed for distribution of body fluids between intravascular compartments and body tissues. It is also a carrier protein by non-specifically binding several biomolecules. APPARATUS Chromatography column Spectrophotometer Beaker Clamps Plastic cuvettes Bovine Serum Albumin Acetate buffer 0.1M Phenol red in acetate buffer NaOH solution Sephadex PROCEDURE 1.0.1g phenol red was dissolved in 10ml acetate buffer. 2.The sephadex gel was poured into it,after washing chromatography column with acetate buffer. 3.It was waited to polymerize gel. 4.6 samples were prepared with different concentration of phenol red solution by mixing same volume of acetate buffer and albumin. 5.250micromilli of first sample was put into the gel and added 50ml acetate buffer slowly. 6.The pourer of column was opened and filled cuvvettes with 200micromilli 1M NaOH and 2mld H2O for each cuvvette. 7.The absorbance of samples was measured at 520nm. 8.The steps were repeated for the other samples. CALCULATIONS AND OBSERVATIONS Gel filtration was used to seperate molecules.6 samples were prepared to observe results and measure absorbance.My group was examined 5th and 6 th samples. 20g BAS was put into 5th and 6th samples but phenol red and acetate buffer amount changes to observe that.0.60 ml acetate buffer and 0.40 ml phenol red solution was put into 20g BSA.This was 5 th sample in this experiment .0.40ml acteate buffer and 0.60ml phenol red were put into 20g BSA.This was 6 th sample in the experiment.In this experiment,our stationary phase was sephadex and mobile phase was acetate buffer.Before samples were put into column,the column was washed that means fixed with acetate buffer.The PH of acetate buffer is 4.5 that is mobile phase.According the gel filtration principle,big molecules can be quicker than small ones.Because there is less obstacle during movement compared with small ones.Therefore we can seperate by helping molecular weight difference.In this experiment,big molecules were BSA and phenol that was ligand.We observed color changes related to phenol red behaviour in different environment.In acidic conditions,phenol red is yellow and at 6.8-8.2 the color turns into purple.The first cuvvette samples were lighter due to complex and then darker due to only phenol red. Reaction Number Reagent 1 2 3 4 5 6 BSA (mg) 20 20 20 20 20 20 Acetate Buffer(mL) 0,95 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 0,4 Phenol (mL) 0,05 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,6 Affinity of sample 5: 100x x/y= 100x 13/31=41.935 Affinity of sample 6 100x 10/40= 25 RESULTS In this experiment, 6 sample’s absorbance were measured. 5th and 6th were measured by our group.We took sample from gel filtration and placed into cuvvettes.And then added NaOH and d H2O.Cuvvettes were placed into spectrophotometer and gained results.These results gave us two graphs that is shown in below. figure sample 5 figure sample 6 At the two graphs,distinct peak was observed.It means that is the point big molecules ended up then only small molecules phenol red observed. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION In this experiment,we used gel filtration chromotography to detect interaction between ligand and just phenol red.First of all,we washed column with acetate buffer before put samples into column.The reason of that is to adjust column PH.Acetate buffer PH 4.5 is our mobile phase.It can affect protein connectivity with surface.And we used sephadex as a stationary phase.Because it adjusts pore size.Under these condition ,we put sample into cuvvette and measured at 520nm.The quicker ones the big ones,the lower one an small ones also.First observation that are ligher ones are big molecules.The big molecules are complex ,ligand.Ligand is BSA and phenol red.The reason why is chosen albumin’s solubility and binding site affinity are high. Using Gel Filtration To Study Ligand Protein Interaction Biology Essay

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