EFFECTIVENESS OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN GAIL (INDIA) LIMITED Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Award of Post Graduate Diploma in Management (Recognized by AICTE, Ministry of HRD, Govt. of India) By Ms. Pragati PG-10-052 Batch 2010-12 Under the guidance of Dr. Bhawana Garg INMANTEC, Ghaziabad Integrated Academy of Management and Technology Ghaziabad June, 2011 TRAINING PERIOD FROM 18TH APRIL – 18TH JUNE SUMMER PROJECT REPORT ON (A Government of India Undertaking-A Navratna Company)B-35, 36, Sector-1, Noida | PRAGATI ACKNOWLEDGEMENT “Vital to every operation is co-operation” I really agree to this wonderful quotation put by Mr. Frank Tyger. This project was successful due to the co-operation extended by people who have truly contributed towards it. Words aren’t enough to express my gratitude to all those who helped me through- out my Training period. With deep regards and humble respect I would like to thanks Shri M. Baa DGM (HR), Mr. U. P . VAIDYA Chief Manager, (HR) GAIL (India) Limited who provided me an distinctive opportunity to work at GAIL (India) Limited.
I would like to express my humble thanks and regards to Mr. I. K. Kothari, Senior Officer, (HR) Department, GAIL (India) Limited, whose kind supervision and Interest went all way in successful completion of this work. I would like to thanks all the members of GAIL (India) Limited who directly or indirectly helped me during my project work. PRAGATI ? Table of Content: Page 1. Scope ……………………………………………………………………………07 2. Objectives……………………………………………………………………….. 08 3. Limitations………………………………………………………………………. 09 4 Executive summary………………………………………………………………. 10 5.
GAIL (INDIA) Ltd…………………………………………………………….. 11-24 ? Overview of the Oil Industry………………………………………………. 25-29 6. GAIL (HR)……………………………………………………………………… 30-32 7. Literature Review………………………………………………………………. 33-50 8. Research Methodology…………………………………………………………. 51-53 9. Data Analysis ?Data Representation…………………………………………………… 54-75 ? Data Interpretation…………………………………………………….. 54-75 10. Recommendation & Suggestions……………………………………………… 76-81 11. Conclusion……………………………………………………………………… 82 12. Questionnaire on Performance Management System…………………………. 83-85 13.
Bibliography & References ……………………………………………………………. 86 Scope This study is intended to find the both sides of the system used in performance Appraisal. We know that good Appraisal system is essential to achieve the goals of the organization. If this is successfully implemented with a proper vision it can enhance the efficiency & productivity as employees are assured not to ignoring their performance and related awards. The present study intends to provide an integrated picture of the Level of employment attitude toward performance appraisal system in GAIL (India) Limited.
The study was conducted in GAIL (India) Limited, Noida, in HR departments. The study Covers the feedback from different employees of GAIL (India) Limited, Noida towards the Performance appraisal system of the firm. ? OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objective of my study of effective measurement of Performance appraisal System in GAIL (India) Limited are:- ?An overview of the Electronic PMS System in GAIL (India) Ltd. ?To study the pros and cons of the existing system of performance appraisal at GAIL (India) Ltd. ?To study how this helps in other HR- activities like training, promotion & transfers etc. n the Organizations’. ?To provide the possible practical Recommendation for its improvement in GAIL (India) Ltd. ? LIMITATIONS OF STUDY The biggest limitation of my study was the two months time period of internship which was not enough to understand performance appraisal of a company. Another Limitation of this study was I have made this project in GAIL (India) Limited. In such a small period Getting the views and opinions of the interviewee (HR manager) was a difficult task. ? Executive Summary: (Project) GAIL (India) Ltd. s one of the “ NAVRATNA ENTERPRISES ” and ranks among top 5 Companies in India. It is India’s Flagship Natural gas company, integrated all aspects of natural gas, value chain (including exploration and production, processing, transmission, distribution & marketing) & in its revealed services. In a rapidly changing scenario, GAIL (India) Ltd. Spearheading the move to a new era of clean fuel industrialization, creating a quadrilateral of green energy corridors that connect major consumption centers in India with major gas fields, LNG terminals and other cross border gas sourcing points.
GAIL is also expanding its business to become a player in the International Market. Today GAIL (India) Ltd. has almost 3400 Permananent employees, GAIL (India) Ltd. has its corporate office in Delhi which has almost 430 employees most of them of executive level. GAIL (India) Ltd is engaged in so many businesses and having a large pool of employees so an HR department is established to handle all employees related issues. It has to manage within the minimum cost the benefits and requirements of the employees.
The HR department of GAIL (India) Ltd. comprises of two broad sections i. e. , employees services, policy, security and administration. On the other hand when we see the Human resource development section, it integrates recruitment, performance management system, career progression department, library maintenance, training & development group. Performance Appraisal system at GAIL (India) Ltd. is functioning for long time. Earlier the process of performance appraisal was done through the manual PMS .
For last few years GAIL (India) Ltd. has successfully implemented the Electronic version of Performance Appraisal System which is very successful in completing the Appraisal process timely & easily. Therefore in this project to study PAS in GAIL (India)Ltd. is very relevant as with the increase of business the number of employees will increase and an effective PAS will be required. So this research will be focused on the analysis of effectiveness of Performance Appraisal System. ? Introduction ABOUT THE COMPANY GAIL (India) Ltd. as setup with the mandate to process transport and distribute natural gas and its products. GAIL thus went into the business of natural gas. LPG liquid hydrocarbons and petrochemicals the later are being value-added products. The company also entered into telecom sector by leasing bandwidth which is laid along the gas pipelines for their operations and maintenance and the future will more or less be a continuum of these and the other areas that GAIL has diversified into like Exploration & production. City gas Distribution, overseas presence etc.
The focus of course and the efforts/resource allocation in these areas would be different at different times but GAIL would maintain its premier company position in the gas and related segment in India. The core competence of GAIL is gas transmission and it draws its strength from over 6700 km of natural gas pipeline network and over 1900 km of LPG pipelines transmission network. Recently, GAIL has received approval from the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas pipelines in addition to these GAIL will be augmenting the capacities of 3 existing pipelines.
The total length of the new pipelines will be around 5000 km and the estimated investment of these would be nearly Rs 20,000 crore. When these pipelines are commissioned, the capacity is expected to increase from 148 MMSCMD at present to around 300 MMSCMD in 2011. VISION: – Be a leading company in natural gas and beyond, with global focus, committed care, value creation for all stakeholders and the environmental responsibility. MISSION:- Accelerating and optimizing the effective and economic use of natural gas and its fractions to the benefit of National economy.
HISTORY OF THE ORGANISATION The company was previously known as Gas Authority of India Ltd. It is India’s principal Gas transmission and marketing company. It was set up by the Government of India in August 1984 to create gas sector infrastructure. GAIL India is the country’s largest gas Transmission Company and handled 82 million standard cubic meters per day (mmscmd) Out of the 111 mmscmd of gas supplies in FY08. The company has a pipeline network of 7,000 kms in place. Its pipeline is the lifeline for major gas consumers from the power and fertilizer sectors.
