Effect on Normal Seedlings of Different Containers, Genotypes and Fungicidal Treatments During Storage in Rice. Effect on normal seedlings of different containers, genotypes and fungicidal treatments during storage in rice ABSTRACT The experiments were conducted in the Laboratory to evaluate the effect of two containers (cotton bag and 700 gauge polythene bag), five genotypes of rice (CMS 58025 A, CMS 58025 B, KMR-3, IR-66 and Pant Dhan-11) and fungicidal treatments (Thiram, Thiram Bavistin, Bavistin, Captan Vitavax, Chlorothalonil and Contaf on normal seedlings during storage (January to May) in rice. The packaging material cotton bags and 700 gauge polythene bags were found same for storage of seeds. In both containers, per cent normal seedlings were statistically at par in all the genotypes containing 12% moisture content. In all the genotypes there has been reduction in germination with the increase in storage period. The per cent normal seedlings were found maximum, after storage in restorer KMR-3 followed by IR-66 and variety Pant Dhan-11. In all the genotypes, different fungicides improved seed germination increased normal seedlings per cent. The individual effect of fungicides indicates that Thiram was most effective and yielded maximum percentage of normal seedling followed by Thiram Bavistin. As per the cumulative effect is concern KMR-3 resulted more normal seedlings in both containers when treated with Thiram. KEY WORDS: Normal Seedlings, Rice, Containers, Genotypes, Fungicidal treatments, Storage period INTRODUCTION Rice (Oryza sativa L) is one of the most important cereal crops for human consumption all over the world. In India, rice is grown on a very large area. For rice cultivation, the seed is a very important input. The rice seeds are required to be store for sowing in the next season after a time gap of six months or one year (Padhi et al. 2017). For the farmers and seed industry storage of seeds till the next sowing season is an important aspect. The deterioration on seed starts immediately after maturity in terms of reduction in seed germination, normal seedlings, viability and vigour. Stored seeds viability and vigour depends on the seed quality, genotypes, seed treatment, packing materials and storage conditions. For reducing the financial losses which is caused by due to non-selling of the seed in one season and have to store for the next season, the knowledge of storage of seed is very essential. There are many factors which affect the seed quality and cause deterioration during storage. Containers, genotypes and fungicidal treatment play a very important role during storage (Singh and Vishunavat 2019). The present investigation was carried out to find out the effect of containers, genotypes, fungicidal treatments and their combined effect on normal seedling during storage in rice. Materials and Methods The seeds of hybrid rice parents; CMS 58025 A, CMS 58025 B, IR- 66, KMR-3 and a variety Pant Dhan-11 were collected from the Crop Research Centre, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (UK), India showing varying degree of infection of various diseases in rice under field conditions. The seed were sum dried to bring down the moisture to 12% before storage. The seeds treated @ 2 gm/kg seed with Thiram (T1); Thiram Bavistin (T2); Bavistin (T3); Captan (T4); Vitavax (T5), Chlorothalonil (T6); and Contaf (T8) as well untreated seeds of genotypes viz. CMS 58025 A, CMS 58025 B, IR- 66, KMR-3 and a variety Pant Dhan -11were divided into two lots and were stored in two types of containers viz. Cotton bags (C1) and Polythene bags of 700-gauge (C2) at room temperature for further studies. The observations were recorded at monthly intervals on normal seedlings. Normal seedlings A proportionate root and shoot length are considered to be normal seedlings. Normal seedlings show continued development into a satisfactory plant with all their essential structures well developed. Germination test Germination test was conducted to take the observations on normal seedlings. The tests were carried out using “Towel Paper Method”. Two Towel paper (L×B) were soaked in running water overnight. Four hundred seeds for each treatment were used in the replication for 100 seeds. Twenty five seeds per towel paper were seeded and rolled using butter paper at the top. These rolled towel papers were placed in an incubator