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Effects of Nicotine and Smoking on Cognitive Performance

Effects of Nicotine and Smoking on Cognitive Performance. Some research has supported the view that with continued nicotine dependence the brain functions is disrupted having an effect on the cognitive performance. The effects of nicotine and smoking on human cognitive performance have been found to be varied as with some research showing deficits, some improvements and others showing no effects at all. Spilich, June and Renner (1992) focused on the working memory with respect to the capacity of information one can process and observed what effect smoking might have upon cognition. Spilich et al accessed regular smokers and non-smokers. The regular smokers were divided into two groups; a group who had just smoked, and a second group who had been deprived for 3 hours prior to the study. All three groups (non-deprived smokers, deprived smokers, and non-smokers) were compared on a series of tasks. The participants first completed a visual search task (where they had to identify a target letter in a visual array); a visual-attentional task (where the participant had to record text changes in letters on a computer screen); a Sternberg memory test (where the person had to identify a previously presented item on a computer screen); a comprehension task (where an ambiguous array of data appeared on the screen and the participant had to de-code, rearrange and make sense of the confusing data); and the fifth task was a driving simulation test that comprised a road race task which required multi-tasking. The findings revealed that while cigarette smoking had positive effects on the performance of simple tasks, it had negative effects upon the performance of tasks that required problem-solving skills, such as the road race task, which rely on working memory and long-term memory systems. They concluded that tasks in which more complex cognitive skills are involved smokers performed worse than non-smokers (Spilich, June and Renner, 1992). Heishman and Henningfield (2000) studied the effect of nicotine administration to non-smokers across an 8 day period. Twelve non-smokers were administered four doses of nicotine gum each day in the order 0mg, 2mg, 4mg and 8 mg of nicotine and their performance on a number of tasks were measured. Working memory was measured by instructing the participant to search for a series of letters within an array and measuring accuracy in recall and speed. A second working memory task included a digit recall task in which the participant had to identify the missing digit from a previously presented series of digits. The findings revealed that nicotine increased the rate of responding on the working memory tasks but accuracy in recall declined. This study supported that nicotine produces deficits in complex cognitive tasks (Heishman and Henningfield, 2000). Ernst et al (2001) tested 14 current smokers, 15 previous smokers and 9 people who had never smoked on cognitive performance. The tasks comprised of a visual attention task (a search for 2 letters in an array of letters), a verbal reasoning task, and an N-back working memory task (where a series of items are presented individually and the person has to identify whether a particular item appeared on the 1st trial before, 2 trials before, and so on). A double-blind procedure was utilized using gum that either contained nicotine (4 mg) or a placebo. The smokers were asked to refrain from smoking for 12 hours prior to the tests which began each day at 8 a.m. The results indicated that there were no interactions of nicotine ingestion (or placebo) with group type (smokers, previous smokers, never smoked) on any of the tests. It was noticed that nicotine gum increased reaction time when compared with the placebo, but did not produce any enhancement with verbal reasoning and produced actual declines in accuracy in working memory (Ernst et al, 2001). Therefore, it was concluded that nicotine ingestion leads to decline in complex cognitive tasks in relation to working memory. Other studies have examined cigarette smoking in comparison to cognitive performance in middle-aged subjects Kalmijn, Botel, Verschuren, Jolles and Launer, (2002) used a battery of neuropsychological tests that measured memory function (a letter digit substitution test) and a word fluency test (where one names as many animals as possible in 60 seconds), a Stroop Colour Word Test, and cognitive flexibility (time taken for higher order information-processing) on men and women aged 45-70 years. Current smokers scored significantly lesser than non-smokers and previous smokers on the verbal learning test and the Stroop test. The previous smoker’s scores ranged in between those of smokers and non-smokers. Current smokers were found to have reduced psychomotor speed and reduced cognitive flexibility (Kalmijn, Botel, Verschuren, Jolles and Launer, 2002). Therefore, it was concluded that the effects of smoking impaired cognition leading to cognitive deficits. Hill, Nilsson, Nyberg and Backman, (2003) studied the relationship between cigarette smoking and cognitive function in healthy Swedish adults (aged 35 – 80 years), comparing current smokers with people who had never smoked. They tested the two groups on a Block design task that involved learning 12 unrelated nouns while simultaneously sorting a deck of playing cards into two piles. Then the participants were tested on two untimed tasks, one task tested general knowledge about Swedish people and the other was a word comprehension task. Smokers showed poor performance on more demanding cognitive tasks (i.e. the Block design task which involved multitasking). As well as, the number of cigarettes smoked and time spent smoking was associated with poorer performance on the Block design task. The between-group differences were noted not noticed on the other two untimed tasks. They concluded that cigarette smoking will have a harmful effect on cognitive tasks that require higher mental processing (Hill, Nilsson, Nyberg and Backman, 2003). Richards, Jarvis, Thompson and Wadsworth, (2003) studied the effects of cigarette smoking in the middle age-group on a range of tasks. Using a sample of over 1900 people aged 35, 43 and 53 years of age with a smoking frequency of 0, 1 to 20, 20 or more