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Effects of Family Changes in Society

Explain how new problems have emerged within your society as a result of changes in the functions of the family. In the UK and other Western countries during the last forty years there has been a widespread experience of changes in marriage, household, and family forms that would not have been thought possible prior to the Second World War (Giddens, 2001). People are less likely to marry than they used to and there is less of a tendency to marry at a young age. The women’s movement which began in the 1960s has, it is argued, led to a rise in the divorce rate and the number of single parent families. There has also been a growth in the rate of women who have children but have not married and in 1997 they made up 42% of all lone parent households (Social Trends, 2000). This paper will look at traditional notions of the family and then at some of the changes in the functions of the family and some of the social problems that have resulted from this Defining the traditional family The family might be generally defined as a group of people who are usually linked by kinship[1] and marriage, who live together, usually, but not necessarily made up of two parents and their children. This type of family is the norm for most people. Murdock (1949) has argued that common to all societies, is the nuclear family, described above (parents and children) or extended family (a wider family membership e.g. grandparents). 40% of all people in Britain in 1996 lived in nuclear families (Brown,1998). Parsons (1955) has argued that the traditional family serves two major purposes that are common to societies, the primary socialisation of children into the norms and values of society, and the stabilisation of adult personalities. For Parsons the institution of the family provided the mutual love and support needed by individuals in order for them to be fit enough to take their places in society (Giddens, 2001). This has been contested by feminists such as Abbott and Wallace (1997) who argue that family life is experienced by its members in different ways and family life has not been supportive of women because it is generally they who provide other members with support. Parson’s model of the family where one adult worked outside the home while the other remained to care for the family has been criticised by many scholars as overly idealistic and neglects the ethnic and class differences that occur within a capitalist society (Giddens, 2001). The capitalist system failed to take into account women’s work in the home Abbott and Wallace (1997) contend and this enabled men to go out to work because women were the hidden labour force. Goode (1972) argues that social systems such as the family, are powerful agents of control because to some extent their existence is founded on force. Within social systems such as the family this is often unrecognised. Goode argues it is, not visible because it is effective (1972:512). Giddens (2001) has further criticised Parsons’ view of the family for neglecting to recognise, and take into account the emergence of different family forms. Fewer people are now choosing to marry and those who do may choose not to have children. Gittens (1992) is of the opinion that in modern Britain: Ideals of family relationships have become enshrined in our legal, social, religious and economic systems which, in turn, reinforce the ideologyand penalise or ostracise those who transgress it (Gittens, 1992, p.74). In 1997 when Blair’s Government came to power the ideology of the family that had existed in Britain for almost a century was breaking down and unemployment was continuing to rise. Death, divorce, and the rise in the number of single parent families meant that the traditional ideal of the male breadwinner and the female carer/homemaker were becoming less common. Single Parent Families 40% of marriages in the UK end in divorce according to the Guardian newspaper 2000,p.3)and there are an increasing number of single parent families in the Western world. There are many different reasons why people become lone parents family structures may change either through the death of a partner, cohabitation or remarriage which leads to reconstituted families. Second marriages however tend to have a higher divorce rate than first time marriages. Some theorist suggest that couples would have lived together prior to getting married, but those who live together may be far more likely to split than married couples. Some of those