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Effect Of UV Rays On Pool Chlorine Biology Essay

Effect Of UV Rays On Pool Chlorine Biology Essay. Pools have always been a source of leisure for Australians. They provide enjoyment and good times for many households generated in a family or local swimming pool. Despite this, pools have to be maintained by using chemicals or disinfectants, lest unwanted pathogens create health hazards. However, the over use of these chemicals can also result in health hazards such as; serious irritation and breathing problems. A balance or equilibrium, therefore, must be achieved to maintain suitable conditions. This is where chemistry comes into play. The main type of chemicals used in pools to prevent unwanted pathogens is pool chlorine. Sodium hypochlorite is a commonly used as pool chlorine. It was discovered by Louis Pasteur in the late 19th century that sodium hypochlorite had disinfectant properties. Sodium hypochlorite effectively kills bacteria, viruses and fungi. When pool chlorine is added to water, a reaction takes place where hypochlorus acid is formed. In the past, most consumer chlorine bleach was sold in a 5.25% solution. Today, some more concentrated solutions are being sold and touted as an improvement over the less concentrated bleaches. To check for the concentration of the pool chlorine, excess potassium iodide is to be added to it and then it is to be titrated with a solution of sodium thiosulfate. The concentration of the liquid chlorine is then to be calculated using stoichiometry. The net ionic equations of the chemical reactions are: Source: Chemistry In use Book 2 There are also many factors that affect the effectiveness of pool chlorine such as sun radiation. Ultra-violet (UV) light degrades hypochlorous acid to hydrochloric acid (HCl). Ultraviolet (UV) radiation not only destroys light sensitive chemicals such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), it also has the potential to significantly degrade the structural integrity of the storage tank or IBC containing the light sensitive material. According to the NSW Ministry of Health (2010) roughly 1/3 of free chlorine exposed to UV lights in a outdoor swimming pool is destroyed every hour. UV light therefore lowers the concentration of the disinfection component of free chlorine. In this experiment, the concentration of sodium hypochlorite in pool chlorine, left under a UV lamps for different periods of times, was measured. Aim: To investigate the effects of Ultra Violet (UV) rays on sodium hypochlorite (a bleaching agent used commonly in pools). 2.0 Hypothesis: As pool chlorine is left for longer periods of time under UV rays, the concentration of the pool chlorine will decrease. This was hypothesised as the theory suggests that UV rays degrade the component in pool chlorine which allows it to disinfect bacteria. 3.0 Equipment/Material Material Diluted Sodium hypochlorite Sodium thiosulfate Potassium iodide Starch indicator Boiling water Equipment 2 x 100 mL Beaker 5 x 250 mL Beaker 15 x 100 mL Flask 2 x 1L Volumetric flask 1 x 500 mL Volumetric flask 1 x 100mL Measuring cylinder 2 x 20mL Measuring cylinder 3 x Funnel 5 x 20 mL Pipette 2 x 1mL Pipette 3 x Stirring rod Senior Balance Burette and stand UV Lamp Permanent marker Stopwatch 4.0 Safety To prevent any harm to the group during this experiment, safety precautions were taken to ensure the safety of the members. Refer to Appendix A for MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet). Lots of glassware was used – Refrain from holding too many pieces of glassware at once. Clean up glass immediately if any is broken. Handle boiling water with care – Boiling water was used to create a solution of starch. Beaker tongs were used to carry the boiling water. Potassium iodide is irritating to eyes and skin – Avoid contacting without gloves. Wash with water if contact occurs. Sodium thiosulfate is irritating to eyes and skin – Avoid contacting without gloves. Wash with water if contact occurs. Starch gives skin discomfort – Avoid contacting without gloves. 5.0 Procedure Refer to Appendix 1 for preparation of solutions Preparation of titration A burette and stand was filtered with the sodium thiosulfate solution. The burette was filled up with the sodium thiosulfate solution to around the 0mL mark. 100mL of diluted sodium hypochlorite was poured into 5 individual 250mL beakers. These beakers were labelled 0min, 15m, 30m, 1hr, 3hrs and 4hrs. All the beakers, except the 0min beaker, were placed under the UV lamp for the amounts of time labelled on them. At this point the stopwatch was started, once the samples had reach the specified time they were taken out. For each time sample, 20mL was measured with a pipette and placed into 3 100mL flasks. 10mL of potassium iodide solution and 2mL of starch indicator solution were prepared prior to every titration. Titration The mark of where the sodium thiosulfate solution in the burette was recorded before the titration occurred. 10mL of potassium iodide solution was added to each time sample of 20mL sodium hypochlorite solution in the 100mL flasks. The new solution was left until it has completed reacted (when the solution turns light yellow). The solution was then titrated until it turned a very pale yellow. 2mL of starch indicator solution was added to the titrating solution. This should make the solution a dark blue/black colour. Titration continued at a slower rate until the solution had turned clear. Record the finishing titre mark on the burette. These steps were repeated 3 times for each time sample (total of 18 titrations). Figure 1: Diagram of titration in progress. 6.0 Results Table 1: Table showing the amount of sodium thiosulfate solution added to sodium hypochlorite and potassium iodide solution at different times left under the UV ray. Refer to Appendix 2 for initial volume and final volume calculations and averages. Time (mins) Volume (mL) Average of 3 titrations 0 23.35 15 22.95 30 22.51 60 18.35 180 16.03 240 12.70 Table 2: Table showing the concentration of pool chlorine Refer to appendix 3 for converting of average volume of titration to concentration. Amount of time left under UV lamp (mins) Concentration of OCl (M) 0 0.03250 15 0.03198 30 0.03131 60 0.02558 180 0.02234 240 0.01770 Figure 1: Graph showing the concentrations of pool chlorine left under a UV lamp for different periods of time. 7.0 Discussion An experiment design was made to test and compare the effects of UV rays on pool environments, particularly on the impacts of chlorine concentration. In doing this, a total of 18 pool chlorine samples were put under a UV lamp for different periods of time. The concentrations of the chlorine when left untouched by UV rays were stable at around 0.03M. By exposing the pool chlorine samples to ultraviolet lights for given periods of time, the concentration of the chlorine decreased. The graph shows that as the sodium hypochlorite is more exposed to UV rays, the lower concentration of the pool chlorine was. A line of best fit was drawn to display the trend in the data. It showed that there is a linear relationship between the concentration and time left under a UV lamp. The data collected agrees with the theory that UV rays disrupt the structural integrity of the pool chlorine. The photodecomposition of chlorine is apparent as the initial levels of hypochlorite ion decreased by a significant amount when exposed to sunlight. The photochemical reaction that represents the situation of the experiment is: The main errors of the experiment were the inaccuracies of most aspects dealt with when implementing the experiment. One anomaly occurred when one sample of chlorine was left under the UV lamp for 60minutes. There is a major drop in concentration from 30min. This suggests that there was experimental error during the investigation. 8.0 Conclusion The results collected from this experiment suggest that the more pool chlorine is subject to UV lights, the lower the concentration of the chlorine will be. It has partially supported the hypothesis Bibliography Deb Smith, D. R. (2006). Chemistry in use – Book 2. Sydney: Queensland Chemistry syllabus. Date retrieved: 05/09/12 Fletcher, D. J. (N/D). (The Sodium Hypochlorite Story). Retrieved September 5, 2012, from south shore gunite pools: http://www.southshoregunitepools.com/resources/htms/naocl.htm Gina A. Ishida, B. ÷. (N/D). IMPACT OF CHLORINE AND MONOCHLORAMINE ON ULTRAVIOLET. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC: N/A. Date retrieved: 05/09/12 N/A. (N/D, N/D N/D). Chlorination of pool water. Retrieved September 6, 2012, from pested: http://www.pested.msu.edu/resources/bulletins/pdf/2621/e2621chap7.pdf N/A. (1968). Stabiliser (Cyanurate) Use in Outdoor Swimming Pools. Retrieved September 5, 2012, from NSW Government Health: http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/utilities/copyright.asp Appendices Appendix A Going to add MSDS later… Appendix 1 Diluting sodium hypochlorite 100mL of sodium hypochlorite was measured and put into a 1000mL volumetric flask. The flask was filled with distilled water up to the 1L mark The flask was inverted several times Sodium thiosulfate solution 8.82g of sodium thiosulfate was placed into a 1L volumetric flash The flask was filled with distilled water up to the 1L mark The flask was inverted several times Potassium iodide solution 5g of potassium iodide was weighed and placed into a 250mL beaker Distilled water was poured until it reached 105g on the scale The solution was thoroughly mixed Starch solution 1g of starch indicator was weighed and placed into a 250mL beaker 100mL of water was boiled and placed into the 250mL beaker The solution was thoroughly mixed and was left to cool down All solutions were labelled with the name of the solution, the concentration, a group member’s name and the teacher’s name. Appendix 2 Initial volume and final volume of sodium thiosulfate left under a UV lamp at different periods of time. 0 min – 23.35-0.04 15 min – 45.63-23.29 30min – 22.34-0.07 = 23.31mL =22.34mL =22.27mL 46.76-23.31 23.04-0.14 44.78-22.32 = 23.45mL =22.90mL =22.46mL 23.54-0.13 46.66-23.04 23.01-0.21 =23.29mL =23.62mL =22.80mL Avg = = = =23.35mL =22.95mL =22.51mL 60 min – 41.22-23.01 3 hour – 15.62-1.23 4hours – 13.23-0.12 =18.21mL =14.39mL =13.11mL 18.62-0.33 30.59-15.62 26.35-13.23 =18.29mL =14.97mL =13.12mL 37.26-18.72 49.32-30.59 38.21-26.35 =18.54mL =18.73mL =11.86mL Avg = = =18.35mL =16.03mL =12.70mL Effect Of UV Rays On Pool Chlorine Biology Essay
do you believe presidents should be granted such broad authority to instiitute Executive Order, political science homework help.

Please write a 3-5 page paper answering both of questions below. Double spaces Use at least two quotes from the readings and lectures. Questions Presidents have used Executive Orders (EO’s) to justify military strikes, bar the use of federal funds to advocate abortions, stop deportations of undocumented people, and raise federal minimum wages for contractors. Executive Order 9066 created Japanese internment camps where US citizens were rounded up and placed in camps where they were not free to leave. The constitution’s silence on this matter has given presidents the authority to sign EO’s on a broad array of topics.1. In light of this silence, do you believe presidents should be granted such broad authority to institute EO’s that essentially serve to create new laws? Do you believe presidents are properly interpreting their powers or are they usurping Congress’s powers? 2. Based in part on your discussion in question 1, if you were president, what Executive Order would you sign? – You can choose to create your own EO or justify a previous one. Summarize what the EO would do (or did if choosing past EO), why you believe it is necessary for our country, and why you believe the constitution grants you the authority.OrderIntro- based on my belief that presidents usurping congressional powers or completely justified under the constitution, I would institute Executive Order that does blank. Body Paragraph(s): Summarize what EO does or did. Body Paragraph(s): Answer why this is necessary for our country. Body Paragraph(s): Why constitution grants this authority. Constitution grants limited powers-here are citations from class readings/lectures. Or Constitution doesn’t limit powers-citations from readings/lectures. Conclusion: I would sign this EO because …. This is what it does/did. Summarize arguments explaining why it is constitutional.
do you believe presidents should be granted such broad authority to instiitute Executive Order, political science homework help

BHA FPX 4004 Capella University Analysis and Application Dashboard Data Presentation.

Create a presentation (maximum of 20 slides with detailed speaker notes) for senior leadership in which four organizational leaders analyze the impact of a health care organization’s new safety and quality dashboard. Include an analysis of what the new metrics mean and how they will inform departmental activities for the next quarter.”Being in a position of leadership is the most important job of any health professional anywhere along the continuum of care” (Ledlow & Coppola, 2013, p. 3). Leaders and ultimately the boards of directors of health care organizations are accountable for the safety of those they serve.” National quality organizations and regulatory bodies … are growing in their emphasis on leadership accountabilities for safe, reliable care as well as excellence in the experience of care” (Youngberg, 2013, p. 39).With this emphasis on leadership accountability for the delivery of safe, high-quality health care services, health care leaders need to be able to drill down on what exactly safety and quality mean in the health care environment. Likewise, they also need to be able to design measures that help to ensure their organizations are able to deliver those kinds of outcomes. Read Measurement Perspectives [PDF] to examine key elements related to this issue.In this final course assessment, you will have a unique opportunity to examine a health care organization’s safety and quality dashboard from the perspective of four organizational leaders. You will explore each leader’s specific interests regarding patient safety and quality. In particular, you will have the opportunity to perform a more in-depth analysis of the dashboard, the type of analysis a quality director might perform to further the organization’s safety and quality objectives.ReferencesLedlow, G. R., & Coppola, M. N. (2013). Leadership for health professionals (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.Youngberg, B. J. (2013). Patient safety handbook (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.Demonstration of ProficiencyBy successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the course competencies through the following assessment scoring guide criteria:Competency 1: Analyze the quality and performance improvement activities within the health care organization.Recommend evidence-based actions to improve a selected measure on a health care organization’s safety and quality dashboard.Competency 2: Explain the risk management function in the health care organization.Analyze areas of a safety and quality dashboard of concern to a risk manager.Competency 3: Analyze the importance of patient safety in health care.Describe how a health care organization chooses the metrics to include in its safety and quality dashboard.Analyze areas of a safety and quality dashboard of concern to a patient safety officer.Competency 4: Apply leadership strategies to quality improvement in a health care organization.Assess senior leadership’s role in setting a health care organization’s strategic safety and quality objectives.Competency 5: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and respectful of the diversity, dignity, and integrity of others and is consistent with health care professionals.Create a clear, organized, persuasive, and generally error-free presentation on a leadership team’s assessment of an organization’s safety and quality dashboard that is reflective of professional communication in the health care field.Provide citations and title and reference pages that conform to APA style and format.PreparationTo help prepare for successfully completing this assessment:Download the Sample Presentation Guide [PPTX]. Use this as a starting point or guide as you develop your presentation.InstructionsYour organization has just updated its safety and quality dashboard. Please review the Vila Health Mercy Hospital Safety and Quality Dashboard [PDF]. Note: You do not need to create a dashboard for this assessment. You are simply being asked to work with the one provided.The CEO