cigarettes per day. The participants were measured on verbal memory (the free recall of words across a series of trials). Speed and concentration was measured by a visual search test where participants were asked to delete target letters within an array of letters within 1 minute. The results of the study indicated that cigarette smoking was associated with a faster decline in verbal memory and slower visual search speed with respect to the different age groups. The self-proclaimed smokers between the ages of 43-53 years mentioned that smoked above 20 cigarettes per day showed the greatest decline when compared to non-smokers. It was concluded that smoking in mid-life was directly associated with increased cognitive deterioration whereas those who smoke into later life may be at very high risk of clinically significant cognitive decline (Richards, Jarvis, Thompson and Wadsworth, 2003). One study that used a variety of memory tests in order to determine the effects of chronic smoking on the cognitive performance of adolescents was Jacobson, Mencl, Constable, Westerveld and Pugh, (2005). They assessed the performance of adolescent smokers, abstinent smokers and non-smokers on verbal memory tests (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test – Revised) that involved the immediate and delayed recall of verbally-presented words. Working memory was also tested using the N-back procedure which measured monitoring and recall within working memory. The results revealed that smokers showed no impairments on the verbal learning task but had significant impairments on the working memory performance tests (the N-back task), when compared with the non-smokers. Smoking abstinence produced even more severe deficits on the working memory tasks (Jacobson, 2007). It was concluded that a history of smoking has a harmful effect upon working memory performance (but not on a simple verbal memory recall task) and when smokers were kept in abstinence they showed even poorer performance based on complex working memory (Jacobson, Mencl, Constable, Westerveld and Pugh, 2005; Jacobson, 2007). Fried, Watkinson and Gray, (2006) conducted a longitudinal study to study the effects of current and past regular cigarette smoking in 112 young adults. They were evaluated using a battery of neuro-cognitive tests administered to the participants at 9-12 years of age, before they started smoking regularly and then again at 17-21 years. The smokers provided self-reports of their smoking habits as being heavy (more than 9 cigarettes per day) and light (less than 9 per day) for current smokers and former smokers (those who had not smoked within the last 6 months). They also included a control group who had never smoked. Each of the groups completed a series of cognitive tasks, including IQ tests, memory tests (the immediate and delayed recall of items), processing speed (the speed at which one can recall items), sustained attention, vocabulary and abstract reasoning tests. The results of the tests indicated that current regular smokers performed worse than non-smokers on the verbal/auditory tasks, oral arithmetic and auditory memory. Former smokers differed from the non-smokers only in the arithmetic task indicating some improvement (Fried, 2006).They concluded that regular smoking during early adulthood is associated with cognitive impairment but that these defects may be reversed when smoking is stopped More recent research has also found that smoking is associated with a greater risk of poorer memory in middle age populations (Sabia, Marmot, Dufouil and Singh-Manoux, 2008). They used the Whitehall II study of people aged between 35-55 years (measuring general health behaviour and status) as a baseline Of the original number of 5346 participants only 4630 were able to be retested five years later by Sabia et al. They tested these on a memory reasoning task (where the participant had to verify whether a statement was correct/ incorrect) and verbal fluency (described earlier in the thesis). After adjusting for age and sex, smokers performed worse on memory recall and fluency tasks when compared with non-smokers and ex-smokers. Sabia et al concluded that continued smoking was associated with a greater risk of poorer memory (Sabia, Marmot, Dufouil and Singh-Manoux, 2008). Mendrek, Monterosso, Simon, Jarvik, Brody et al, (2006) designed a study to examine effects of cigarette smoking and withdrawal on working memory. They compared 15 smokers and 22 non-smokers on the N-back task that was administered in two test blocks on each of two days. On day one, smokers were tested after more than 13 hours of abstinence and on another day testing began less than an hour after smoking. Results of the study showed that the performance of smokers after the 13 hour deprivation was significantly less accurate than that of the non-smokers, whereas at the 1 hour abstinence period there was no difference between their performance and that of non-smokers. They concluded that their findings provided further evidence for a deficit in working memory associated with acute abstinence from smoking. (Mendrek, Monterosso, Simon, Jarvik, Brody et al, 2006). The studies on the impact of abstinence upon cognition aims at the impact of abstinence from smoking on a relatively short period of time, often from a few minutes to several hours, and in some cases a few weeks. These studies have found evidence of a range of psychological changes, including irritability, poor concentration, restlessness or cigarette craving (Parrott and Garnham, 1998). A number of these studies have found deficits in cognitive performance when tested during the abstinent periods. Hendricks, Ditre, Drobes and Brandon, (2006) found attentional problems emerging from 30 minutes of abstinence, while Jacobson et al., (2005) also found that abstinent smokers suffered acute impairment in verbal memory (word recall) and working memory (using the N-back procedure) (Jacobson, Mencl, Constable, Westerveld and Pugh, 2005; Jacobson, 2007). Therefore, based on the above literature review the hypothesis stating that “The score on attentional deficits will be significantly higher among nicotine dependents than non- nicotine dependents” was formulated. Effects of Nicotine and Smoking on Cognitive Performance
NOVASU Relationship Between Theory Foundation of Nursing Reply.