cohabiting may also have had children and Government figures show that the vast majority of single parent households are headed by women. Because traditional notions of the family headed by a male breadwinner are still prevalent, Abbott and Wallace (1997) suggest that many single parents, who of necessity live off welfare benefits are seen both by those in power as a burden on the state. The concerns of the Welfare State were with the traditional, nuclear family where the man was the breadwinner and the woman cared for the home and children. It was not therefore, set up to deal with single parent households. In this way changing family structures result in an increase in other social problems, particularly poverty (Giddens, 2001). Families and Poverty The media and for some Government members refer increasingly to young single mothers as representative of lone parents. In contrast, Crowe and Hardy (1992) and others state that single parents are a varied group because there are a number of different routes to becoming a single parent These involves increased responsibility and many single parents who are without an extended family network are forced to rely on the state system just to get by. These households are very often among the poorest. Giddens (2001) maintains that English speaking countries have the highest number of single parents, and those who are working are among the lowest paid. These are parents who are attempting to be self-reliant and while family working tax credits may seem like a good idea many people have argued that they serve to encourage a dependency culture for people who might prefer to be independent. In 1991 31% of children lived in households with an income that was less than 50% of the national average (Giddens, 2001). The Social Fund was set up to help the poorest members of society to afford basic necessities such as bedding, shoes, and children’s clothes but this does not help those that most need it because it is the poorest who mostly do not get this funding(Cohen,1996). Single parents who want to join the work force rather than remain in receipt of benefits are often prevented from doing so because of the cost of childcare. The Government claim to support working families’ childcare arrangements does not make provision for older children during school holidays. Without the help of other family members, such moves to join the workforce become virtually impossible. In this way families become part of a growing number of those who are excluded from many of the things that most people take for granted. People who are financially poor are also liable to suffer from social exclusion in other areas. They may live in areas with the poorest housing, and have less access to decent schools and health services. Conclusion Clearly traditional family structures are no longer the norm in the UK. This leads to other social problems because the state system is not equipped to deal with either the increased burden on the benefits system or in making the employment and childcare systems more equitable. It might be argued that things are not going to return to the way they were and therefore Government needs to initiate policies that relate to the changed structure in UK society. 1250 words Bibliography Abbott, P. and Wallace, C. 1997. An Introduction to Sociology: Feminist Perspectives. London, Routledge. Chambez, C. 2001. “Lone-Parent Families in Europe: A Variety of Economic and Social Circumstances” Social Policy and Administration 2001, 35, 6, Dec, 658-671 Cohen, R. 1996 “The poverty trap” Community Care; 1 Aug 96, p.26-7 Crowe, G. and Hardey,M.1992. “Diversity and ambiguity among lone-parent households in modern Britain”. In Marsh, C. and Arber, S. (Eds.) 1992. Families and Households: Divisions and Change. London: Macmillan. Giddens, A. 2001. (4th ed). Sociology. Cambridge, Polity Press. Gittens, D. 1992 “What is the family? Is it Universal”. In Macdowell, L. and Pringle, R. (Eds.) 1992 Defining Women: social institutions and gender divisions. Cambridge:Polity. Guardian, 27th March, 2000 p.3 Parsons, T. and Bales, R. 1955. Family, Socialisation, and Interaction Process. Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press Social Trends 30 2000. General Household Survey in Giddens, A. 2001. (4th ed). Sociology. Cambridge, Polity Press.p.181 Walby, S. 1986. Patriarchy at Work. Cambridge: Polity. 1 Footnotes [1] Kinship ties generally refer to descent and blood relatives, also to marriage (Giddens, 2001).
AC 309 Park University Millie Taxable Income Calculations Questions.