at 20-30° C in inclined position for 14 days. After 14 days, germination counts were made for normal seedlings and results are statistically analyzed for presenting the data (ISTA 1996). Results and Discussion Table 1 indicates that with an increase in storage period there has been decrease in per cent normal seedlings in both types of containers C1 and C2. Container C1 retained more percentage of normal seedlings at different storage periods from January to May as compared to C2 , although, these has not been significant difference in per cent normal seedlings in seeds stored in both of containers. The results are in accordance with Kaur et al. (1990) who also reported maximum germination retention in the seeds stored in 700 gauge polyline bags. Choudhury et al. (2011) also reported that rice seeds stored in polythene bags had higher seed germination. Padhi et al. observed that seeds of paddy stored in 700 gauge polythene bags maintained more germination percentage during storage. Table 2 indicates that with an increase in storage period, the per cent normal seedlings decrease in all the genotypes. Maximum normal seedlings were recorded in genotype G4 in January (84.74%) while the minimum per cent normal seedlings were recorded in G 2 (67.92%) at same period of storage. The same trend has been observed as regard to per cent normal seedling further at different storage months, thus the maximum per cent normal seedlings were recorded in G4 followed by G3, G5 and G2, while minimum normal seedlings were recorded in G1. Kalavathi et al. (1989) evaluated A lines and their maintainer lines, restorers and their resultant F1 hybrids and reported that IR 150 R followed by IR 101-98/96-2R as good storer and IR 58025 A found a poor storer. Rapid decrease in seed germinability in CMS line during storage was also reported by Duan and Ma (1992). Chang (1993) also reported that viability and vigour of hybrid rice seeds decreased more rapidly as compared to common cultivars, during storage. Deshpande and Mahadevappa (1994) reported germinability decrease in storage period while carrying out the storage studied with restorers of hybrid rice. The maximum percentage of normal seedlings were recorded in T1 whereas the minimum normal seedlings were observed in T8 with the increase in storage period per cent normal seedling decreased irrespective of different seed treatments. At all the storage periods, treatments T1 and T2 proved to be the best and maintained maximum percentage of normal seedlings. Treatments T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7 also improved percentage normal seedlings during storage as compared to check but were inferior to T1 and T2 (Table 3). Asalmol and Zade (1994) studied the effect of pre-storage seed treatment with Thiram and found the fungicide effective against fast deterioration of seed quality. Sharma and Chahal (1996) concluded that Bavistin Thiram effectively controlled the seed borne pathogens. Moon et al. (2011) reported that seeds treated with Thiram Bavistin had higher seed germination and seedling length. Jyoti et al. (2017) reported that seed stored with treatment of Thiram proved superior as it maintained good and maximum seedling length in rice during storage. Choudhury et al. (2011) observed that rice seeds treated with Thiram Bavistin had higher germination and seedlings length during storage. Padhi et al. (2017) concluded that rice seed treated with Thiram can maintain higher germinability for longer period. Table 4 indicates that genotypes G3, G4 and G5 in C1 and C2 containers with treatments T1 and T2 retained maximum percentage of normal seedlings and proved to be the best at all the storage periods. Genotypes G1 and G2 in containers C1 and C2 with all treatments improved percentage of normal seedlings as compared to checks but gave minimum percentage of normal seedlings as compared to rest of the genotypes, containers and treatment combinations (Table 4). Conclusion The present study indicates that seed stored in cotton bags and 700 gauge polyline bags are statistically at par in relation to normal seedlings in all the genotypes. The maximum normal seedlings were maintained in KMR-3, while minimum were in CMS 58025 A and CMS 58025 B in all storage period. At all the storage periods, Thiram followed by Thiram Bavastin proved to be the best and maintained maximum percentage of normal