has asked each of the organizational leaders below to prepare a joint PowerPoint presentation. In it, they are to prepare a set of slides outlining their analysis of how the new numbers will inform their particular activities for the next quarter. The organizational leaders include:The quality director.The patient safety officer.The risk manager.Senior leadership.Because of the quality director’s critical role in implementing the organization’s safety and quality strategic objectives, this individual will open the presentation and provide additional background about how the new dashboard was developed. This individual will also close the presentation. Use the following outline to organize your presentation. Be sure to include the introduction and conclusion and address all the questions listed under these headings. Also be sure to address each role and the corresponding questions.Introduction (3–4 slides)What is a safety and quality dashboard?What role do safety and quality dashboards play in helping health care organizations drive their strategic safety and quality objectives?How do health care organization determine what they want to measure? Be sure to consider:Pressures from regulators, payors, and the industry.Self-identified improvement areas. For example, one organization’s safety and quality dashboard may highlight patient falls because its rate of falls is higher than the national average. This may also have resulted in increased costs to the organization.What CQI tools did the organization use to obtain, measure, and report data?What was the quality improvement team’s role in addressing the reported measures?Quality Director (2–3 slides)Which metric on the dashboard would draw the quality director’s attention the most?What does this dashboard metric mean and why is it important?What three recommendations to leadership would help to address this metric?What (if any) quality models could be used to increase the quality of patient care and outcomes for this metric? Consider PDCA, Six Sigma, Lean, Hoshin Kanri planning, et cetera.Patient Safety Officer (2–3 slides)Which metric on the dashboard would draw the patient safety officer’s attention the most?What does this dashboard metric mean and why is it important?What role does the patient safety officer play in improving this metric?Risk Manager (2–3 slides)Which metric on the dashboard would draw the risk manager’s attention the most?What does this dashboard metric mean and why is it important?What role does the risk manager play in improving this metric?Senior Leader (1 slide)What is the role of senior leadership (for example, CEO, COO, president, senior VP) in driving safety and quality improvement initiatives?What next steps might senior leadership take given the dashboard findings and the quality director’s three improvement recommendations?Conclusion (2–3 slides)Which regulatory agency(ies) may be concerned about the findings in this dashboard?Why would regulators be concerned about these findings?Why are safety and quality dashboards important for monitoring key metrics in health care organizations?Your slides need to be concise and offer main ideas in bulleted format. Use the speaker notes to expand upon your findings as if they were the transcript of your presentation for the leadership team.In the health care environment, it is unlikely for a presentation and speaker notes to be in APA style. Do make sure they are concise, organized, clear, and free of errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling. Do make sure they address all the required headings and all of the questions under each heading.Your senior leaders will want to know the sources of your information. Be sure to cite your sources in APA style in your speaker notes.Additional RequirementsPresentation length: Your presentation should be a maximum of 20 slides, including title and reference slides. Format your title and reference slides according to APA format.Speaker notes: Be sure to include these with your slides. They provide an opportunity for you to expand on the information you are highlighting in your slides.Number of references: Cite a minimum of two references.Scoring Guide: Please read the scoring guide for this assessment so you understand how your faculty member is going to evaluate your work.
BHA FPX 4004 Capella University Analysis and Application Dashboard Data Presentation

HLT362 Grand Canyon Obesity and Overweight in Urban Populations Article Analysis.

Search the GCU Library and find one new health care article that uses
quantitative research. Do not use an article from a previous
assignment, or that appears in the Topic Materials or textbook.Complete
an article analysis and ethics evaluation of the research using the
“Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics” template. See
Chapter 5 of your textbook as needed, for assistance.While APA
style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic
writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented
using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style
Guide, located in the Student Success Center.This assignment
uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the
assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful
completion.
HLT362 Grand Canyon Obesity and Overweight in Urban Populations Article Analysis

Historical Jesus and Paul in Early Christianity Essay

Some many publications and theories try to explain who Jesus really was and his mission on the Earth. The historical Jesus is presented differently from the contemporary person of Jesus portrayed in the New Testament. The person of Jesus represented in the New Testament represents mostly his message and his teachings as brought out by His disciples (Thomas, 114). This is contrary to what or who Jesus is portrayed as the historical Jesus. In understanding who the historical Jesus was, we deviate from his mission and teachings that largely covered three years. Portraying Jesus, in this sense, requires that we go back in time studying ancient evidence regarding his early life. The historical Jesus refers in an actual sense as the person Jesus was during his lifetime and not the Jesus of Christian doctrines (Donald, 223). It is the historical figure of Jesus before the onset of Christianity. The historical figure of Jesus and the theological figure of Jesus differ in their representation. A short preview of the historical Jesus would be, born in the final years of king Herold’s reign at around 3 or 4 BCE, in a small village in Nazareth, Jesus was from a Jewish background. This was around the first century, according to many documents with the history of Jesus. Jesus was referred to as a teacher in the literal sense of the word. He did not preach as such but presented his teachings in a rather simple and straight forward manner, sometimes using parables. His was a simple message according to the Christian doctrines, the message of salvation and everlasting life to all humankind (Donald, 225). This, he said, could be achieved by human beings riding themselves off any evil in their hearts and living a just and holy life. His was a message of hope and redemption to a greater life and not the political redemption that many Jews expected. Among the earliest proponents of Christianity included John and Peter, both of who were disciples of Jesus. The early Christians, who were all Jews, regarded the Torah or the Old Testament as the Holy Scripture before the New Testament was introduced. This is where Paul’s significance comes into perspective for the early Christians. Paul, formally known as Saul, was considered a gentile and persecuted the Christian Jews of that time. Paul got converted on his way to Damascus in his mission to persecute the Christian Jews of that time. After his conversion, he became one of the most aggressive emissaries of Christianity, traveling widely around the world in his mission. He wrote 13 of the 27 books of the New Testament and had a significant conviction to the gentiles and the Jews alike since he had a strong and unmovable confession towards a faith he was initially not part of. Works Cited Donald S, G. Classic of Western Thought Series. California: Wadsworth publishers, 1988: 201-406. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thomas, H, G. A Brief History of the Western World. California: Wadsworth Publishers, 2004. 140-407.