It has also ventured into upstream gas exploration business in order to reduce dependency on a single source of supply and has secured 30 exploration blocks. GAIL is a significant player in downstream petrochemicals business with a production capacity of 410,000 tons per annum. It is also an early mover in city gas distribution with 8 joint ventures and a wholly owned subsidiary, GAIL Gas, are being incorporated. The company has plans to enter into more than 230 cities. GAIL is listed by Forbes as one of the world’s 2,000 largest public companies in 2007.
GAIL commissioned the 2800-km Hazira-Vijaipur- Jagdishpur (HVJ) pipeline in 1991. During 1991-93, three liquefied Petroleum gas (LPG) plants were constructed and some regional pipelines acquired, enabling GAIL to begin its gas transportation in various parts of India. GAIL began its City gas distribution in New Delhi in 1997 by setting up nine compressed natural gas (CNG) stations. In 1999, GAIL set up northern India’s only petrochemical plant at Pata. BUSINESS DESCRIPTION IN BRIEF Currently the business set up is as such ?7 LPG Gas Processing Units to produce 1. MMTPA of LPG and other liquid Hydrocarbons. ?1,922 km of LPG Transmission pipeline network with a capacity to transport 3. 8 MMTPA of LPG. ?13,000 km of OFC network offering highly dependable bandwidth for telecom Service providers. ?6,700 km of Natural Gas high pressure trunk pipeline with a capacity to carry 148 MMSCMD of natural gas across the country. ?North India’s only gas based integrated Petrochemical complex at Pata with a Capacity of producing 4, 10, 000 TPA of Polymers. 27 oil and gas Exploration blocks and 3 Coal Bed Methane Blocks. ?13,000 km of OFC network offering highly dependable bandwidth for telecom Service providers. ?Joint venture companies in Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Kanpur, Agra, Lucknow, Bhopal, Agartals and Pune, for supplying Piped Natural Gas (PNG) to households and commercial users, and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) to the transport sector. ?Participating stake in the Dahej LNG Terminal and the upcoming Kochi LNG Terminal in Kerala. GAIL has been entrusted with the responsibility of reviving the LNG terminal at Dabhol as well as sourcing LNG. ?Established presence in the CNG and City Gas sectors in Egypt through equity Participation in three Egyptian companies: Fayum Gas Company SAE, Shell CNG SAE and National Gas Company SAE. ?Stake in China Gas Holding to explore opportunities in the CNG sector in Mainland China. GROWTH ?1990-91 2800Kms Hazira-Vijaipur Jagdishpur (HVJ) pipeline becomes operational in 1991. LPG phase-I plant at Vijaipur commissioned in February 1991. 1991-92 Phase-2 at LPG Vijaipur plant commissioned in Feb 1992. ?1992-93 LPG project at Vaghodia commissioned in Feb 1993. ?1994-95 Joint venture Agreement signed with British Gas on December 6, 1994. Mahanagar Gas Limited Incorporated to implement Bombay City Gas Distribution project. ?1997-98 Government of India grants Navratna status to Gail, herby entrusting greater autonomy. To Gail after restructuring of the Board. Gas processing units (GPU), Offsite utilities of the petrochemical plant at Pata, commissioned. 1999-00 GAIL participates in NELP bidding by submitting offer for 7 blocks in association With ONGC & IOC and Russian company Gazprom. Government of India approved Award of 2 blocks to GAIL, One with ONGC in Orissa offshore and another with Gazprom in Bengal Offshore LPG plant at Pata with a designed capacity of 2. 58 lacs TPA of LPG commissioned for commercial production in March 2000. ?2000-01 GAIL conceptualizes a National Gas Grid to connect the supply and emand centres in the country with high pressure cross country pipelines networks. The gas processing Complex, Gandhar begins production in March 2001. The process LPG, 0. 43 Lacs MT of Pentane and SBP solvent. Jamnagar-Loni LPG Pipeline project, the world’s longest and India’s first cross country LPG 1296 Km long pipeline, which passes through Gujrat, Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi are completed. ?2001-02 GAIL picks up 12% equity in GSEG’s 156 MW power project in Gujarat as a strategic Investment.
Marketing functions is restructured and decentralize at zonal levels. GAILTEL phase-I commissioned, creating an OFC based DWDM network connecting Delhi-Mumbai, Delhi-Jaipur, Delhi-Ahmadabad, Delhi-Vijaipur, Meerut-Agra. ?2003-04 GAIL has an initial success in the form of significant gas find in the block A-1 in Myanmar and discovery of oil and gas in the Cambay block. GAIL successfully secures Participation in 2 retail gas companies in Egypt, Fayum Gas Company and Shell CNG. Vizag – Secundrabad LPG pipeline.
The 580 km pipeline with the maximum throughput Of 1. 16 MMPTPA completed in June 2003 Bhagyanagar Gas Limited, a joint venture of GAIL and HPCL, incorporated in August 2003, in the field of distribution and marketing of auto LPG, CNG for vehicles and retailing of natural gas in the cities of Andhra Pradesh. Phase I and II of 8000 km network GAILTEL projects connecting Delhi, Mumbai and 71 other cities, completed. This network provides a national communication Backbone. ?2004-05
Incorporation of GAIL Global Singapore PVT. LTD Acquisition of 15 % equity stake in Natural Gas, Egypt. Agreement signed for acquisition of 9 % equity stake in China Gas Holding LTD, a joint venture for city gas projects in 42 cities of China. Tripura Natural gas Co. Ltd, a joint venture for city gas project in Tripura, incorporated UP central gas Ltd, a joint venture for city gas project with BPCL in Kanpur, incorporated De-bottlenecking of LLDPE swing unit from 150000 MT to 210000 MT at GAIL Pata.
Gas management system commissioned for HVJ, DVPL and SGPL. Commissioning of South Gujarat pipeline network . Commissioning of Vizag Secundrabad LPG pipeline. ?2005-06 GAIL, ilex Australia, Videocon, HPCL and BPCL consortium awarded Blocks no 56 in Oman. GAIL was ranked 11th among top 15 of the world’s largest listed gas utilities firms in the oil and gas industry, in terms of market capitalization ,for the year 2005. GAIL gets Golden Icon award for e-governance Inauguration of the National gas Management centre (NGMC) of GAIL at NOIDA.
GAIL bagged two awards for Excellence in cost management from the Institute of Cost and Works Accounts of India (ICWAI) . ?2006-07 Mechanical completion of new HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) plant with a capacity of 100,000 TPA at Petrochemical complex at PATA Commissioning of Dahaj-Panvel Pipeline Brahmaputra cracker and polymer limited-Joint Venture Company led by GAIL, formed for implementing Assam gas cracker projects GAIL acquires stake in A7 Myanmar block GAIL’s Vijaipur- Kota pipeline commissioned.