seedlings. Table 1: Effect of different containers on per cent normal seedlings at different storage period in rice Containers Storage Period January February March April May C1 77.63 (62.30) 75.47 (60.74) 73.75 (59.53) 71.13 (57.76) 69.68 (56.81) C2 79.93 (61.76) 74.97 (60.35) 73.22 (59.14) 71.82 (58.24) 68.85 (56.27) CD at 5% 0.99 0.90 0.80 0.73 0.61 Table 2: Effect of different genotypes on per cent normal seedlings at different storage period in rice Genotypes Storage Period January February March April May G1 68.79 (56.16) 64.45 (54.67) 64.96 (53.76) 63.17 (52.66) 61.50 (51.67) G2 67.92 (55.56) 66.04 (54.43) 63.96 (53.16) 61.33 (51.59) 59.71 (50.62) G3 82.54 (65.52) 80.79 (64.19) 78.83 (62.73) 76.75 (61.26) 74.54 (59.76) G4 84.79 (67.44) 82.45 (65.59) 80.79 (64.26) 78.96 (62.89) 76.21 (60.98) G5 82.36 (64.45) 80.33 (63.86) 78.86 (62.77) 77.17 (61.61) 74.38 (59.67) CD at 5% 1.57 1.42 1.30 1.45 0.96 Table 3: Effect of different treatments on per cent normal seedlings at different storage period in rice Treatments Storage Period January February March April May T1 81.73 (65.39) 79.40 (63.61) 77.80 (62.43) 74.47 (60.15) 72.40 (58.70) T2 81.27 (64.86) 79.07 (63.26) 76.67 (61.43) 75.00 (60.36) 72.33 (58.48) T3 77.93 (62.37) 75.33 (60.71) 74.20 (59.79) 72.27 (58.46) 70.07 (57.02) T4 80.73 (62.90) 73.80 (59.62) 72.53 (58.72) 71.07 (57.73) 68.93 (56.35) T5 75.87 (61.16) 74.00 (59.68) 72.53 (58.64) 71.13 (57.70) 69.00 (56.29) T6 77.13 (61.77) 74.93 (60.23) 73.07 (58.96) 71.12 (57.69) 69.47 (56.58) T7 76.67 (61.50) 74.73 (60.18) 72.67 (58.78) 70.67 (57.45) 68.13 (55.79) T8 71.93 (58.20) 70.27 (57.09) 68.40 (55.95) 60.07 (54.48) 63.80 (53.10) CD at 5% 1.98 1.80 1.64 1.45 1.22 Table 4: Cumulative effect of containers, genotypes and fungicidal treatment on per cent normal seedling at different storage periods in rice C x G x T Storage Period January February March April May C1 G1 T1 77.33 (58.96) 69.33 (56.38) 67.67 (54.95) 64.67 (53.54) 63.33 (52.74) C1 G1 T2 74.67 (59.81) 64.33 (56.42) 68.00 (55.59) 66.67 (54.74) 64.67 (53.56) C1 G1 T3 69.33 (56.38) 66.00 (54.35) 64.00 (53.13) 61.63 (51.56) 60.00 (50.77) C1 G1 T4 69.00 (56.43) 68.73 (55.74) 68.00 (55.15) 65.62 (53.64) 60.67 (57.16) C1 G1 T5 69.33 (56.53) 66.67 (54.91) 67.90 (55.20) 64.67 (53.56) 62.67 (52.36) C1 G1 T6 70.00 (56.84) 66.67 (54.75) 65.33 (53.95) 63.33 (52.74) 62.00 (51.95) C1 G2 T7 68.00 (54.58) 63.33 (54.35) 63.33 (52.74) 52.05 (51.95) 61.33 (51.56) C1 G1 T8 65.33 (53.93) 64.67 (53.54) 64.00 (53.16) 62.00 (51.97) 60.67 (51.58) C1 G2 T1 75.67 (57.24) 64.33 (56.45) 70.00 (56.80) 60.00 (50.81) 59.33 (50.39) C1 G2 T2 71.33 (56.63) 70.00 (56.80) 68.67 (55.96) 66.67 (54.74) 64.00 (53.14) C1 G2T3 67.33 (55.15) 64.67 (53.54) 62.67 (52.35) 61.33 (51.56 60.67 (51.16) C1 G2 T4 65.33 (53.95) 63.33 (52.78) 62.67 (52.36) 62.00 (51.96) 60.00 (50.78) C1 G2 T5 68.67 (56.04) 67.33 (55.16) 66.67 (54.74) 64.00 (53.14) 62.67 (52.34) C1 G2 T6 70.00 (56.82) 66.00 (54.41) 62.67 (52.36) 61.33 (51.57) 61.33 (51.57) C1 G2 T7 66.33 (54.94) 64.67 (53.14) 62.67 (49.99) 60.63 (51.17) 58.67 (49.99) C1 G2 T8 65.33 (53.35) 64.00 (53.36) 58.67 (51.95) 57.33 (49.23) 53.33 (48.06) C1 G2 T1 86.67 (69.19) 86.51 (69.00) 80.67 (66.42) 80.00 (63.96) 78.00 (62.17) C1 G3 T2 86.67 (68.17) 87.33 (69.24) 82.67 (67.55) 79.93 (63.80) 76.67 (61.65) C1 G3 T3 84.67 (66.02) 81.33 (64.45) 79.33 (63.57) 78.00 (62.09) 76.00 (60.78) C1 G3T4 82.07 (65.45) 82.00 (64.98) 79.33 (62.97) 78.66 (62.50) 75.33 (60.24) C1 G3 T5 84.67 (67.50) 82.00 (64.96) 80.00 (63.94) 78.66 (62.51) 74.67 (59.78) C1 G3 T6 82.67 (65.40) 82.00 (64.90) 80.20 (63.84) 77.33 (61.59) 74.67 (59.78) C1 G3 T7 81.33 (64.50) 79.33 (62.99) 76.67 (61.12) 75.33 (60.24) 72.00 (58.06) C1 G3 T8 75.33 (60.25) 74.67 (59.81) 72.67 (58.12) 89.33 (56.38) 68.00 (55.58) C1 G4 T1 92.67 (74.40) 90.00 (71.62) 89.33 (71.05) 82.67 (68.23) 85.33 (67.55) C1 G4 T2 88.00 (70.49) 86.67 (69.35) 84.00 (66.75) 82.67 (65.55) 80.67 (64.17) C1 G4 T3 85.33 (67.49) 82.00 (65.02) 79.00 (63.95) 78.83 (62.71) 77.50 (61.63) C1 G4 T4 85.33 (67.49) 84.00 (66.50) 82.00 (65.04) 80.00 (63.45) 76.67 (61.15) C1 G4 T5 83.33 (65.94) 82.00 (64.92) 78.67 (62.51) 77.33 (61.59) 75.33 (60.25) C1 G4 T6 82.67 (65.71) 80.67 (64.04) 80.67 (64.04) 80.00 (63.51) 77.33 (61.59) C1 G4 T7 84.00 (66.67) 82.00 (65.04) 80.67 (64.09) 78.67 (62.71) 75.33 (60.33) C1 G4 T8 78.67 (62.70) 74.00 (59.44) 73.33 (59.04) 71.33 (57.74) 