Please let me know if the links don’t work.This practical application requires you to compare the tax savings associated with preferentially-taxed investments.PBC InformationPBC information represents personal records that are needed to complete your individual income tax return (e.g. bank statements, family details).Application Assignment – Investments.docxDue DateBy Saturday at 11:59 P.M., CT.Case InformationMillie is a single taxpayer and her 2018 taxable income is $181,205. The detailed calculation of taxable income is provided in the “PBC” document.Separate Millie’s 2018 taxable income of $181,205 into its ordinary income and preferential income components. Hint – your ordinary income and preferential income amounts should total Millie’s taxable income of $181,205.Using the single taxpayer ordinary tax rate brackets on the previous page, compute Millie’s 2018 income tax liability she should report on her 2018 Form 1040, Line 11. Do NOT calculate any self-employment tax, additional Medicare tax or net investment income tax that Millie might also be liable for (these additional taxes would be reported on Schedule 4 and Form 1040, Line 14).DirectionsCompute Millie’s 2018 income tax liability
Download Application Assignment – Investments.docx.Complete the two tables shown on Pg. 2 of the document.Submit the completed application assignment Word document.
AC 309 Park University Millie Taxable Income Calculations Questions

Action Learning Action learning engages to work on real problems, focusing on learning and actually implementing resolution. It is popular of doing things, and in the aspects of management programs targeting theoretical teaching of business schools. It stresses on self suggestion and real time lessons makes it is a particularly powerful to achieve student understanding of social and environmental problems. It can be mentioned as the purpose of action learning is to make developments in the world, and will add to personal learning. There are two traditional educational and teachers growth methods like: * Conventional, expert-driven, didactic methods of lectures and the common outlook of knowledge as an important pre-planned, easily transferable creation which is not effective in learning, and mainly in this process of teaching much is taught but minimum is learned. * To the level that learning does happen there is an equal problem in achieving the transfer of learning and knowledge from the place of learning to the place of work place. Action learning stays way these problems by insisting that action be taken in real time and that learning can achieved majorly by reflection on the action and by interaction with colleagues. It is not just another management technique rather it gives chance to learn for every individual including new students or employee (Alan Mumford, 1997). Action learning enables participants to connect more deliberately in a process where reflection on a condition can bring about fresh meaning and deed (Ian McGill

IFSM 311 UMD Walmarts Enterprise Architecture and Enterprise Systems Case Study

IFSM 311 UMD Walmarts Enterprise Architecture and Enterprise Systems Case Study.

This assignment gives you the opportunity to demonstrate your ability to research, evaluate, and explain enterprise systems and to communicate effectively at the executive level. This assignment specifically addresses the following course outcomes:analyze and examine how enterprise architecture and enterprise systems influence, support, and enable an organization’s ability to contribute to strategic decision making and to respond and adapt to the business environmentanalyze enterprise system solutions to make recommendations based on benefits, limitations, and best fit within the enterprise environmentanalyze and explain the elements of a successful plan for implementing enterprise solutions, addressing structure, processes, culture and other considerationsIts a group project .. what i need is introduction and one case study ( Walmart ) and conclusion please..
IFSM 311 UMD Walmarts Enterprise Architecture and Enterprise Systems Case Study

OU Wk 6 Biblical Foundations Activity Biblical Models of Leadership Discussion

python assignment help OU Wk 6 Biblical Foundations Activity Biblical Models of Leadership Discussion.

I’m working on a management discussion question and need an explanation to help me understand better.

Please share your thoughts, briefly, on each character and ways he/she can be modeled in today’s world of leadership. Moses: “Blind your eyes to petty criticism.”Moses was seen as the patient leader of a people with little faith (Ex. 16:8, 16-20). His church was a murmuring people. They complained and whined at every inconvenience (Ex. 15:24; 16: 2-3). He did get disgusted. Remember, he struck the rock and disobeyed God, but his patience had worn thin. He had had enough.Petty criticism wears on the leader. The wise leader will work hard at blinding his or her eyes to the pettiness of church members’ criticism. If that doesn’t work, he outlasts them. Just about every pastor has “struck the rock” at one time or another; but then, like Moses, the same pastor usually has the resilience to see things through. Nobody said it would be easy.
OU Wk 6 Biblical Foundations Activity Biblical Models of Leadership Discussion