GAIL’s Kailaras- Malanpur pipeline commissioned GAIL’s consortium wins 3 CBM blocks in 3rd round of bidding GAIL HPCL joint venture-Avantika gas limited incorporated GAIL ONGC ink Gas supply agreement GAIL brings India’s first spot LNG cargo at Dahej. Subsidiaries and Joint ventures Company has been the pioneer for City Gas Projects in India. With natural gas emerging as the fuel of choice in the country, Company believes that the next decade will belong to the city gas. It was the first Company to ntroduce City Gas Projects in India for supplies to households, commercial users and for the transport sector by forming Joint Venture Companies. Subsidiaries are as follow: GAIL Gas limited Company has formed a wholly owned subsidiary named ‘GAIL Gas Limited’ for Implementing City Gas Projects and CNG corridor in the country. The subsidiary Company will act as a vehicle for bidding for laying pipeline infrastructure in the country. GAIL Global (Singapore) Pte. Limited Company has a wholly owned subsidiary, namely, GAIL Global (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. o manage investments abroad . Company is looking for further business opportunities through this subsidiary company. Brahmaputra Cracker and Polymer Limited Company has 70% equity share with Oil India Limited (OIL), Numaligarh Refinery Limited (NRL), and Govt. of Assam, each having 10% equity share. The authorized Capital of the company is Rs. 1,200 Crores. A Feedstock Supply Agreement has been Signed between Brahmaputra Cracker and Polymer Limited (BCPL), and all the three Suppliers’ viz. , Oil and Natural Gas Company Limited, Oil India Limited and Numaligarh Refinery Limited.
Financial closure for the project is likely to be completed during the Year 2008-09. Joint Ventures Aavantika Gas Limited (AGL) GAIL and Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) for Implementation of City Gas Projects in the cities of Madhya Pradesh. AGL has started project implementation activities in the city of Indore. Company has 22. 5% stake in the Company with HPCL as equal partner. Bhagyanagar Gas Limited (BGL) BGL is currently operating three Auto LPG stations in Hyderabad and one Auto LPG station in Tirupathi.
It is currently operating six CNG stations in Vijayawada and three CNG stations in Hyderabad. Company has 22. 5% stake in the company along with HPCL as equal partner. Central U. P. Gas Limited (CUGL): CUGL is currently operating five CNG stations in Kanpur, one CNG Station in Bareilly and one CNG station in Kanpur is under commissioning. CUGL is building MDPE network for supply of PNG to domestic, commercial and Industrial sectors in the city of Kanpur. Company has 22. 5% stake in the company along with BPCL as equal partner. Green Gas Limited (GGL):
GGL is currently operating four CNG stations in Lucknow and three CNG stations in Agra. GGL will also take up project implementation in other cities of Western UP on the basis of gas availability and project Viability. Your Company has 22. 5% stake in the company along with IOC as equal partner. Indraprastha Gas Limited (IGL) IGL is supplying piped gas to around 1 Lac domestic, 276 commercial, 16 Small industrial consumers and CNG to over 1. 35 Lacs vehicles through 153 CNG Stations. IGL is catering to world’s largest CNG bus fleet of over 11,000 buses in Delhi. Company has 22. % stake in the company along with BPCL as equal partner. Maharashtra Natural Gas Limited (MNGL) MNGL is a Joint Venture of your Company and Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) for implementation of City Gas Projects in Pune city. MNGL is developing necessary infrastructure for supply of CNG and PNG in the city. Company has 22. 5% stake in the company along with BPCL as equal partner. Petronet LNG Limited (PLL) PLL was formed for setting up of LNG import and regasification facilities. PLL has a long term LNG supply contract with Ras Gas, Qatar for import of 7. MMTPA. PLL Dahej terminal is being expanded to 10 MMTPA capacity. Company has 12. 50% stake in the company along with BPCL, IOC and ONGC as equal partners. Ratnagiri Gas and Power Private Limited (RGPPL) RGPPL is a Joint Venture Company between your Company, NTPC, and Financial Institutions and MSEB. Your Company has 28. 33% stake in the company along with NTPC as equal partner. The capacity of the Ratnagiri Gas & Power Station is 2,150 MW. Company has made an investment of Rs. 500 Crores and has approved additional Equity of Rs. 475 Crores to RGPPL, out of the Rs. 75 Crores; an amount of Rs. 92. 90 Crores has been paid during the month of May, 2008. Tripura Natural Gas Company Limited (TNGCL) TNGCL is presently supplying gas to 6600 domestic, 104 commercial, 21 industrial consumers and has set up one CNG station in Agartala city. Company has 29% stake in the company. Company has approved formation of JV for City Gas Projects in Vadodara with Vadodara Mahanagar Seva Sadan (VMSS) with 26 percent equity, while VMSS will have 24 per cent equity. The balance 50 per cent equity will be held by strategic investors and public.
A JV agreement has also been signed with HPCL for city gas projects in Rajasthan. Business operation 1) Upstream Operation Every cloud has a silver lining and every adversity hides an opportunity. GAIL’s Exploration and Production (E) unit was born in just such a scenario. As the Indian Economy opened up around the year 2000, the business environment changed dramatically. For GAIL, liberalization meant competition in core business i. e. midstream and downstream national gas distribution No longer could they rely on statutory support mandating secured sources of Natural Gas.
The reserves contained in existing contracted fields were fast depleting. Apart from securing sources for Natural Gas, there were other compelling reasons for GAIL to get into E: Integration in supply-chain Large gap in Gas demand and supply National Gas security Balancing of Business portfolio So that GAIL ventured into E in 2001. At the end of 2007-08, it has invested Rs. 11. 5 billion in this segment. It is involved in oil & gas exploration activities over acreage of 1. 7 square km. It has participating interest ranging from 10 to 80 percent in following:- ?24 domestic blocks 3 overseas blocks ?3 CBM GAIL is currently participating in 27 exploration blocks, in Basins such as Mahanadi, Mumbai, Cambay, Assam-Akaran , Tripura Fold Belt and Cauvery. GAIL has partnership in these blocks with various companies such as ONGCL, GSPCL, OIL, Hardy Exploration & Production, Petrogas, JOGPL, Daewoo, OVL, IOCL, Korea Gas Corporation, Hallworthy, BPCL, HPCL and Silver wave. GAIL also has stake in 3 overseas blocks (A-1 and A-3 blocks in Myanmar and Block-56 in Oman). Of these, nine are offshore blocks and eighteen onshore blocks, of which 13 are deepwater and 5, are shallow water.