66.67 (54.78) C1 G5 T1 84.67 (67.42) 83.00 (65.34) 82.67 (60.57) 80.00 (63.55) 77.33 (61.64) C1 G5 T2 83.33 (66.88) 82.00 (65.46) 79.33 (63.24) 79.00 (63.10) 75.33 (60.30) C1 G5 T3 82.67 (65.55) 80.67 (64.04) 80.00 (63.57) 78.00 (62.08) 76.67 (61.15) C1 G5 T4 64.00 (66.63) 82.67 (65.45) 81.33 (64.41) 80.00 (63.43) 78.00 (62.04) C1 G5 T5 81.33 (65.52) 77.33 (61.88) 76.00 (60.81) 75.33 (60.40) 72.67 (58.57) C1 G5 T6 82.67 (65.40) 80.00 (63.43) 77.33 (61.59) 74.67 (59.78) 73.33 (58.91) C1 G5 T7 83.32 (65.96) 82.00 (65.04) 80.00 (63.60) 76.67 (61.27) 75.33 (60.34) C1 G5 T8 67.00 (60.68) 72.67 (58.48) 73.33 (58.97) 71.33 (57.67) 69.33 (56.39) C2 G1 T1 76.00 (60.78) 72.67 (58.49) 71.33 (57.71) 68.67 (55.96) 66.67 (54.74) C2 G1 T2 72.00 (58.09) 74.00 (59.39) 70.00 (56.82) 64.67 (53.56) 64.00 (54.74) C2 G1 T3 60.67 (51.19) 68.00 (55.57) 67.33 (55.17) 66.00 (54.33) 62.00 (51.95) C2 G1 T4 60.67 (51.39) 58.00 (49.62) 58.00 (49.63) 56.00 (48.46) 53.33 (46.92) C2 G1 T5 60.67 (51.39) 58.67 (50.02) 58.67 (50.01) 59.33 (50.38) 60.00 (50.77) C2 G1 T6 79.33 (56.45) 67.33 (55.17) 64.00 (53.15) 62.67 (52.34) 61.33 (51.56) C2 G1 T7 68.00 (55.61) 65.33 (53.98) 66.00 (54.39) 64.67 (53.57) 62.00 (51.95) C2 G1 T8 62.00 (51.95) 60.67 (57.17) 62.67 (52.39) 61.33 (51.59) 59.33 (50.41) C2 G2 T1 70.67 (57.26) 68.67 (55.97) 66.67 (54.94) 58.67 (50.00) 55.33 (48.07) C2 G2 T2 70.33 (60.25) 70.67 (57.30) 68.67 (56.04) 66.67 (54.80) 64.67 (53.56) C2 G2 T3 70.67 (57.22) 68.67 (56.10) 66.67 (54.81) 64.00 (53.15) 61.33 (51.55) C2 G2 T4 64.00 (53.17) 62.67 (55.36) 61.33 (51.57) 60.00 (50.78) 58.67 (49.99) C2 G2 T5 64.00 (53.24) 66.67 (54.91) 63.33 (52.78) 62.67 (52.36) 61.33 (52.57) C2 G2 T6 66.67 (54.76) 65.33 (53.98) 65.33 (53.94) 64.00 (53.13) 62.67 (52.34) C2 G2 T7 67.33 (55.16) 64.67 (53.55) 60.00 (50.82) 57.33 (49.26) 56.67 (48.86) C2 G2 T8 63.33 (52.74) 66.67 (54.75) 57.33 (49.24) 54.67 (47.71) 52.67 (46.54) C2 G3 T1 86.00 (68.17) 84.00 (66.71) 82.67 (60.57) 80.67 (63.99) 78.67 (62.51) C2 G3 T2 84.00 (66.60) 81.33 (64.50) 80.67 (63.99) 79.33 (63.05) 77.33 (61.64) C2 G3 T3 82.67 (65.45) 82.00 (64.97) 80.00 (63.51) 77.33 (61.66) 76.00 (60.72) C2 G3 T4 81.33 (64.45) 79.33 (62.97) 76.67 (61.12) 75.33 (60.24) 74.67 (59.73) C2 G3 T5 83.33 (66.22) 80.67 (64.04) 80.00 (63.51) 75.33 (61.60) 75.33 (60.25) C2 G3 T6 82.67 (65.49) 80.00 (63.51) 78.00 (60.04) 74.67 (59.78) 74.00 (59.38) C2 G3 T7 81.33 (64.43) 78.67 (62.51) 78.00 (60.04) 76.00 (60.67) 71.33 (57.63) C2 G3 T8 74.67 (59.83) 74.00 (59.48) 73.33 (58.96) 70.67 (57.22) 70.00 (56.80) C2 G4 T1 91.33 (73.04) 90.00 (71.80) 88.33 (66.40) 86.67 (68.33) 84.00 (66.53) C2 G4 T2 87.33 (69.34) 85.33 (67.63) 84.00 (65.00) 80.67 (63.92) 76.67 (61.12) C2 G4 T3 82.00 (65.42) 79.33 (63.42) 79.33 (63.24) 78.00 (62.13) 74.67 (59.83) C2 G4 T4 85.33 (67.55) 82.00 (64.92) 80.00 (63.51) 78.67 (62.57) 75.33 (60.28) C2 G4 T5 80.67 (63.96) 78.00 (62.04) 77.33 (61.57) 76.00 (60.75) 73.33 (58.96) C2 G4 T6 82.67 (65.88) 80.00 (63.69) 78.00 (62.14) 75.33 (60.42) 74.67 (59.83) C2 G4 T7 84.67 (67.32) 84.00 (66.71) 81.33 (64.50) 78.00 (62.07) 73.33 (58.96) C2 G4 T8 80.63 (63.96) 76.67 (61.29) 74.67 (59.88) 72.00 (58.08) 70.67 (52.32) C2 G5 T1 86.33 (67.55) 84.67 (64.40) 83.87 (66.92) 82.67 (64.50) 76.00 (60.68) C2 G5 T2 86.00 (68.14) 84.00 (66.51) 83.67 (66.40) 82.00 (64.90) 79.33 (62.97) C2 G5 T3 80.67 (64.17) 80.00 (63.66) 78.67 (62.64) 77.33 (61.64) 74.00 (59.37) C2 G5 T4 82.67 (65.47) 80.67 (63.92) 80.00 (63.45) 77.33 (61.57) 76.67 (61.12) C2 G5 T5 82.67 (65.55) 80.67 (63.96) 78.00 (62.04) 76.00 (60.68) 72.00 (58.06) C2 G5 T6 82.00 (64.92) 81.33 (64.41) 79.33 (62.27) 78.00 (62.04) 73.33 (58.93) C2 G5 T7 82.67 (65.40) 81.33 (64.41) 78.67 (63.06) 77.33 (61.61) 75.33 (60.25) C2 G5 T8 76.00 (60.04) 74.00 (54.35) 74.00 (59.16) 70.67 (57.25) 65.33 (53.94) CD at 5% 6.27 5.68 5.19 4.59 3.85 Each value in table is mean of three replications Values in parenthesis are angular transformed value C1 = Polythene bags C2 = Cotton bags G1 = CMS 58025 A G2 = CMS 58025 B G3 = Restorer (IR-66) G4 = Restorer (KMR-3) G5 = Variety (Pant Dhan-11) T1 = Thiram T2 = Thiram Bavastin T3 = Bavistin T4 = Captan T5 = Vitavax T6 = Chlorothalonil T7 = Contaf T8 = Check Reference: Asalmol, M.N. and Zade, V.R. (1994). Effect of seed treatment on storability of seeds of different crops. Seed Tech News,. 24 (4): 117. Chang, L.B. (1993). Study of vigour of hybrid rice. Acta Scienharum Nalaraliyam Universitalis Hormmalis Hunanesis. 