Proton Automobile Malaysia Analysis

essay helper free Proton Malaysia Automobile PROTON: To Liberalize or To Protect? Establishment of Proton The automotive industry in Malaysia is one of the most important and strategic industry in the development of Malaysia’s economy and transforming Malaysia into industrialized nation. Malaysia has four national automobile industries; they are Perusahaan Otomobile Nasional Bhd, known as Proton, Perusahaan Otomobile Kedua Berhad (Perodua), NAZA, and DBR-HICOM. These automobile companies are playing important role in the providing the opportunities of employment, upgrading the development of technologies and industrial skill within the automobile manufacturing industry and improving strengthen of international competitiveness of Malaysia. All of these was aim to reduce the country’ reliance on foreign made import products. In the early of 1980s, the former Malaysia Prime Minister, Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamed dreamed to has Malaysia national car which manufactured by Malaysian but nobody believed and thought he could. However, he sought a partner with an established automobile maker. During the visiting to the country by executives from Japan Mitsubishi Corporation in year 1981, Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamed proposed the creation of a joint venture to produce Mitsubishi designed automobile in Malaysia. Then, Perusahaan Otomobil Nasional Bhd (Proton) was officially launched in May 1983; construction began on company’s manufacturing facilities where located at industrial area of Shah Alam and completed in yaer 1984, the plant which used majority of manual labor production techniques can produce eighty thousand cars annually (Perusahaan otomobil Nasional Bhd-Company History). In July 1985, Proton used the tiger as brand symbols and launched the first car, Proton Saga, which is the model base on Mitsubishi Lancer. After fifteen years of expertise development, Proton produced it first in house model car, Proton Waja, which design and engineering were using own technology and expertise. Since the establishment of Proton in 1985, Malaysia had succeeded in developing integrated capabilities in the domestic automobile industry, which include local design and styling capability, full scale manufacturing operations and extensive local participation in the supply of components. Proton is a Government Link Company, as known as GLC. So, Malaysia government wants a strong domestic auto industry until it can becomes internationally competitive such as Honda and Toyota in Japan. Malaysia government has persisted in protecting its auto industry, a national automobile policy has made by intervened and imposed import tax or duty on foreign car from one hundred forty percent to three hundred percent (Chee. 2003). The tax and duty are trade barriers and the tax schedule is very complex. The completed import duty is shown in appendix (a). The import duty structure has caused in an overall increasing by tax rate on most motor vehicles and the tax is depending to the different categories of motor vehicles. For example, different car from different categories and different engine capacities have different import duties. The more luxury of car type and larger of engine capacity will tax higher. This tax structure will promote greater transparency in pricing. Malaysia government believed that this national will be a key measure towards driving the transformation of the domestic automobile industry to become viable and competitive than others. Not only that, Malaysia government also intends to impose the special license known as approved permit (AP) and create anew kind of protective measure such as freeze on the import of new brand of automobile. The overprotection of the Malaysia government to Proton has caused many problem to national automobile industries’ development, on the other hand, liberalization to domestic automobile market is believed will benefit to all industrial participants, domestic consumers and the Malaysia economy. Overprotection causes problems Proton was born into a well environment which design to protect it through its infancy and nurture into a company, meanwhile, Proton are able to develop its engineering capabilities so that it could become one of a handful of car maker which can build a car from scratch (Leela. 2007). In fact, the overprotected to Proton has caused the Proton growth become slowly from the last twenty two years and still cannot compete to even other domestic automobile companies such as Naza and also foreign car makers such as Kia from Korean and Honda from Japan. Proton held the major domestic market share because Proton has long enjoyed protective trade barriers in its domestic auto market. The total sale of Proton was 155,419 units of car during the first half of the year 2007. Proton was once the market leader in the Malaysia automotive market and used to control about sixty percent of the market share in year 2002, but Proton only has twenty three percent currently in domestic market share (Shanmugam. 2007). In the year 2002 it was estimated that Proton dominated the Malaysian car market by accounting for sixty pecent of local car demand; however, market share of the Proton has been declining as car imports start invading and snapping away domestic market share from the car manufacturer after year 2002 (Siow.2007). High contrast in comparing between year 2002 and year 2006, Proton only commanded thirty percent of the domestic market share; Proton in domestic market share fell from thirty eight percent in year 2005 to thirty three percent in 2006 (Leela. 2007). However, the unfriendly tax structure takes away the benefit of liberalization. Foreign automobile makers and investors are fear because they needs fair trade. Another factor that foreign automobile makers and investors worry is the delay to set up the new tax structure for assembled or imported vehicles. The late and lack of information make foreign automobile makers stop to expand their investment. Automobile manufacturers, assemblers as well as franchise holders need so much information about new national automobile policies of government to make proper plans to the market change, especially those related new products, local assembly programs, and demand of market. Even though foreign automobile maker and investors know that the taxes among the ASEAN made cars will be no more than five percent, but they still need to know what kind of taxes they may have to pay and how to pay. They also concern about the new tax structure will cause the hardship to make them less competitive advantages. What is the AFTA The Association of Southeast Asian Nations or ASEAN was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok by the five original Member Countries. The member countries are Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Brunei Darussalam joined on 8 January 1984, Vietnam on 28 July 1995, Laos and Myanmar on 23 July 1997, and Cambodia on 30 April 1999 (About ASEAN. 2007). Since the early of the 1990s, the ASEAN countries have armed themselves against a number of changes in the international environment, which were perceived as a threat. Among these changes can decline in foreign investment in the ASEAN countries. The ASEAN countries, which have aim and lead to radical reductions of trade restrictions, to increase pace and transforming effectively in industrialization among the ASEAN countries, the share of manufactured exports was rising and an increase in intra-industry trade was also experienced (Naya et al, 2002). AFTA is a short form of ASEAN Free Trade Agreement and it was establish in year 2002. AFTA is a collective effort by ASEAN member countries to reduce or to eliminate tariff or barrier on intra ASEAN trade. The purpose of AFTA was to develop greater trade and industrial linkages among these ten of ASEAN member countries. Because of the combination of high population among ASEAN member countries can provide high potential and stimulation of greater economic collaboration (About AFTA. 2007). With the aim of the liberalization of intra-ASEAN trade, AFTA is running the main entrustment which is a scheme called Common Effective Tariff (CEPT). This CEPT of AFTA aim to the import duties among ASEAN member countries will be reduced to between zero percent to maximum five percent by full implementation of AFTA in year 2010. The AFTA also want to eliminate other non tariff barrier and the quantitative restriction such as import permit, approved permit or quota among the ASEAN member countries. Under the CEPT, the progressive transfer of products will base on each ASEAN member’s capacity and capability (Trade under CEPT.2007). Meanwhile, Malaysia government must reduce the import tax or duty to maximum five percent on the CKD cars from ASEAN member countries. There are two type of new automobile are be classified in the world, CKD and CBU. CKD is a short form of completely knocked-down; the CKD automobile is some component parts and accessories that are sourced domestically. On the other hand, CBU is a short form of Completely Built Up, which the automobile is fully import and completely built in other counties or out of ASEAN member countries. According to the daily express, the CKD automobile which is imported from ASEAN member countries is no require to pay or charge import