Coal Bed Methane (CBM) is stored in coal seams and was generated during the process of coalification. It occurs within these seams either as free gas in fractures or in dissolved form in water. The consortium of GAIL (India) Ltd. , Arrow Energy (India) Pty Ltd. , EIG Energy Infrastructure Group AB has been awarded 3 CBM Blocks in CBM-III Bidding round. The Tata Power Company is also a consortium partner in two of the awarded blocks. These blocks are in Rajmahal (Jharkhand), Mand Raigarh (Chattisgarh) and Tata Pani Ramkola (Chhattisgarh). 2) Midstream Operation a) Petrochemicals
The company has seven gas LPG processing plant with total capacity of 1. 2 mtpa 4 plants are situated along the Hazira Vijaipur Jagdishpur pipeline (two at Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh , one at vaghodia in Gujarat, and one at oriya in Uttar Pradesh ,and one each in Lakwa Assam , Usar , Maharashtra an d Gandhinagar Gujarat). The total liquid hydrocarbon production was over 1. 348 million tonnes, which included 1. 043 MT of LPG 0. 156 tm of propane and 0. 074 tm of pentane the company’s board of director has recently approved them doubling capacity of its pata petrochemical complex in UP to 0. 8 mtpa . he installed polymer capacity at pata is 0. 41 mta, which will be increased by leveraging existing facility and augmenting them. Company is setting up 280000 tpa petrochemical plant in Assam at an investment of Rs 54. 6 billion. It has also signed an agreement with HPCL, OIL, Mittal investment and France total to set up another petrochemical complex and crude oil refinery at Vishakhapatnam in AP. GAIL has a 70% equity stake in Brahmaputra cracker and polymer limited. The other equity partners are OIL, Numaligarh Refinery Limited and the Govt of Assam is having a 10% equity stake. b) Pipeline Operation
Interstate pipelines provide open access for shipment of natural gas. Gas enters an interstate pipeline from gathering systems and from interconnecting pipelines. Beginning at individual wellheads, gathering systems usually consist of smaller diameter pipe operating at lower pressure. Gas conditioning is usually performed to reduce contaminants such as water from gathered gas before it is compressed into the transmission system. Gas leaves the transmission system through delivery points to other interstate pipelines, local distribution companies and directly to end users such as industrial facilities and power plants.
Local distribution systems deliver gas to residential, commercial and industrial end users. The basic components of an interstate pipeline include steel pipe, valves, and compression, processing and storage facilities. Pipe sizes vary widely with much of the pipe in the 20-inch to 36-inch diameter range and wall thickness of about one quarter to one-half inch. A typical range of operating pressures for a transmission system is 300 to 1440 psig. Powered by natural gas or electricity, compression is one of two types: reciprocating or centrifugal.
Processing facilities extract undesirable contaminants (such as hydrogen sulfide and water) and marketable hydrocarbons (such as propane and gasoline). Storage facilities have been developed from depleted oil fields, coal mines, salt domes, aquifers and reefs. These facilities can be used for peak-shaving hourly demands and short-term, as well as, seasonal storage of gas. Much of the gas that is transported on interstate pipelines is nominated, that is, scheduled in advance of actual gas flow. Deliveries into local distribution companies that serve weather-sensitive markets, however, cannot be known with absolute certainty.
Such demand is met in part with “no-notice” service, which is usually supplied from inventories of the customers’ gas, which is stored in the pipeline’s storage facilities. 3) Downstream operation Natural Gas usage in Indian cities has been limited primarily due to the scarcity of supply. However this scenario is undergoing change with several LNG projects/transnational pipelines under implementation, which together with new domestic Gas finds are expected to shore up the supply deficit in the next few years. Meanwhile the market for city gas distribution is also set to grow at an accelerated pace.
The CNG demand got a boost with the Supreme Court directive on pollution reduction in 12 major cities in India. The domestic segment is also expected to grow with the government’s intentions to remove the subsidy on LPG cylinders in a phased manner in 3-5 years making piped gas even more economical. 4) Overseas Operation GAIL has a 10 % equity stake in block A! Ink Myanmar where huge gas reserve has been discovered recently. It also has a 10 % stake in block A3. It has stake in block56 in Oman. However GAIL’S share in the blocks has been reduced following Myanmar’s national oil company exercising its “step in” right’s to 8. %. In 2003 -04 GAIL acquired equity stakes in CGD project of fayum gas and shell gas in the Egypt. GAIL has setup a wholly owned subsidiary on Singapore, christened GAIL Global private limited, two undertake overseas investment, the subsidiary a 15% equity stake in the Egyptian national gas company- one of the largest natural gas distributing companies in the private sector in Egypt. The company also has a 50% stake in a JV formed with china gas holding limited to undertake projects in china, India and other countries. Business of GAIL (India) Limited ?Natural gas ?Petrochemicals Exploration and production ?LPG and other Liquid hydrocarbons ?Telecommunication 1. Natural gas With only one carbon and four hydrogen atoms per molecule, Natural Gas has the lowest carbon to hydrogen ratio, hence it burns completely, making it the cleanest of fossil fuels. Natural Gas satisfies most of the requirements for fuel in a modern day industrial society, being efficient, non-polluting and relatively economical. The periodic uncertainties and volatility in both the price and supply of oil, have also helped Natural Gas emerge as a major fuel in the energy basket across countries.
Natural Gas comes in 4 basic forms:- ?Liquefied Natural Gas, LNG – Natural Gas which has been liquefied at -160 Natural Gas is liquefied to facilitate transportation in cryogenic tankers across sea ? Regasified Liquefied Natural Gas, RLNG – Compressed Natural gas, CNG – Natural Gas compressed to a pressure of 200-250 kg/cm2 used as fuel for transportation, CNG decreases vehicular pollution ? Piped Natural gas, PNG – Natural Gas distributed through a pipeline network that has safety valves to maintain the pressure assuring safe, uninterrupted supply to the domestic sector.
SECTORSNATURAL GAS IS USED Generation of electricity by utilities As fuel for base load power plants Fertilizer Industry As feedback stock in the production of ammonia and urea. IndustrialAs an under boiler fuel for raising steam. As fuel in furnaces and heating applications. Domestic and commercial For heating of spaces and water for cooking. Automotive As a non-polluting fuel. Petrochemicals As the raw material from which a variety of chemical products, eg. Methanol, are derived. 2. LPG & Allied Products: LPG GAIL produces LPG through fractionation, known as Straight Run (SR).
GAIL LPG is an eco-friendly fuel and provides a cheaper and effective means of reducing pollution and increasing productivity. Characteristics of GAIL LPG: oProcessed from Natural Gas. oClean fuel with almost nil unsaturated compounds oHas a higher calorific value than Refinery’s LPG and hence gives more value for money oIts homogeneous composition results in more efficient combustion oThe air fuel ratio need not be changed with every batch oNo Impurities like sulphur, carbon dioxide, traces of oxides of nitrogen. Hence lower corrosion. oHas nil moisture content Customer-friendly fuel as it is easy to transport, store and use LPG: Applications Domestic: For use in household Commercial: For use in hotels, bakeries, canteens, etc Auto: For use as fuel in automobiles Industrial: For use in production process, details of which are as under: Agriculture Grain drying/ Weed killing/ Preservation of fruits/ Tobacco curing/ Tea drying Automobile Heat treatment/ Paint baking CeramicsBiscuit and Gloss firing of porcelain & stoneware Chemicals and Drugs Heating and Drying Electrical Bulbs and Tubelights manufacturing/ Filament manufacturing/ Battery manufacturing Food Baking/ Boiling/ frying/ milk drying
Glass Melting/ holding/ feeding/ working/ Fire polishing Metallurgical Annealing/ Billet heating/ Melting/ Descaling/ Stress relieving/ Mould/ Cupola/ Laddle heating Metal Working Steel cutting/ Hole piercing/ Welding of non ferrous metals PackagingMetal box soldering Textile Drying/ Singeing/ Velvet processing calendaring / Print drying/ Dyeing Transport Engine fuel Miscellaneous Aerosols propellant/ Amarjyotis / Torches/ Bird scarers / Bitumen Melting in water proofing industry and road making GAIL LPG is valued in Industry because of its high energy heat, homogeneous content, cleanliness and easy availability.