16 (3) : 34-38. Choudhary MM, Rajanna, CM, da Silva, J.A.T. and Balkrishna (2011). Influence of packaging materials and seed treatments on physiological attribute during storage of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Seed Science and Technology, 5 (1), 15-20. Kalavathi, D; Karivara Tharaju, T.V. and Thiagrajan, C.P. (1994). Storage potentials of parential lines and hybrids in paddy. Seed Tech News,. 24 (4) 15. Deshpande, V.K. and Mahadevappa, M. (1994). Prediction of storability in parents of hybrid rice. Seed Tech. News, 24 (4) 11. Duan, X.M. and Ma, H.S. (1992). Effect of foliar spray of gibberllic acid on seed quality of hybrid rice. Seed Tech. News. 24 (4):11. Kaur, J., Randhawa, H.S. and Sharma, H.L. (1990). Influence of moisture and containers on viability of paddy seed during storage under ambient conditions of Punjab. Annals of Biology Ludhiana. 6 (2): 129-134. Jyoti, Rai, P.K., Kumar, H. and Ali, A. (2017). Performance of different genotypes. Packing materials and seed treatments on seedling characters of rice (Oryza sativa L) during storage period, J. PharmacologyEffect on Normal Seedlings of Different Containers, Genotypes and Fungicidal Treatments During Storage in Rice
Purdue University Global Daily Usage of Marijuana in Adolescents Discussion.
Juveniles NeedsAssume you are a probation officer for your local juvenile court. The
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Bergen Community College Middle Childhood Child Psychology Research Paper.
judge asked you to review a case and determine the juvenile’s overall
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Purdue University Global Daily Usage of Marijuana in Adolescents Discussion
1. Describe in detail how nutritional needs and sleep patterns effect growth and physical development in middle childhood.2. Discuss the impact of mental health issues during middle childhood. Explain disruptive conduct disorders, school phobia, childhood depression and various treatment options. 3. Summarize the cognitive advances in Piagetian abilities in middle childhood. Be sure to explain growth in the concrete operational child.4. Explain how IQ is measured and the controversy that exists with measuring intelligence. Do you agree with the concept of IQ and how it is measured? Provide a rationale for your response.5. Discuss the child in school – be sure to explain how parenting practices, socioeconomic status and peer acceptance impact development. Discuss second language learning and educating children with disabilities.6. Summarize the changes in self-esteem, self-concept and emotional understanding and regulation in middle childhood. 7. Discuss the impact of divorce during middle childhood. Explain issues related to custody, visitation and co-parenting. What are the long-term effects of divorce?8. Various issues arise with peers during middle childhood. Discuss the following, in detail: gender differences in peer-group relationships; popularity; friendship and aggression and bullying.Grading Criteria:1. Your responses are double-spaced2. You use appropriate in-text citations3. Works cited or reference sheet, alphabetized by author’s last name – web links ARE NOT sufficient4. Indented paragraphs5. Font size / type (12 pt / Times New Roman)6. Third-person (except where your opinion is asked)7. 1″ marginsWill provide online textbook
Bergen Community College Middle Childhood Child Psychology Research Paper
Whole Foods Trends Case Study
Whole Foods Trends Case Study. Whole Foods Market, the world’s largest retail chain of organic and natural foods supermarket was founded in the year 1980, from what was initially a local supermarket for health and natural food stuff and products. For nearly three decades now, since its inception, Whole Foods Market has proved to be a leader in the supply of natural and organic foods across the United States. The company is widely recognized for its constant ability to supply food products that are free from preservatives and ingredients, and also for their stringent standards to sustain agricultural practices in the country. The company’s unique mission in business is stipulated by its organizational motto, which bears the slogan, ‘Whole Foods, Whole People, Whole Planet.’ This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the trends applied by the company in retailing organic foods and its competitive power in the market as it is observed from the provided case. The organic food sector has shown consistent growth in the past several years. Some of the key factors contributing to this abundant growth would include more consumers getting informed through education and conscious concerns of health that processed food products are likely to bring to humans. These practices have further facilitated developments in the sector over the time as mainstream supermarkets continue to utilize the available opportunities to diversify their selection of organic and natural products. Some of the most common trends pertaining the retail of organic food products in the industry include the ups and downs within the farming sector, concerns of the environment, and concern of healthy lifestyles. All these trends would have a significant impact in Whole Foods Market. Uncertain climatic patterns for instance, would negatively influence the supplies of the products in the market, leading to shortages in case of a bad season. More importantly unavoidable weather situations such as tornadoes and hurricanes can also occur anytime, contributing to loss of crops. Regarding environmental concerns, consumers tend to believe that organic products come with positive effects towards the conservation of the environment. It is also understandable that people are now paying more attention than ever before, to what they ingest. In that case, the necessary steps are being applied in diverse settings to promote healthier lifestyle for individuals and families. Whole Foods Market is making up and down attempts to establish major suppliers of organic supplies to cater for all chains and stores across the states. Food 2008 is a major player in the American food industry. Competition of the key players in the American food industry has increased rampantly in the past few years, owing to the heightening demand for organic and natural food products. Most Whole Food products target all categories of people in the society. These products have continued to attract increasing consumer concerns from across the states owing to their unique market standards. It is easier to evaluate the competitive environment of the company using Michael Porter’s competitive forces that shape competition strategy. The five forces as observed by Porter include bargaining power of consumers, threat of new entrants in the market, suppliers bargaining power, competitive rivalry, and substitute products. Bargaining Power of Consumers The company is known for its commitment and involvement in charity missions among other community citizenship activities. More importantly, all these would happen as the firm continues to maintain its quality standards on all their products. In that case, the firm’s customers have less bargaining power since their demands and requirements are appropriately catered for and in the most charming manners. However, owing to the increasing number of players in the food industry, buyers are likely to learn new ways in the long run, thus gaining added advantage on negotiating leverage. This way, consumers would tend to shift to other vendors on realization that they can always land on an equivalent product from the market. Threat of New Entrants in the Market As it would be observed, the initial concept of Whole Food Market was more innovative. However, current market trends are pushing the firm far from the scope of innovation and into mainstream. According to USDA, the overall production of organic food products has been going up since the year 1990 in all regions, making organic food products the fastest advancing segment of agriculture. Rapid growth of market, coupled with minimal barriers to entry has attracted many participants in the industry, thus leading to stiff competition in the market. Suppliers Bargaining Power Just like any other firm, Whole Foods Market largely depends on a wide range of suppliers for its products. In most cases, some of these supplier groups have been active and powerful in determining the company’s competitive strategy in a number of ways. For instance, much attention is given to food processors in the country, which enjoy all the bargaining power. Only a very little percentage of farms are used for organic and natural food products. Competitive Rivalry Whole Foods Market faces great rivalry