duty, in contrast, the CKD automobile which imported from non ASEAN member countries is require to pay zero percent to maximum thirty percent. The CBU automobile which is import from ASEAN member countries is only require to pay zero percent to maximum twenty percent and CBU automobile which imported from non ASEAN member countries is require to pay minimum thirty percent to maximum fifty percent (Auto: Import Duty Down.2004 ). Comparing and analysis to overall new system, the automobile import taxation will have greatest change. The overall taxes will be lowered from the range of eighty percent to three hundred percent currently change to maximum fifty percent. In truth, Malaysia as a part of the AFTA agreement, the import duties should be lowered and trade barriers should be eliminated in year 2003, but Malaysia was managed to negotiate a postponement from year 2003 postpone to year 2005, and secondly postpone to year 2008. Liberalization bring benefit Liberalization to domestic automobile market to match AFTA can provide a clear and transparent direction to all of industrial participants and directly enable them to make the optimal plans and investment decision for the future. Then, foreign car makers may want to enjoy the benefit from AFTA and set up their automobile plants in Malaysia whichever manufacturing and assembling. Beside the benefit of AFTA, more and more foreign investors will be attracted to invest or expand their businesses in Malaysia after the liberalization because of the stability of Malaysia politic, well infrastructure, and largest automobile market among ASEAN. According to the Malaysian Automotive Association president, Datuk Aishah Ahmad, the Malaysian automobile industry players must look at the opportunities of AFTA that will arise and provide to benefit all ASEAN member countries, the majority of local auto industry players are currently tied with Japanese manufacturers (Khong. 2005). Malaysia may think the AFTA is a threat to domestic automobile manufactures but it is an opportunity to many Malaysian automobile companies. They can actually negotiate with foreign giants to invest in Malaysia and open up a joint venture company. With joint venture it would be a two win situation where both local and foreign companies can benefit from the project. For examples, the Honda Motor Corporation just formed a joint venture project with DRB-HICOM and Oriental Industries in July 2000. Both local companies have 51 percent share while HONDA has 49 percent. DRB-HICOM is actually a domestic and parent company for Proton. They have formed an alliance with HONDA so that they are not out of the car industry (The upcoming challenges to the Malaysian automotive industry. 2007). This is considered a good move because this joint venture project will benefit all parties involved. Malaysia government can think that some other companies will follow this footstep to form a joint venture company with other well quality auto giants like Toyota, Ford, Volvo and others. If Malaysian automobile companies never offer themselves, then other ASEAN member countries just like Thailand or Vietnam will grab these opportunities of joint venture projects and gain most from AFTA. The liberalization of domestic automobile market will cause of creation of spin off industries such as services, auto parts, auto accessory, telecommunications, and many others. Malaysian automobile companies will also benefit from technology transfer and may have an increased role to play in regional and global auto part supply chains. Consequently, these components sectors will become viable. Their business volume will be higher and more networked into the global automobile industry. Liberalization will lead to reduce scope for import of the auto components, but genuine distributors will benefit from the increased of sales volume. It is a way for working o turn Malaysia into hub for automobile industry. The higher levels of foreign direct investment which may be generated are expected to translate into greater two-way trade and Malaysia’s economy should experience an expansion. Economic expansion should lead to the creation of more and better paying jobs for both countries. Conclusion In conclusion, my first opinion is the Proton has already started preparing for AFTA, but it may no enough to face the impact of liberalization. Sales will be projected to drop clearly for Proton after AFTA is implemented. One of the measures key taken by Proton is in research and development sector. Although they have come up with first Malaysian design car which is a milestone in Proton, but Proton must also doing research and development with Lotus engineering and Petronas-Sauber Formula 1 team to come up with own engine. The research and development sector is very important for automobile industry. After that, Proton can show their own identity to the world rather than copying prototype of Mitsubishi cars. Second, local auto manufacturers and assemblers have to come with their own identity or brand if they want to penetrate the ASEAN market. In order to have own identity, they need to come out with their own model that is not available from other auto manufacturers. Third, all automobile companies should be taken action is cost competitiveness. Cost control is very important. Our local cars cost is very high compare to the actual price of foreign car without tax and tariffs. Even though many Malaysia urged Proton to cut cost of the local production if they want to be global distributor than their price should be competitive among car giants. Even though the Proton’s capacity is small compare to other car giants, but if they want to challenge them then they have to cut the cost. Proton has informed that the new model Proton WAJA parts are ninety percent locally made. This is a good sign for local part manufacturers. However are the local parts cheap compare to foreign suppliers. However they should get alternative choice to reduce cost. Maybe they can buy some parts from other countries that are significantly cheap compare to local parts. Another main thing that Proton should consider is quality of the car and its parts. Currently the proton car quality is not as good as foreign cars. So how does Proton going to go global? Quality is very important because most consumers will look into the quality of the car before purchasing them. They should improvise their quality of car. They should be strict in quality control. Even to maintain the local sales, Proton has to maintain the quality and upgrade them to be higher than foreign cars. Proton car owners knew the quality of Proton cars before they buy the car. They didn’t consider the quality because the cost was more important to them since Proton and Perodua was the cheapest car. Before penetrating other ASEAN countries, local manufacturers have to do a well planned marketing strategy to sell the car in the ASEAN region. They should come up with some partnership in these ASEAN countries to market their cars. Local distributors in ASEAN countries are more reliable and trustable since they know their market well. The collaboration should be enhancing the marketing strategy and method to penetrate this ASEAN region. Promote strategic linkages with international partners is important. Scale and focuses are necessary to achieve greater competitiveness but in themselves, they are not sufficient. In addition, global best practices and industry linkage are other important key success factors for the automobile industry. Therefore, the Government will continue to encourage industry participants to collaborate with external parties to establish strategic tie-ups. Apart from sharing scale and resources, such strategic tie-ups open up opportunities and provide access for domestic industry participants to enter the global automobile supply chain. Moreover, such strategic tie-ups also allow domestic industry participants to adopt best practice management, processes and procedures to deliver on higher quality standards that are necessary in accessing international markets. Finally, I want to mention that later is always better than never. Referencing Perusahaan otomobil Nasional Bhd-Company History, Retrieved 15 November 2007, from http://www.5wd.net/cars/proton/ Chee Yoke Heong. Malaysia’s Proton Struggles On. 2003. Retrieved 15 November 2007, from http://www.atimes.com/atime/south/eastasia/ Leela Barrock. 2007, ‘Proton still has a lifeline’, The Edge Malaysia , 4 June , p.8. M Shanmugam. 2007 ‘Proton: Clock is ticking’, The Edge Malaysia, 27 May. Siow Chen Ming. 2007, ‘Proton to rope in foreign partner first’, The Edge Malaysia 16 January. Leela Barrock. 2007, ‘Proton: A case of how not to’, The Edge Malaysia, 16 April, p.10 About ASEAN 2007, Retrieved 15 November 2007, from http://www.aseansec.org/54.htm Naya et al. 2007, Proton PC segment, Retrieved 15 November 2007, from http://www.venkateswaran.20m.com/custom.html/ About AFTA 2007, Retrieved 15 November 2007, from http://www.aseansec.org/57.htm Trade under CEPT. 2007. Retrieved 15 November 2007, from http://webh01.ua.ac.be/cas/PDF/CAS06.pdf Auto: Import Duty Down.2004, Retrieved 15 November 2007, from http://www.malaysia-today.net/Blog-e/2005/12/malaysia-revving-up-auto-industry.htm Khong Wee Sing, Cheaper Car?. Retrieved 17 November 2007, from http://starmotoring.com/news/story.asp?file=/2005/7/3/ms_features/11314805