Prochaska and Di Clemente Stages of Change

The transtheoretical model of change is one of several models of health promotion used by health care professionals in an effort to recognise and foresee health behaviours. The model is supported by various authors as a successful tool and framework within health education. (Warner 2003) This assignment will introduce the model and briefly discuss its input to health promotion together with further developments since its beginning. A concise account of its use in present health education will be given and referred to where applicable. The assignment will go on to discuss the relevance of the transtheoretical model of change within nursing practice and provide an understanding of the model by explaining the main theories. In addition the assignment will discuss and provide further information on what areas impact on how the model is used and why. Further discussion will take account of the strength of the approach used by this model and include theories on why it is used giving consideration to the patient as well as the health care professional. It is recommended that successful health education models can be used to asses goals in order to engage in pre-emptive behaviour and consequently it is crucial that the model is explained in order to take full advantage of its use. (Downie et al. 1997, Ogden 2004) The approach will be investigated in order that the reader can form an opinion on its use and why it is needed within health education. It is acknowledged that nursing and health care practice should be established on the most current and reliable research available and nurses must practice in partnership with equally the patient and other health authorities (NMC 2008). The writer hopes to establish the reader with the necessary information that satisfies these requirements and gives further discussion on how the transtheoretical model of change can be applied to clinical practice. This will include criticisms and challenges against the model and look at how the model is included within broader professional health care such as current health promotion campaigns. Finally a conclusion will be provided which will summarise the findings of this assignment and emphasise any significant features that add to the validity of the model and its use within health care. The transtheoretical model of change was developed by Prochaska and Di Clemente (1983) and grew from systematic integration of more than 300 theories of psychotherapy, along with analysis of the leading theories of behaviour change (Prochaska and Velicer, 1997). Consequently following the inception of public- health programmes this model has been implemented and is used within current health promotion. (Wood 2008) Health promotion is defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO 1986) as “the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health”. Health education is considered an approach of health promotion which also includes many theories, beliefs and concepts in regards to effective intervention. (Tones 2001) The transtheoretical model of change focuses on the decision-making abilities of the individual rather than the social and biological influences on behaviour as other approaches tried (Velicer, Prochaska, Fava, Norman, and Redding, 1998; Scholl, 2002). This model was developed to provide a framework for understanding how individuals change their behaviours and for considering how ready they are to change their substance use or other lifestyle behaviour. The stages and processes by which people change seem to be the same with or without treatment these include the individual’s perceptions of susceptibility to illness, severity of illness, barriers to changing behaviour, benefits to changing behaviour and finally action and maintenance. Although the model has been adapted and modified to include further components for the purpose of this assignment it is necessary to explain the theory behind the original before discussing modifications. (Ogden 2004, Bennett and Murphy 1997, Naidoo and Wills 2000) In addition it is suggested that by using these concepts in the transtheoretical model of change it will predict the likelihood that behaviour will or will not change depending on the individuals perception. The idea of anticipating behaviour and therefore adjusting intervention is supported by various researchers who suggest that using cognitive models can assist in how individuals perceive health by conscious thought as to the behaviours and the cost of those behaviours. (Yarbrough and Braden 2001, Roden 2004a, Wood 2008) This supports healthcare professionals to allow the patient to change behaviours based on their own awareness as opposed to medical tactics to health promotion that have been used previously. Ewles and Simnett (2003) recommend that using a client centred approach empowers the patient to change behaviour and independently manage behaviour and as a result the health care professional becomes a facilitator instead of an instructor. Using a client centred approach does not discount the benefits of the medical approach as it may require various tactics depending at what stage of the model the individual is identified as being at. However by using an effective health promotion model, it encourages the patient to become an active participant and more responsible for their health related decisions. Ogden (2004) describes the concept of an individual’s perception of control on their health as the “Health locus of control” which will be discussed later within this assignment. Based on the understanding of individual perceptions influencing behaviour it reinforces the use of the components previously discussed and by looking at these separately it is hoped that health care professionals will be able to detect the risks of behaviour and the probability of change. (Naidoo and Wills 2000, Ogden 2004) The previous mentioned components can be identified in the Transtheoretical model of change; these include pre-contemplation, contemplation, action, and maintenance. However the aspect that makes the transtheoretical model of change unique is the theory that change occurs over time, an aspect generally ignored by other models of change (Prochaska and Velicer, 1997; Velicer et al., 1998; Scholl, 2002). This temporal dimension of the theory suggests that an individual may progress through five stages of change when trying to adjust their behaviours (Prochaska and Di Clemente, 1983; Prochaska et al., 1992; Prochaska and Velicer, 1997). In the transtheoretical model of change, behaviour change is treated as dynamic, rather than an all or nothing phenomenon. This distinction is considered one of the theory’s strengths (Marshall and Biddle, 2001). The first stage of change within the transtheoretical model of change is the precontemplation stage, where individuals have no intention of taking action within the next six months (Prochaska et al., 1992; Prochaska and Velicer, 1997; Scholl, 2002). Individuals at this stage may or may not be aware of the consequences of their behaviour (Prochaska et al., 1992;Scholl, 2002) or may have tried to modify/change their behaviour and failed several times and as a consequence are dejected and unwilling to have another attempt (Prochaska and Velicer, 1997). Prochaska et al (1992) propose that the main characteristic of someone in the precontemplation stage is that they struggle to accept that they have problem behaviour and as such they cannot move on from this particular stage of the model. In order for the individual to move on they must experience cognitive dissonance which is acknowledging that there are negative aspects to continuing with this behaviour (i.e. smoking and the possibility of contracting lung cancer as a result) (Scholl, 2002). Following on from precontemplation, contemplation is the individual trying to make significant changes within another six month period, this includes evaluating any benefits or disadvantages to the individual changing their behaviour (i.e. cost of smoking, as opposed to loss of social activity) as a consequence many people stay within this stage for longer (Patten et al., 2000; Prochaska et al., 1992; Prochaska