presently, from the many competitors in the food industry. In normal circumstances, some of the common ways through which the firm is affected by rivalry include introductions of new products and services, improvement of services, advertising campaigns and price discounting among other implications. The fact that competitors in the food industry are numerous and roughly equal in power is enough to increase the intensity of rivalry or competition in the market and this reduces the productivity levels of Whole Foods Market. Substitute Products The company faces a high threat of substitutes from conventional food products that are processed artificially in the country. For example, many people in the U.S. would tend to see fast foods such as snacks and drinks as more convenient, compared to other food stuffs that are made at home. Most of these fast foods are artificially processed and preserved, and they pose serious threats to the firm’s productivity. In most cases, these cheap preserved foodstuffs would tend to offer a significant price-performance trade-off to the natural and organic food products offered by the company. In such circumstances, it is easy for buyers to turn to conventional retailers, as there is no cost for doing so. In this regard, these substitutes have continued to limit the company’s profits and earnings in normal times. Competition from major rivals in the industry remains the most significant threat to the firm. This also includes the stiff competition posed by conventional stores across the states. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the year 2000 would see most conventional supermarkets in the country sell more organic food products, compared to the country’s natural food stores. Even though a recognized leader in the supply of organic and natural food products, the company continues to suffer the cost of a high market competition from existing and new ventures in the market. In order to successfully combat this threat, the company should adopt an effective strategy that incorporates three significant tactics: Market, Product, and Operational. In regard with marketing and product, things such as quality products, fair prices and effective ways of promotion would apply. On the other hand, operational strategy would incorporate the use of effective and exclusive store operations for improved outcomes. Whole Foods SWOT Analysis Strengths Huge variety items/products Marketer of nationally known food products Outstanding experience in the market Large stores Weaknesses Low advertisement budget Higher prices Location of most stores in affluent regions Lack of coupons in promotional offers Opportunities Effective advertisement and promotion to attract more customers Introduction of rewards systems for consumers Expansion of private label selection Introduction of cost-effective ways that will favor customers Threats Bad or uncertain economy Availability of local farmers Conventional stores and supermarkets regular changes in government regulations on natural and organic food products It is possible for Whole Foods to achieve a sustained competitive advantage over its competitors in the market simply by making effective use of these strengths and opportunities. For example, the company deals with a variety of products that are nationally accepted as foods, and this could be a certain way of attracting and retaining huge numbers of consumers in the market. More importantly, the company has great business potential considering their large stores located allover the country. These facilities can be utilized in a number of useful ways, apart from only acting as selling stores. Holding exhibitions and educational forums regarding the products on sale to potential consumers are some of the useful ways of utilizing the stores. Effective promotional strategies would help in publicizing the company’s products whereby the introduction of a reward would play a significant role in the attraction and retention of consumers in the company’s products. Whole Foods Trends Case Study
AOJ 206 please essay English and follow the steps
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These stories are for your consideration to consider how the administration of justice works in the real-world. No assignment is due, but you should take time to explore the articles and think about how they relate to your course.