Steganography And Visual Cryptography In Computer Forensics Computer Science Essay

Recently, numerous novel algorithms have been proposed in the fields of steganography and visual cryptography with the goals of improving security, reliability, and efficiency. This paper discusses and compares the two methodologies. Some similarities and differences are presented, in addition to discussing some of the best known algorithms for each. Lastly, an idea for a possible algorithm which combines the use of both steganography and visual cryptography is suggested. There are several ways of hiding data in files of different formats, leaving various signs of hidden data. Can data hidden in an original image be detected after it undergoes visual cryptography? Would that be a scenario which computer forensic investigators and forensic software developers have to account for? Keywords-Visual Cryptography, Steganography, Computer Forensics, Anti-forensics, Data Hiding, Secrecy, Novel Visual Cryptographic and Steganographic Methods, Forensic Investigation. 1. History Throughout history, a multiple of methods and variations have been used to hide information. David Kahn’s The Codebreakers provides an excellent accounting of this history. Bruce Norman recounts numerous tales of cryptography and steganography during times of war in Secret Warfare: The Battle of Codes and Ciphers. In ancient Greece, text was written on wax covered tablets. In one story Demeratus wanted to notify Sparta that Xerxes intended to invade Greece. To avoid capture, he scraped the wax off of the tablets and wrote a message on the underlying wood. He then covered the tablets with wax again. The tablets appeared to be blank and unused so they passed inspection by sentries without question. Another ingenious method was to shave the head of a messenger and tattoo a message or image on the messengers head. After allowing his hair to grow, the message would be undetected until the head was shaved again. Another common form of invisible writing is through the use of Invisible inks. Such inks were used with much success as recently as WWII. An innocent letter may contain a very different message written between the lines. Early in WWII steganographic technology consisted almost exclusively of invisible inks. Common sources for invisible inks are milk, vinegar, fruit juices and urine. All of these darken when heated Null ciphers (unencrypted messages) were also used. An example of a message containing such a null cipher from is: Fishing freshwater bends and saltwater coasts rewards anyone feeling stressed. Resourceful anglers usually find masterful leapers fun and admit swordfish rank overwhelming anyday. By taking the third letter in each word, the following message emerges: Send Lawyers, Guns, and Money. The Germans developed microdot technology which FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover referred to as “the enemy’s masterpiece of espionage.” Microdots are photographs the size of a printed period having the clarity of standard-sized typewritten pages. The first microdots were discovered masquerading as a period on a typed envelope carried by a German agent in 1941. The message was not hidden, nor encrypted. It was just so small as to not draw attention to itself (for a while). Besides being so small, microdots permitted the transmission of large amounts of data including drawings and photographs. 2.Introduction Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one apart from the intended recipient knows of the existence of the message; this is in contrast to cryptography, where the existence of the message itself is not disguised, but the content is obscured. The word “Steganography” is of Greek origin and means “covered or hidden writing”. Generally, a steganographic message will appear to be something else: a picture, an article, a or some other message – the cover text.The advantage of steganography over cryptography alone is that messages do not attract attention to themselves, to messengers, or to recipients. An unhidden coded message, no matter how unbreakable it is, will arouse suspicion and may in itself be incriminating. In some countries encryption is illegal. Steganography uses in electronic communication include steganographic coding inside of a transport layer, such as an MP3 file, or a protocol, such as UDP.Today, computer and network technologies provide easy-to-use communication channels for steganography. Essentially, the information-hiding process in a steganographic system starts by identifying a cover medium’s redundant bits 1 the embedding process creates a stegomedium by replacing these redundant bits with data from the hidden message. Modern steganography’s goal is to keep its mere presence undetectable, but steganographic systems-because of their invasive nature-leave behind detectable traces in the cover medium. Even if secret content is not revealed, the existence of it is: modifying the cover medium changes its statistical properties, so eavesdroppers can detect the distortions in the resulting stego medium’s statistical properties. The process of finding these distortions is called statistical steganalysis. This article discusses existing steganographic systems and presents recent research in detecting them via statistical steganalysis. Other surveys focus on the general usage of information hiding. 3.How Steganography works? When using steganography on a computer, you actually hide a message within another file. That resulting file is called a “stego file.” The trick to computer steganography is to choose a file capable of hiding a message. Figure 1: working of steganography A picture, audio, or video file is ideal for several reasons: These types of files are already compressed by an algorithm. For example, .jpeg, .mp3, .mp4, and .wav formats are all examples of compression algorithms. These files tend to be large, making it easier to find spots capable of hiding some text. These files make excellent destructors. That is, few people expect a text message to be hidden within a picture or an audio clip. If the steganographic utility does its job well, a user shouldn’t notice a difference in the quality of the image or sound, even though some of the bits have been changed in order to make room for the hidden message. 4.Uses of Steganography Steganography is a means of storing information in a way that hides that information’s existence. Paired with existing communication methods, steganography can be used to carry out hidden exchanges. Governments are interested in two types of hidden communications: those that support national security and those that do not. Digital steganography provides vast potential for both types. Businesses may have similar concerns regarding trade secrets or new product information. Avoiding communication in well-known forms greatly reduces the risk of information being leaked in transit. Businesses have increasingly taken advantage of another form of steganography, called watermarking. Watermarking is used primarily for identification and entails embedding a unique piece of information within a medium without noticeably altering the medium. (For details, see Katzenbeisser and Petitcolas1 and Barán et al.2) For example, if I create a digital image, I can embed in the image a watermark that identifies me as the image’s creator. I would achieve this by manipulating the image data using steganography, such that the result contains data representing my name without noticeably altering the image itself. Others who obtain my digital image cannot visibly determine that any extra information is hidden within it. If someone attempts to use my image without permission, I can prove it is mine by extracting the watermark. Watermarking is commonly used to protect copyrighted digital media, such as Web page art and audio files. Steganography can also enhance individual privacy. Although not a substitute for encryption, digital steganography provides a means of communicating privately. Of course, this is effective only if the hidden communication is not detected. If a person simply wants to communicate without being subjected to his or her employer’s monitoring syst then digital steganography is a good solution – the most private communication is the one that never existed! 5.Modern Steganography Accordingly, with the development and release of tools to steganographically hide infomation within images, various tools have also been developed and released to detect steganographic content. Most of these tools use statistical analysis to detect steganographic content. Once an image is suspected to have information hidden within it, the majority of tools launch a dictionary attack to determine the passphrase that was used to encrypt the hidden information. Although most of the initially available tools generated output that could be easily defeated by simple statistical analysis, various tools have appeared recently with more sophisticated information hiding and encryption algorithms that can escape simple forms of statistical analysis. For example, content encoded using the latest version of Outguess, a freely available tool on the Internet, is not detectable using most available tools to detect steganographic content. Similar to encryption technologies, new encoding techniques are being developed at the same rate as techniques to detect them. Figure 3 shows two seemingly identical images. The left one contains steganographic information, in this case the first page of this document in ASCII format. . The information was encoded into the left image using JPHide, a freeware steganography tool available for Windows. Approximately 4KB of information is hidden within the image on the left. It took approximately 1 minute to hide the information and write out the new JPEG file using the tool’s point and click user interface. Figure 2: one of these images contains embedded information. Subsequent extraction of the information from the image is also a simple point and click operation. 