Industries prefer to use GAIL LPG to power process furnaces, dryers, ovens, kilns, paint shops, etc. Process Heating: Homogeneous composition leads to no residue on combustion and accurate temperature control. Air Fuel ratio need not be changed with every batch. Excellent application in manufacture of textiles, glass, picture-tubes, automobile, bearings, etc. Metal Processing: Clean burning. No residue of Sulphur, Lead & Carbon leads to minimum scaling losses. Melting operations are homogeneous due to constant temperature control. Excellent applications in forging, wire drawing, casting, melting industry
Paintings nits: No unburned fuel and residues. Ability to have constant temperature control results in effective and uniform heating with minimum fuel. Major car manufacturers use GAIL LPG for paint shops. Also finds applications in food processing, ink printing, etc. Kilns & Furnaces: Accurate temperature control leads to enhanced productivity, reduces costs & pollution. No deposits of carbon lead to reduction in downtime and contamination. Excellent application in ceramics, heat treatment units. Drying Ovens: Finds excellent application in drying ovens due to less maintenance than oil systems because of one step heat transfer.
Metal Industry: Usage of GAIL LPG leads to greater flame stability. No risk for overheating or blow back. Preferred over oxyacetylene fuel due to greater flame stability and efficiency LPG : Production GAIL produces LPG at its seven fractionating units. Detail of locations and their and their production capacity are given below • Vijaipur(2 Nos) , Madhya Pradesh • Auraiya Pata, UP • Gandhar & Vaghodia, Gujarat • Usar, Maharasthra • Lakwa, Assam GAIL is one of the largest indigenous producer of LPG. During 2006-2007 GAIL had produced about 10,25,900 MT (12 %) LPG against total all-India ndigenous LPG production of 84,04,000 MT GAIL LPG is being supplied to PSU Oil Marketing Companies namely IOCL, BPCL, HPCL and IBP Ltd ex-Production Units at Import Parity Price. 3. Petrochemicals GAIL’s the country’s premier Natural Gas Marketer & Transporters , diversified into the manufacturing and marketing of downstream HDPE & LLDPE from natural gas cracking at its Pata (Uttar Pradesh state, India) unit from 19th April 1999. The beginning was with a name plate capacity of 2,60,000 MTPA of HDPE and LLDPE. In FY 2007-08, the petrochemical business portfolio contributed over 32% of the segment gross profit.
GAIL is the only HDPE/LLDPE plant operating in Northern India and has a dominant market share in North India. The primary thrust markets for the polymers had been Western India, but, with the entry of GAIL in the HDPE & LLDPE market segments, today north India has also witnessed a rapid and significant growth in the polymer downstream processing segments. In a successful span of about a decades of establishing and marketing its grades under the brand names G-Lex & G-Lene, GAIL has along side augmented its name plate capacity of HDPE & LLDPE to 4,10,000 MTPA by adding another dedicated HDPE downstream polymerization unit of 1,00,000 MTPA.
Polyethylene in India represents over 43% of thermo plastic Demand 4. Power Gujarat State Energy Generation Ltd was incorporated on December 13, 1998, with Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation Ltd (GSPCL) as the main promoter, to set up a Natural Gas-based power project at Hazira . The project was planned with a generation capacity of 156 MW by utilising natural gas from Hazira gas fields jointly owned by GSPCL and NIKO Resources, Canada, at an estimated cost of Rs. 576 crore with a 70:30 Debt to Equity ratio within 21 months from June 1, 2000.
Fuel Supply Agreement with GSPCL / NIKO and Fuel Transportation Agreement with Gujarat State Petronet Ltd were entered into to securitize fuel supply. An arrangement is in place to sell power to the Gujarat Electricity Board through a Power Purchase Agreement signed on February 28, 2000, for 20 years. Commercial production was declared with the commissioning of the Gas Turbines in open cycle mode in December 2001. Subsequent to successful completion of performance tests, Combined Cycle operation commenced from June 2002. The plant is running smoothly with high Availability and Plant Load Factor. . Gailtel The GAILTEL service arm of GAIL, is engaged in providing GAILTEL services to mission critical in-house SCADA and ERP services apart from commercially leasing services to GAILTEL Operators and ISP’s across India. GAILTEL has been operating commercially in the Indian GAILTEL sector since June 2001. It is also responsible for meeting the captive communication requirements of GAIL’s pipeline installations. GAILTEL, today serves most of the GAILTEL operators of the country, which include HUTCH, VSNL, Airtel , Idea Cellular, Reliance Infocom, Tata Tele services, to name a few.
Its high speed optic-fibre network extends to well over 13,000 Km connecting around 200 cities across various states like: Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra , Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerela. With SDH & DWDM as the core layer, the network is built largely along the highly secured GAIL’s cross country pipeline corridor and also configured in “self-healing” rings to ensure highly reliable and error free service to its esteemed customers. The network is managed centrally on round the clock basis from a state-of-art Network Management Centre at Noida 6.
Exploration and Production Every cloud has a silver lining and every adversity hides an opportunity. GAIL’s Exploration And Production (E&P) unit was born in just such a scenario. As the Indian Economy opened up around the year 2000, the business environment changed dramatically. For GAIL, liberalisation meant competition in our core business i. e. midstream and downstream national gas distribution No longer could we rely on statutory support mandating secured sources of Natural Gas for GAIL. The reserves contained in existing contracted fields were fast depleting. The writing was on the wall that we had to find new sources.
Apart from securing sources for Natural Gas, there were other compelling reasons for GAIL to get into E&P: • Integration in supply-chain • Large gap in Gas demand and supply • National Gas security • Balancing of Business portfolio • Global opportunity August 2001, therefore, saw the launch of GAIL’s Exploration & Production (E) unit. Initially, NELP rounds were targeted, and we won 12 blocks under four NELP rounds. GAIL also clinched a chunk of the much sought after A-1 block in Myanmar, in its maiden international E venture. The year 2004 placed GAIL firmly on India’s E&P map, with the dual strike of gas in Myanmar and oil in Cambay.
We are also acquiring international acreages and actively pursuing various international E&P opportunities. We knows that the future will be demanding. And we are ready to embrace it, acquiring the suitable technological equipment and expertise, and enhancing our manpower strength. GAIL is currently participating in 27 exploration blocks, in Basins such as Mahanadi, Mumbai, Cambay, Assam-Arakan, Tripura Fold Belt, Krishna Godavari, Cauvery and Cauvery Palar. GAIL has partnership in these blocks with various companies such as ONGCL, GSPCL, Hardy Exploration & Production, Petrogas, JOGPL, Eni, Oilex and Daewoo as Operators.