I HAVE TO REPLY TO THIS CLASSMATE, NO REFERENCE IS NEEDED.I have been a nurse for five years. My journey into nursing began since highschool enrolling in healthcare classes and graduating with my certified nursing assistant license. I continued my education at Indian River State College enrolling in the Licensed Practical Nurse program, transitioning into the Registered Nurse Program and Bachelor of Nursing program. I currently work at Cleveland Clinic as a stroke/neuro, med surge, and tele nurse. I love traveling, photography, and spending time with my family. I am currently moving forward in my educational pathway into the MSN-Family Nurse Practioner program. My future plan is to obtain my DNP and become an educator.The relationship between theory, research, and practice foundation of nursing. Through practice research questions are generated, research guides the practice, and through theory practice is improved. As an advance practice nurse, it is important to apply these concepts to improve knowledge, skills, and provide effective care. Through theory advance practice nurse will develop a basis of learning and decision making.There are many reasons for the integration of theory, research, and practice. One purpose is to improve practice by having a positive impact in the health and quality of patients. They guide the development of care, practice, and clinical decision. The advance practice nurse will use these to guide in the collection of data to implement theories to achieve positive patient care. There are many models that are used in the nursing process are thy guide in determining the care that will expected to meet outcomes in care. The integration of theory, research and practice aids in establishing principles to measure quality of care.
NOVASU Relationship Between Theory Foundation of Nursing Reply

Enslaved Black People in British Empire Discussion Paper.

Consider the following three documents concerning slavery in the British North American colonies:(I will send you the pdf)Germantown Quaker Meeting, “Reasons Why We Are Against the Traffic of Men-Body” (1688)Boston News-Letter, Editorial Favoring Indentured Servitude over Slavery (1706)Benjamin Franklin, Excerpts from “Observations on the Increase of Mankind” (1751)What do these documents tell us about colonists viewed slavery and how attitudes about slavery changed over timeUse the textbook, the lectures, and primary documents to back up your thesis.Your paper should be 4-5 pages, one inch margins, Times New Roman 12 point font.
Enslaved Black People in British Empire Discussion Paper

Belhaven University Unit Four Reference Source Employee Vaccination Discussion

Belhaven University Unit Four Reference Source Employee Vaccination Discussion.

Prompt: References Page Draft in APA format. The intent is that your primary sources for your paper are included in this submission. However, you may include additional resources in your final paper. Your final paper is expected to reflect substantial research, and your references page is indicative of that research. Although you are submitting a first-draft of resources in this unit, you will still submit your final list of resources with your paper in Unit 7.Requirements: All references must be in APA format. Your references must include a minimum of six scholarly references (not counting the textbook and Bible).**Please see attachment as a reminder of the topic chosen. Class book: Fandl,K.J.(2019).Lawandpublicpolicy.NewYork,NY:Routledge.ISBN:978-0815373742
Belhaven University Unit Four Reference Source Employee Vaccination Discussion

Learning Environment: An Introduction (link below). Please make sure to view all videos on the page in addition to

best assignment help Learning Environment: An Introduction (link below). Please make sure to view all videos on the page in addition to your reading. Link: Complete: Explore: Environment Affects Behavior activity (link below). Link: The activity requires you to view two photos of infant-toddler classroom environments and answer the questions that follow (3 questions after each photo…6 questions total). Make sure to use learned information from the reading and/or Module presentation within your responses. Remember to cite/reference any information used. Please complete these questions in a Word Document before uploading to Canvas. Remember to make sure your submission uploads correctly, blank submissions or errors with downloading/viewing (on my part) will result in a score of zero for the assignment.

Santa Monica College There There by Tommy Orange Multigenerational Tale Discussion

Santa Monica College There There by Tommy Orange Multigenerational Tale Discussion.