5.1 STEGANOGRAPHY GOES MAINSTREAM Even with easily accessible means to steganographically hide information within an image, one does not necessarily need sophisticated methods to encode information. Historic use of steganography has shown that low technology solutions have been highly effective. In late September 2001, several posters appeared in Bangladesh and in Pakistan that raised the eyebrows of people familiar with the television show, “Sesame Street.” Bert, one of the characters on “Sesame Street” could be seen in one small corner of the poster. At first, various “experts” on terrorism claimed that the image of Bert was deliberately planted as a hidden message to sleeper terrorist cells in the United States. A Bangladesh entrepreneur subsequently claimed that he had created the poster by piecing together random images of Osama bin Laden he had found off the Internet. Strangely, the appearance of this poster in photos taken at Pakistan protests occurring on the same day as the protests in Bangladesh were never explained. One of the fallouts of this incident, along with other similar perceived threats of encoded messages from unreviewed video transmissions from Osama bin Laden, caused the United States government to request that United States media refrain from showing unreviewed video originating from the Middle East. Figure 3: bert and osama bin laden The appearance of the character Bert on posters in Bangladesh coupled with the theories that this was a secret message caused mainstream media to scramble to explain steganography to the general public. Articles appeared in mainstream United States media outlets, such as Time Magazine and ABC News. In October, the ABC television show, “Primetime Live”, addressed the issue of steganography on the Internet with live televised examples of decoding steganographic images. Unfortunately, the broadcast did not clearly state that these images were fabricated for demonstrations purposes and were not, as implied, images found “in the wild” on the Internet. 5.2 IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY Image steganography has been widely studied by researchers. There are a variety of methods using which information can be hidden in images. 5.2.1 THE IMPLEMENTATION LOGIC In order to support plausible deniability two factors need to be considered in the proposed hypothetical solution. First, stego object should be able to decrypt to the plain text i.e. when we embed data in the cipher text using a steganographic algorithm, that algorithm or the decryption algorithm should be able to decrypt the stego object properly to the plaintext. Second, reencryption of the plaintext should generate the stego object. Example: Step 1: To encrypt plaintext we need a cryptographic algorithm (hypothetical). Plaintext Encryption Key = Ciphertext Step 2: To embed data in the ciphertext we need a steganographic algorithm. This creates a stego object which is the ciphertext embedded with hidden data. Ciphertext Embedded Data Stego Key = Stego Object Step 3: To unhide the embedded data from the stego object we use the steganographic algorithm with the stego key. Stego Object Stego Key = Hidden Message Step 4: To support plausible deniability we assume a (hypothetic) decryption algorithm which takes the stego object (which looks like ciphertext) as input and generates the plain text. Stego Object Decryption Key = Plaintext Step 5: In the same way we need a (hypothetic) encryption algorithm which would again encrypt the plain text generated in Step 4 to the stego object (which looks like ciphertext) generated in Step 2 to achieve complete plausible deniability. Plaintext (Re) Encryption Key = Stego Object Suppose transmitted ciphertext is intercepted by censorship authorities and they are suspicious of the encrypted content, and demand the decryption key to reveal the plain text. In such a situation we need a (hypothetic) decryption algorithm which could convert the stego object (generated in Step 2) to plaintext used in Step 1. Doing this we partially support plausible deniability because the authorities are now (partly) convinced that the encrypted content doesn’t contain any secret data. But what if the authorities try to act smart and re-encrypt the plaintext (generated in Step 4) to match it with the ciphertext (actually the stego object) we supplied for decryption. Because the plaintext won’t yield the stego object because the ciphertext is not embedded with the secret information, we need the hypothetic encryption algorithm. This algorithm would take the plaintext and generate an equivalent stego object (ciphertext embedded data) Figure-4: image streganography 6. ENCODING SECRET MESSAGES IN IMAGES Coding secret messages in digital images is by far the most widely used of all methods in the digital world of today. This is because it can take advantage of the limited power of the human visual system (HVS). Almost any plain text, cipher text, image and any other media that can be encoded into a bit stream can be hidden in a digital image. With the continued growth of strong graphics power in computers and the research being put into image based Steganography, this field will continue to grow at a very rapid pace. Before diving into coding techniques for digital images, a brief explanation of digital image architecture and digital image compression techniques should be explained. As Duncan Sellars explains “To a computer, an image is an array of numbers that represent light intensities at various points, or pixels. These pixels make up the images raster data.” When dealing with digital images for use with Steganography, 8-bit and 24-bit per pixel image files are typical. Both have advantages and disadvantages, as we will explain below. 8-bit images are a great format to use because of their relatively small size. The drawback is that only 256 possible colors can be used which can be a potential problem during encoding. Usually a gray scale color palette is used when dealing with 8-bit images such as (.GIF) because its gradual change in color will be harder to detect after the image has been encoded with the secret message. 24-bit images offer much more flexibility when used for Steganography. The large numbers of colors (over 16 million) that can be used go well beyond the human visual system (HVS), which makes it very hard to detect once a secret message, has been encoded. The other benefit is that a much larger amount of hidden data can be encoded into a 24-bit digital image as opposed to an 8-bit digital image. The one major drawback to 24-bit digital images is their large size (usually in MB) makes them more suspect than the much smaller 8-bit digital images (usually in KB) when sent over an open system such as the Internet. Digital image compression is a good solution to large digital images such as the 24-bit images mentioned earlier. There are two types of compression used in digital images, lossy and lossless. Lossy compression such as (.JPEG) greatly reduces the size of a digital image by removing excess image data and calculating a close approximation of the original image. Lossy compression is usually used with 24-bit digital images to reduce its size, but it does carry one major drawback. Lossy compression techniques increase the possibility that the uncompressed secret message will lose parts of its contents because of the fact that lossy compression removes what it sees as excess image data. Lossless compression techniques, as the name suggests, keeps the original digital image in tact without the chance of loss. It is for this reason that it is the compression technique of choice for steganographic uses. Examples of lossless compression techniques are (.GIF and .BMP). The only drawback to lossless image compression is that it doesn’t do a very good job at compressing the size of the image data. We will now discuss a couple of the more popular digital image encoding techniques used today. They are least significant bit (LSB) encoding and masking and filtering techniques. Least significant bit (LSB) encoding is by far the most popular of the coding techniques used for digital images. By using the LSB of each byte (8 bits) in an image for a secret message, you can store 3 bits of data in each pixel for 24-bit images and 1 bit in each pixel for 8-bit images. As you can see, much more information can be stored in a 24-bit image file. Depending on the color palette used for the cover image (i.e., all gray), it is possible to take 2 LSB’s from one byte without the human visual system (HVS) being able to tell the difference. The only problem with this technique is that it is very vulnerable to attacks such as image changes and formatting (i.e., changing from .GIF to .JPEG). Masking and filtering techniques for digital image encoding such as Digital Watermarking (i.e.