Out of these 27 E&P, 3 blocks are overseas (A-1 and A-3 blocks in Myanmar and Block-56 in Oman). GAIL is participating in three CBM blocks awarded to the consortium under CBM-III bidding round. Arrow Energy is the Operator of all the three CBM blocks. GAIL is a member of National Gas Hydrate Programme being coordinated by DGH and is actively involved in activities related to Gas Hydrate exploration. A list of current Exploration blocks in which GAIL is participating is on the link ‘E and CBM Blocks’ showing Participating Interest (PI) of GAIL. of these blocks were awarded during NELP-II, 2 during NELP-IV, 3 during NELP-V, 15 during NELP-VI and 1 during NELP-VII. GAIL has farmed-in three blocks. The total area for E&P Blocks is 172,275 KM2. OVERVIEW OF THE PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES The Indian oil and gas sector is one of the six core industries in India and has very significant forward linkages with the entire economy. India has been growing at a decent rate annually and is committed to accelerate the growth momentum in the years to come. This would translate into India’s energy needs growing many times in the years to come.
Hence, there is an emphasized need for wider and more intensive exploration for new finds, more efficient and effective recovery, a more rational and optimally balanced global price regime – as against the rather wide upward fluctuations of recent times, and a spirit of equitable common benefit in global energy cooperation. The Indian oil and gas sector is of strategic importance and plays a predominantly pivotal role in influencing decisions in all other spheres of the economy. The annual growth has been commendable and will accelerate in future consequently encouraging all round growth and development.
This has necessitated the need for a wider intensified search for new fields, evolving better methods of extraction, refining and distribution, the constitution of a national price mechanism – keeping in mind the alarming price fluctuation in the recent past and evolving a spirit of equitable global cooperation. Oil and Gas Sector: An Overview Exploration and Production (E) The growing demand for crude oil and gas in the country and policy initiative of Government of India towards increased E activity, have given a great impetus to the Indian E industry raising hopes of increased exploration.
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC) and Oil India Ltd. (OIL), the two National Oil Companies (NOCs) and private and joint-venture companies are engaged in the exploration and production (E) of oil and natural gas in the country. During the year 2008-09, crude oil production has been 33. 51 million metric tonnes (MMT) with natural gas at 32. 85 billion cubic metre (BCM). Natural gas production in 2009-10 is targeted to be about 52. 116 BCM. Imports and Exports of crude oil and petroleum products During the financial year 2008-09, imports of crude oil has been 128. 16 MMT valued at US$ 73. 7 billion. Imports of crude oil during 2007-08 was 121. 67 MMT valued at US$ 58. 98 billion. This marked an increase of 5. 33 per cent during 2008-09 in quantity terms and increased by 25. 37 per cent in value terms. During the financial year 2008-09, exports of petroleum products in quantity terms is 36. 93 MMT valued at US$ 25. 41 billion marking an increase of 6. 02 per cent in value terms compared to 2007-08. New Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP) New Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP) provides an international class fiscal and contract framework for Exploration and Production of Hydrocarbons.
In the first seven rounds of NELP spanning 2000-2009, Production Sharing Contracts (PSCs) for 203 exploration blocks have been signed. Under NELP, 70 oil and gas discoveries have been made by private/joint venture (JV) companies in 20 blocks. With a view to accelerate further the pace of exploration, the eighth round of NELP was launched in April 2009. In the eighth round of NELP,70 exploration blocks comprising of 24 deepwater blocks,28 shallow water blocks and 18 onland blocks will be offered. Natural Gas
Natural Gas has emerged as one of the most preferred fuel due to its environmentally benign nature, greater efficiency and cost effectiveness. At present, the main producers of natural gas are Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC), Oil India Limited (OIL) and the Joint Ventures of Panna Mukta & Tapti, and Ravva. Out of the total production of around 96 MMSCMD, after internal consumption, LPG extraction and unavoidable flaring, around 73 MMSCMD is available for sale to various consumers. In addition, around 7 MMTPA of re-gasified LNG (about 23 MMSCMD) is also being supplied to domestic consumers.
Gas produced by ONGC and OIL from the existing nominated blocks is sold at administered prices fixed by the Government. As against a total allocation of 150 MMSCMD of gas, actual supply under APM is presently around 53 MMSCMD. Public Sector Undertakings • Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC) Oil & Natural Gas Commission (then Commission) was established on 14th August, 1956 as a statutory body under Oil & Natural Gas Commission Act (The ONGC Act), for the development of petroleum resources and sale of petroleum products.
ONGC was Converted into a Public Limited Company under the Companies Act, 1956 and named as “Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited” with effect from February 1, 1994. • Oil India Limited (OIL) Oil India Limited (OIL), a Government of India Enterprise, under the administrative setup of Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, is engaged in the business of exploration, production and transportation of crude oil and natural gas. The authorized capital of the company is Rs. 500. 00 crores and the paid up capital of the company is Rs. 214. 00 crore.
OIL produces crude oil and natural gas from its oilfields in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, non-associated gas from its fields in western Rajasthan and processes LPG from the natural gas in Assam. The Company presently has operational areas in Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Rajasthan in the country. OIL is operating in 19 nominated ML and 19 nominated PELs. The Company has acquired participating interest in a total of 21 NELP blocks up to the end of NELP-VI bidding round with the right of Operatorship in respect of 12 blocks.
The Company also holds Participating Interests (Pis) in another four Pre-NELP JV blocks in India and Production Sharing Interest (PSI) in one Joint Venture Contract with other partners in Arunachal Pradesh. OIL is presently active overseas in seven countries, viz. Libya, Gabon, Iran, Nigeria, Yemen, Sudan and Bangladesh, pursuing various upstream E activities. In addition, the Company is continuously scouting for suitable E opportunities in other countries like Syria, Indonesia, Oman, Kazakhastan, Russia, etc. , either alone or with suitable partners. • GAIL (India) Limited
GAIL (India) Limited, India’s principal Gas Transmission and Marketing Company, was created in 1984 with the objective of accelerating and optimizing the effective and economic use of natural gas and its fractions to the benefit of national economy. In line with core objective of its incorporation, GAIL has, over the years, developed natural gas infrastructure for sustained development of gas market in the country. GAIL, in the last two decades of its existence, has created a sizeable natural gas market in the country and presently markets around 25 BCM of Natural Gas.
GAIL handles around 28 BCM of Natural Gas through its Transmission Network. Currently, GAIL’s market share in gas transmission and marketing is 79% and 70% respectively. Refining Capacity During the year 2008-09, domestic refinery production was 160. 77 MMT. By the end of XI plan, refinery capacity is expected to reach 240. 96 MMT per annum. The country is net exporter of petroleum products, and products like naphtha, petrol, diesel and Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF) etc. were also exported during the year.