DeVry University Wk 5 LDC Cloud Systems & Technology Industry Discussion

DeVry University Wk 5 LDC Cloud Systems & Technology Industry Discussion.

Deliverable # 4 – Assignment – Week 8The final deliverable for the Course Project is a narrated presentation reflecting on:I. Key Insights in each of these areas:The Fraud Triangle – What examples from the case study support: a) Pressure(s) to commit unethical actions or fraudulent activities? b) Opportunities due to weak internal controls or rewards for bad behavior? c) Rationalization(s) by employees and key players that minimized the consequences of bad behavior?The Organizational Structure of LDC a) How did you evaluate the key players’ performance? b) How does the reporting relationships in the organization hinder fraud investigation?The Internal Control Environment and Ethical Culture a) Identify weaknesses in the internal control systems. b) What evidence exists that “doing the right thing” is expected (or not) by employees?II. Recommendations to prevent, detect and investigate fraud in these areas:PASTURE #1: OUTLINE OF THE CASE (“WHAT IS GOING ON AT LDC?”)Objective: The objective is to talk about LDC and identify the specific problems that exist there.PASTURE #2: REFLECTION ON WHAT WENT WRONG (“HOW DID WE GET HERE?”)Objective: The objective is to identify the underlying factors that existed at LDC and that likely caused or contributed to the problems identified above.PASTURE #3: THE FINANCIAL REPORTING SUPPLY CHAINObjective: To evaluate each member of the financial reporting supply chain. Students will assess the overall performance of the key players in the case study.PASTURE #4. THE FINANCIAL REPORTING ENVIRONMENT (“HOW DOES THE SYSTEM WORK, AND HOW SHOULD IT WORK?”)Objective: To explore the internal controls systems, the roles and responsibilities of the various key players particularly their inter dependencies and the ethical culture in the company”This course examines the nature of occupational fraud, how it is committed, and introduces actions to detect it and procedures to deter it. The course also covers how to investigate allegations of fraud in order to meet requirements of civil and/or criminal court procedures. Also examined are ethics and governance in business as fraud-prevention tools. Coursework prepares students interested in earning the Certified Fraud Examiner (CFE) credential, examining tools and techniques for gathering evidence and information during fraud examinations”
DeVry University Wk 5 LDC Cloud Systems & Technology Industry Discussion