Man arrested for murder after SD card with video of crime found on street (Links to an external site.)
‘Wake-Up Call’ About A Broken System: New Study Shows Failings Of Probation, Parole (Links to an external site.)
New Police Ethics Training Hopes To Stop ‘Misguided Loyalty’
AOJ 206 please essay English and follow the steps
Nonverbal Behaviors and Cross-Cultural Communication Essay (Critical Writing)
Nowadays, cross-cultural communication belongs to the number of the most popular fields of research. It is relevant for our society as nations have to communicate on a daily basis. In their article, Hwang and Matsumoto (2013) focus their attention on such an aspect of cross-cultural communication as nonverbal behavior. The latter can be conveyed through different channels such as voice, touch, and mimics. The authors claim that nonverbal behaviour should be paid more attention to, especially if one has to communicate with people of a different culture. In general, it is quite informative and interesting to read. Overall, this article seems to be very interesting as authors start from reviewing earlier studies on nonverbal behaviour, and then give their own conclusions on its role in cross-cultural communication. Authors claim that many people tend to retrieve a little information from nonverbal messages. In fact, as they see it, such messages often tell many things about the cultural background and personal attitudes of the participant of communication. As for the positive points of the article, it contains a lot of useful information that can be applied during everyday communication. Therefore, it possesses certain practical significance. To continue, the article is very informative, and it has a good structure that makes it easy to read. Thus, it reveals three main components of nonverbal communication (voice, face, and gesture) and all of them are explained abundantly. As for the negative points, there are a few cases of unnecessary repetition, but they do not affect understanding. Anyway, some parts of the text could be improved. In general, I see the article as quite a valuable source of information that can be relevant for those who study cross-cultural communication. It is of interest for this field as the authors reveal peculiarities of nonverbal behavior during the communication between people of different cultures. Reference Hwang, H. C.,
EDFR 2301 University of Texas 5 Latino Children Literature Bibliography
EDFR 2301 University of Texas 5 Latino Children Literature Bibliography.
** I HAVE ATTACHED THE REQUIREMENTS AND SOURCES NEEDED AS WELL AS AN EXAMPLE OF HOW IT’S SUPPOSED TO LOOK**You are to write an annotated bibliography on five different Latino Children Literature. Following the annotated bibliography, write a report about their similarities and differences and how they could be included as reading selections in a diverse classroom. Books must be authentic literature. Use MLA format. Limit the assignment to not more than 4 pages long. The assignment should consist of the following parts: A brief introductionThe annotated bibliographyThe report that includes the similarities and differences and the way they could be used in a diverse classroom.ConclusionFive different Latino Children Literature books:1.Marisol McDonald Doesn’t Match by Marisol Brown https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pTGUoGI5F6k2.Yes! We Are Latinos by Alma Flor Anda and F. Isabel Campoy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-B96V4r4p1M3.What Can You Do With A Paleta by Carmen Tafolla https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=isHNsq0onCY4.A Mango in the Hand: A Story Told Through Proverbs by Antonio Sacre https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rmrEg50Vj2o5.Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale by Duncan Tonatiuh https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hyAPzK8BPQQ
EDFR 2301 University of Texas 5 Latino Children Literature Bibliography