At present, there are 20 refineries operating in the country, out of which 17 are in the public sector and 3 in the private sector. Out of 17 public sector refineries, 8 are owned by Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL), 2 each by Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited (a subsidiary of IOCL), Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL), Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) and Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited, and 1 by Numaligarh Refinery Limited (a subsidiary of BPCL). The private sector refineries belong to Reliance Industries Limited and Essar Oil Limited. Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited (CPCL) Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited (CPCL) formerly known as Madras Refineries Limited was formed as a joint venture in 1965 between the Government of India (GOI), AMOCO India Inc. , U. S. A. and National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) having a share holding in the ratio 74%: 13%: and 13% respectively. In 1985, AMOCO disinvested in favor of GOI and the shareholding percentage of GOI and NIOC stood revised at 84. 62 and 15. 38 respectively. Later, GOI disinvested 16. 2% of the paid up capital in favor of Unit Trust of India, Mutual Funds, Insurance Companies and Banks on 19th May 1992, thereby reducing its holding to 67. 7%. A public issue of CPCL shares was also made in 1994. As a part of the restructuring steps taken up by the Government of India, Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL) acquired equity from GOI in 2000-01. Currently, IOCL holds 51. 88% while Naftiran Inter-trade Company Limited (an affiliate of NIOC) continued its holding at %. CPCL has two refineries, with a combined refining capacity of 10. 5 million metric tonnes per annum (MMTPA). The Manali Refinery in Chennai has a capacity of 9. MMTPA and is one of the most complex refineries in India with Fuel, Lube, Wax and Petrochemical feedstock’s production facilities. The second refinery at Cauvery Basin, Nagapattinam was set up initially with a capacity of 0. 5 MMTPA in 1993 and later its capacity was enhanced to 1. 0 MMTPA in 2002. • Bongaigaon Refinery & Petrochemicals Limited (BRPL) BRPL was incorporated on February 20,1974 , with the objective of installation of Refinery having crude processing capacity of 1 MMTPA and a Petrochemical Complex consisting of Xylene Dimethyl Terephthalate (DMT) and Polyester Staple Fibre (PSF) units.
The crude processing capacity of the Refinery was enhanced to 2. 35 MMTPA in 1995-96 by commissions of its Refinery Expansion Units. The authorized equity capital and the paid-up capital of the Company is Rs. 200 crore and Rs. 199. 82 crore respectively. The Government of India disinvested its equity share of 74. 46% to Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL) in March, 2001 and hence BRPL became the subsidiary Company of IOCL on 29th March, 2001. • Numaligarh Refinery Limited (NRL)
Numaligarh Refinery, Popularly known as “Assam Accord Refinery” had been set up as a grass-root refinery at Numaligarh in the District of Golaghat (Assam) in fulfillment of the commitment made by Government of India in the historic “Assam Accord”, signed on 15th august, 1985 for providing the required thrust towards industrial and economic development of Assam. Both the Refinery and its adjacent Marketing Terminal were completed within the approved project cost of Rs. 2724 crore. Commissioning process of Numaligarh Refinery was completed in June 2000 and commercial production commenced from 1st October, 2000. Mangaore Refinery & Petrochemicals Limited (MRPL) Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited (MRPL), first joint venture company for setting up a crude petroleum Refinery in India was formed in 1987 jointly by Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited along with Indian Rayon and Industries Limited and its associate companies (A. V. Birla Group). The refinery project was commissioned in March, 1996 with an actual capacity of 3. 69 MMTPA. The expansion project of MRPL, having capacity of 9. 69 MMTPA, was commissioned in April, 2001.
The refinery is located at Mangalore on the western coast of India, primarily conceived to maximize middle distillates, such as kerosene and diesel. The refinery is designed to process light to heavy and sour to sweet crude. The performance of MRPL started deteriorating after dismantling of APM for refineries in April, 1998 and the Company came very close to becoming a sick company by 2002-03. With the approval of the Government, ONGC acquired the entire stake of Aditya Birla Group in MRPL for Rs. 59. 43 crore and also infused additional equity capital of Rs. 600 crore in March, 2003 as part of the approved debt restructuring plan.
With this, ONGC acquired 51% stake in the equity of MRPL. Thus, MRPL became a Government company within the meaning and scope of Section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 and also a subsidiary company of ONGC. In June / July 2003, ONGC acquired 35. 80 crore equity shares held by banks and financial institutions issued against part conversion of their loans in terms of debt restructuring plan, increasing its stake in MRPL to 71. 62%. MRPL is the first refinery in India to produce Euro-III High Speed Diesel (HSD) and Euro-III Motor Spirit (Petrol). Other Undertakings/organizations • Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH)
The Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH) was established under the administrative control of Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas by Government of India Resolution in 1993. Objectives of DGH are to promote sound management of the oil and natural gas resources having a balanced regard for environment, safety, technological and economic aspects of the petroleum activity. DGH has been entrusted with certain responsibilities concerning the Production Sharing Contracts for discovered fields and exploration blocks, promotion of investment and monitoring of E activities including review of reservoir performance of major fields.
In addition, DGH is also engaged in opening up of new/unexplored areas for future exploration and development of nonconventional hydrocarbon energy sources. • Engineers India Limited (EIL) Engineers India Limited (EIL) was established in 1965 to provide engineering and related technical services for petroleum refineries and other related projects. Over the years, it has diversified into and excelled in various fields.
EIL has emerged as Asia’s leading design, engineering and turnkey contracting company in Petroleum Refining, Petrochemicals, Chemicals & Fertilizers, Pipelines, Offshore Oil & Gas, Onshore Oil & Gas, Terminals & Storages, Mining & Metallurgy and Infrastructure Engineers India is an ISO 9001:2000 accredited Company. • Balmer Lawrie & Co. Ltd. (BL) Balmer Lawrie & Co. Ltd. (BL) was established in 1867 as a Partnership Firm and was incorporated as Private Limited Company in 1924. It was subsequently converted into a Public Limited Company in the year 1936 with its Registered Office at Kolkata. Biecco Lawrie Limited (BLL), a Government f India Enterprise, under the administrative control of the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas (MOP), was established in 1919 and became a Government Company in 1972. This is a medium sized Engineering Unit with diversified activities having two factories located at Kolkata. • Oil Industry Development Board (OIDB) The Oil Industry (Development) Act, 1974 was enacted following successive and steep increase in the international prices of crude oil and petroleum products since early 1973, when the need of progressive self-reliance in petroleum and petroleum based industrial raw materials assumed great importance. Oil Industry Safety Directorate (OISD) The Oil Industry Safety Directorate (OISD) assists Safety Council under Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas (MOP) headed by Secretary, P as Chairman and includes Additional / Joint Secretaries, Advisors in MOP, Chief Executives of all Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) under the Ministry, Chief Controller of Explosives (CCE), Advisor (Fire) of the Govt. of India, DGMS and the Director General of Factory Advice Service & Labour Institute etc. as members. • Centre for High Technology (CHT)
Centre for High Technology (CHT) was established in 1987 as a specialized agency of the oil industry to assess futuristic requirements, acquire, develop and adopt technologies in the field of refinery processes, petroleum products, additives, storage and handling of crude oil, products and gas. • Petroleum India International (PII) Petroleum India International (PII) is a consortium of Public Sector Companies in the petroleum, Petrochemicals and engineering sector. The member companies include Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. , Bongaigaon Refinery & Petrochemicals Ltd. , Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd. , Engineers India Ltd. , Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd, Oil India Ltd and Indian Petrochemicals Corporation. Petroleum Planning & Analysis Cell (PPAC) The Petroleum Planning & Analysis Cell (PPAC) was created w. e. f. 1st April 2002 after dismantling of the Administered Pricing Mechanism (APM) in the petroleum sector and abolition of the erstwhile Oil Coordination Committee (OCC).