Please be sure to complete the assignment by the time given.In order to complete the assignment you must download a pdf version of “There There by Tommy Orange”My professor said,”Writing Assignment #4Close Reading of There ThereDESCRIPTION and OBJECTIVE: College writing requires students—no matter what the major or discipline—to work with sources—written texts (a newspaper article, a history book, a poem, novel, or a chart), or a visual or aural work of art (a painting or a jazz composition), etc. Generally, when we engage with texts, we do not want merely to quote texts and insert random quotations into our papers, but rather we want to think critically about sources. Good writing means thinking about what a passage of text is trying to say and explaining that meaning to the reader. It also means presenting your analysis of what the passage is saying or expressing. Perhaps you agree with part of the source and disagree with another. Sources are the evidence an academic writer uses to develop a thesis, the main argument of the essay he or she is writing. Learning to write with sources and to discuss them critically is a complex skill, which takes time to develop, but it also is the main skill all college students need to work on because almost every assignment requires them to assess and criticize sources and texts. Part of this practice of engaging with texts is greatly enhanced by doing CLOSE READINGS of literature. For this assignment, you will be doing a close reading of Orange’s There There up to page 150. Here are the instructions: INSTRUCTIONS:On your computer, create a new document with a two-column table. Above the table, type the MLA heading (name, teacher’s name, class, date). Title the table CLOSE READINGAbove the table, identify the work, and then write a two-to-three sentence summary of the entire text, using your own words.Now, concentrate on the columns you have created.In the left column, type a passage that stands out to you, caught your attention, caused you to pause and think, etc.Write the passage (don’t forget to use quotation marks) and the page number.Focus on passages that catch your interest or remind you of some relevant experience of your own or that seems to connect with another reading from the course or somewhere else. Another approach is to choose a passage that you found consuming or that provoked a strong feeling from you, anger or disagreement or amusement or sadness. In the right column, write an extended comment on your response to the passage. In other words, think through the arguments that your chosen passage is suggesting. Break down the passage, in your own words, so that it makes sense to you. Bring in your experiences, other texts, relevant historical or cultural implications. If a passage confused you, write about what confused you and why. Overall, try to work out what the passage is suggesting and how it relates to literature and culture. Again, think golden lines on steroids 🙂 Length, Requirements, & Resources:You must contain at least three passages of Orange’s storyEach analysis should be detailed and thoughtful and run about 150 words—give or take.Here is an template of a close reading journal Close Reading Journal Sample.docxHere is an example of an excellent former student’s Close Reading Assignment: Student Sample of Excellent Close Reading.docxClose Reading Journals must be typed using MLA formatting guidelines (proper heading, font size, margins, etc.) and uploaded to Canvas in a WORD (e.g. doc or docx file extension) document. Use correct grammar, full sentences, and regular conventions of academic writing. Edit and proofread your entries before you deem them complete. “PLEASE LET ME KNOW FOR ANY OTHER QUESTIONS.THANK YOU SO MUCH 🙂
Santa Monica College There There by Tommy Orange Multigenerational Tale Discussion

MC Personal SWOT & Tour Guide for Japanese Tourists Group Exercise Discussion

MC Personal SWOT & Tour Guide for Japanese Tourists Group Exercise Discussion.

1 Personal SWOT – Written Summary – ONLY (make sure you write nice and clear 1 page) My information is here (it’s my last semester of college, because if COVID-19 taking all online classes. Can’t even do my internship just taking class from home. No opportunity) 2Top of Form You are a tour guide for a group of Japanese tourists who are in America for the first time and who are about to embark on a cross-country tour. As their tour guide you will give a presentation on important landmarks prior to their trip. In an essay of at least three (3) paragraphs (at least 7 sentences in each paragraph): You can either write your ideas about how to approach this tour, or actually create the introduction and plan for the tour itself. The idea is to consider what you would have to do in order to facilitate the tour, and be sure that the people who take the tour will both learn from it, and enjoy it. It is important to mention not only what the tourists might plan to see or visit, but your preparation should accommodate the tourists’ needs. *** Submit your assignment as a MS Word file to the “Safe Assign” dropbox Bottom of Form 3 Instructions for Speech 1: An epiphany is a life-changing insight brought about by some significant event. Discuss in a 3-4 minute presentation, an epiphany you have experienced. Concentrate on the nature of the insight and the event that brought it about. Be sure to indicate how the epiphany changed your life and whether or not the change was for the better. You may write out your introductory and concluding paragraphs, but the body must be in the form of an outline. The body of the speech should not be read word-for-word, but you may freely refer to your outline. You MUST submit a copy of the outline prior to your speech. The outline should be submitted on or before Wednesday of next week, via the Week 5 Assignment dropbox. Make sure to do both part of this question speech for 3 to 4 mins in one paper and outline. All 3 questions should be in different documents and pages. Must check safeassign plagiarism check for “Safe Assign”
MC Personal SWOT & Tour Guide for Japanese Tourists Group Exercise Discussion