The Governing Body under the chairmanship of Secretary (PNG) and senior officials of MOPNG and Chief Executives of major oil and gas PSUs as members provides necessary supervision, guidelines in the functioning of PPAC. Investment Opportunities Petroleum products are the single largest merchandise export from India. Improved Oil Recovery (IOR) / Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques Crude oil production from the deepwater block D6 in KG Basin • Use of improved technology • Extended oil field acquisition activities Capacity utilization of refineries • Foreign company collaboration • End-user market and Infrastructure development • Setting up oil & gas courses at universities and training institutes • Opportunities for world-class service providers Initiatives National Auto Fuel Policy The Auto Fuel Policy aims to comprehensively and holistically address the issues of vehicular emissions, vehicular technologies, and auto fuel quality in a cost-efficient manner while ensuring the security of fuel supply. The policy objectives are: i) Ensure sustainable, safe, affordable and uninterrupted supplies of auto fuels of right quality to support social and economic development. One of the key factors for meeting this policy objective is to diversify the sources and reduce dependence on any single source of supply. (ii) Over the years, infrastructure for the import of crude and crude products, their processing and production, and storage and transportation has been created in the country. Considerable investment has been made in developing this infrastructure and the logistics for the distribution of petroleum products in the country.
The Auto Fuel Policy is committed to an optimal utilization of such an infrastructure. (iii) Assess the future trends in emission and air quality requirements from the view point of public health, and establishment of a consistent framework within which different policy options to reduce emissions can be assessed. It is, therefore, required that environmental objectives for air quality be determined, emission reduction targets be established, input data on costs and benefits be collected and cost effective measures to reduce emissions be identified .
Appropriate institutional arrangements to be put in place to where such activities can be handled effectively. (iv) Adopt such vehicular emission standards that they together with other measures, will be able to make a decisive impact on air quality, without placing an undue burden on the people. (v) Vehicular emission standards and auto fuel quality should offer choice to the citizens and equally a choice to automobile manufactures in matters of technology selection.
Principles of widening the choice and promoting competition amongst automobile technologies, within the limits that are imposed by the availability of auto fuels and security of their supplies. (vi) As elsewhere in the world, the Government should decide only the vehicular mission standards and the corresponding fuel specifications without specifying vehicle technology and the type of fuel. (vii) The requirement of investments to reach vehicular technology and fuel quality of Euro III equivalent levels throughout the country is estimated in the range of Rs. 50,000 – Rs. 60,000 crore.
Therefore, to achieve the air quality targets by gradually improving emission standards and a phased up gradation of fuel quality and vehicular technology, taking note of the financial, technical and institutional considerations as also the absorptive capacity is required. FDI Policy The present policy on FDI in the Petroleum & Natural Gas sector vide Press Note No 5 (2008) permits FDI up to 100% under the automatic route in all activities other than refining and including market study and formulation, investment/financing, setting up Infrastructure for marketing in Petroleum and Natural Gas Sector subject to sectoral Policy.
In Refining, FDI up to 49% in case of Public Sector Undertakings, without involving any Divestment or dilution of domestic equity in existing public sector undertakings through Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) and FDI up to 100% is permitted in case of Private Companies under Automatic route subject to sectoral policy. Key Players: Indian Oil, Reliance, Bharat Petroleum, HP, ONGC, BP, BG Group, Gaz de France, Chevron Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Policy
The present policy on FDI in the petroleum & natural gas sector vide press note no 5 (2008) permits FDI up to 100% under the automatic route in all activities other than refining, investment/financing, setting up infrastructure for marketing in petroleum and natural gas sector subject to sectoral policy including market study and formulation. INTRODUCTION TO GAIL HR The HR department comprise of two broad sections i. e. , Human Resource and Human Resource development. The Human resource group integrates in it various functions like Industrial relations, employee services, policy, security and administration.
On the other hand when we see the Human resource development section, it integrates recruitment, performance management group, career progression department, library maintenance, training & development group. The IR departments here deal with grievances of the employees and solve them with the help of their grievances redressal system. They generally deals with the two of their collectors i. e, GAIL officers association (GOA) which is for executives and the other is GAIL officers association which is for executives and the other is GAIL karamchari sang (GKS) which is for non executives.
GAIL also has a online workflow through which employees can put their grievances to their respective Site HR , Corporate HR and Director HR, the advantage to making the system online is to enrich the system with features like traceability and accountability, when the user login to system, he fills the grievances form and submits then the system will generate the automatic registration number and also a link through which he can take the printout of his registered grievances, the system generates mail is automatically sent to the Site HR and the Site HR will revert back with relevant solutions in due consideration of his seniors.
The employee services department in GAIL takes care of employees salary, claims, leave records, loans and advances, maintenance of files, lease and accommodation, registration, retirement and probation cases. There are several allowances given to the employess which includes children education assistance scheme, city compensation allowance, productivity allowance, dearness allowance, annual and promotional increment, transport subsidy. Advances like HRA , conveyance allowance , TA , DA ,work location related payments, transfer benefits.
Recruitment department carries out the important work of meeting, manpower needs in GAIL in the company it is done through a proper recruitment policy, GAIL recruits through two different ways: 1. By visiting campus2. Open recruitment on all India bases 33% are taken from the campus and remaining is recruited on all India bases by conducting a written test. There is a procedure for the site recruitment on the state level basis. The company has assigned his task to a single recruitment team. First of all these recruitment are calculated which is done with the help of standard mapping template of the every different location of the company.
As per the policy the entry levels for the executive level are E1, E2, & E5. But at times at any other level employees can be recruited that depends on the situation. At staff level employees are recruited at S0, S3 & S5 levels. The pay packages given in the campus or all India basis recruitment are kept uniform. It can differ from location to location. As GAIL is a PSU it also follows the reservation norms. The job specification is done exquisitely. The various steps in the process are: 1. Online filling of application form 2. Scrutinizing the application form 3. Rejection of the application if eligibility is not
Web site summary and critique
Web site summary and critique.
Each of these requires that you visit a specified web site related to Physiological Psychology. For each of these, browse the site thoroughly and answer the following questions: Who created the web site? (person, professional organization, etc.) What is the purpose of the web site? Who is the target audience? (If this is not explicitly stated, use your own judgment.) What type of information is presented? How does the information in this web site relate to class notes and the text? (Be specific!) What additional information (that is not in the class notes and the text) did you find on this web site? (Again, be specific!) What did you learn about Physiological Psychology from this web site?
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