- integrating a companies logo on there web content) are more popular with lossy compression techniques such as (.JPEG). This technique actually extends images data by masking the secret data over the original data as opposed to hiding information inside of the data. Some experts argue that this is definitely a form of Information Hiding, but not technically Steganography. The beauty of Masking and filtering techniques are that they are immune to image manipulation which makes there possible uses very robust. As a side note, there are many other techniques that are not covered in this paper that should be researched by anyone interested in using digital images for steganographic purposes. Techniques that use complex algorithms, image transformation techniques and image encryption techniques are still relatively new, but show promise to be more secure and robust ways to use digital images in Steganography. 8.A NEW VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY SCHEME FOR COLOR IMAGES Visual cryptography is a cryptographic technique which allows visual information (pictures, text, etc) to be encrypted in such a way that the decryption can be performed by the human visual system without the aid of computers. As network technology has been greatly advanced, much information is transmitted via the Internet conveniently and rapidly. At the same time, the security issue is a crucial problem in the transmission process. For example, the information may be intercepted from transmission process. This method aims to build a cryptosystem that would be able to encrypt any image in any standard format, so that the encrypted image when perceived by the naked eye or intercepted by any person with malicious intentions during the time of transmission of the image is unable to decipher the image. Firstly an image and key is fed into cryptosystem. The encryption algorithm produces a cipher image which is sent into receiver through a communication channel. When the cipher image reaches the destination, the receiver enters the key and the original image is decrypted. Figure 1 shows the block diagram of the cryptosystem. The key we used is the symmetric key with minimum size of 47 bits. Two important factors are used to determine the efficiency of any cryptographic scheme , namely: 1) the quality of the reconstructed image and 2) the resizing factor (“fac”). Any loss of information during the reconstruction phase leads to reduction in the quality of the recovered image. On the other hand resizing factor refers to enlarging or reducing the original image. To enlarge an image, specify resizing factor greater than 1. To reduce an image, specify resizing factor between 0 and 1.For bandwidth constrained communication channels it is desirable to keep resizing factor (“fac”) as small as possible. For color images, reducing resizing factor is of paramount importance since they occupy more space and consume more band width compared to grayscale and binary images. 9.THEORETICAL FORMULATIONS Figure 5: block diagram of our cryptosystem A color image is usually represented in the RGB color space, because most of the computer input and output devices use this color system. Each vector consists of three components, which are the intensity values in the Red, Green and Blue channel. The combination of these values delivers one particular color. A change in the intensity value will change the information stored in the picture. So by performing some changes in intensity values we can encrypt the image and doing the reverse in decryption. If the changes are performed separately on Red, Green and Blue layers, we can have more robust visual cryptographic system. This is because of the fact that when an intruder goes for complete analysis of the image will try to know these basic intensity values. These intensity values will help him to generate the original image. So if the encryption is done at this basic level then it will be hard to break the system. All the changes in the intensity values are performed using a mathematical function. 9.1MATHEMATICAL FUNCTION The function used in this cryptosystem should have a bijective mapping i.e. the function should have one-one and onto mapping. This indicates the inverse of the function exists. Hence the original information of the image can be retrieved back during decryption without any error. The function is given as g(u)= abs(1/log(tan((exp(k) * cos(exp(1)) * sin(exp(U)))))) here ‘k’ and’ l’ are the keys and ‘U’ is the gcd of the two keys which are used for encryption. 10 ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM Step 1: Ask for the image and the keys X1 and Y1 and the resizing factor “fac”. Step 2: Generate the function g( ) which will contain the values generated from a function in an array. Step 3: Find the absolute value of the function g( ). Here U=gcd(X1,Y1). Step 4: Pass it through a low pass filter. Step 5: Resize the image using bi-cubic interpolation and get the RGB layer in a separate matrix with the factor “fac”. Step 6: Multiply the pixel values with the absolute values calculated. Step 7: Flip the new formed Red matrix upside-down. Step 8: Flip the new formed Green matrix left-side right. Step 9: Rotate the Blue matrix by twice of the “fac”. Step 10: Generate the image again save it in .bmp format. (The image is saved in .bmp format because actual values of the pixel are retained and the number of pixels is also the same which is in contrast with the other compressed images like jpeg, gif, etc.) Step 11: Send the image with the resizing factor to the receiver. 11 DECRYPTION ALGORITHM Decryption is just the reverse process of encryption. The aim of decryption is to make the encrypted information readable again (i.e. to make it unencrypted). Step 1: Receive the image and ask for the key and resizing factor. Step 2: Break the received image into Red Green and Blue parts/layers. Step 3: Flip the new formed Red matrix upside-down. Step 4: Flip the new formed Green matrix left-side right. Step 5: Rotate the Blue matrix by twice of the “fac”. Step 6: Generate the function depending upon the keys. Here U=gcd(X1,Y1). Step 7: Find the absolute value of function and pass it through low pass filter. Step 8: Divide the pixel values of the received image with the absolute value of the function. Step 9: Form the image. Step 10: Resize the image by multiplying its r ows and column with the “fac” using bi-cubic interpolation 12 HOW TO WORK? This section presents the simulation results illustrating the performance of the proposed cryptosystem. The test image employed here is the true color image “parrot” with 290Ã-290 pixels. The key size is of 47 bits. The encryption and decryption algorithm are implemented in MATLAB 7.0 in core2duo of 2.66 GHz machine. The decryption algorithm takes 40 seconds to get executed. Now if an intruder goes for the exhaustive search for the keys then it will take around 2.2*1022 years to get the keys. This is the long time for secret information to lose its secrecy. Hence the proposed system is a strong one. If the key length is increased the system will become more secure. The results for our system are shown in figure 12.1 and in figure 12.2. Original image (b) Encrypted image (c) Decrypted image Figure 6: encryption and decryption process (a) Original image (b) Encrypted image (c) Decrypted image Figure 7: encryption and decryption process As stated earlier, the efficiency of any cryptosystem depends on the quality of the reconstructed image. We used the Structural Similarity (SSIM) index for measuring the quality between two images. The SSIM index can be viewed as a quality measure of one of the images being compared provided the other image is regarded as of perfect quality. The quality measures are calculated between the original image and the encrypted/decrypted image. Table 1 shows the quality measures of the images in figure 12.1 and in figure 12.2. TABLE 1: SSIM INDEX 13 STEGANOGRPHY AND VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY: Next the RIVC (Region Incrementing Visual Cryptography) method. In RIVC, the original image is sectioned into ‘n’ number of secrets and then ‘n 1’ number of shares are then created. Any ‘n’ number of 27 shares stacked would reveal ‘n-1’ number of secrets . The advantage to this method is that a user can pick which region of the secret image to assign to a secrecy level, and thus it makes it flexible and accommodating to user preferences. As this method may not seem to be as secure as other methods because of the fact that some levels of secrecy can still be revealed even if one doesn’t have all the shares, it is hard for the person who is trying to reveal the secret data to know if the shares that they have are all the shares or if they’re missing any. So if someone has 3 out of 5 shares and sees some data revealed, they may think that they’ve found the secret and stop looking for the other two. But if someone is using this method to hide a certain secret in a certain level, but decides to create other secrets as decoy, this doesn’t guarantee the hider that others won’t be able to reveal that secret if they happen to obtain the right shares. This is definitely an interesting method because it can be used in many ways and it is challenging to tell which shares reveal the real secret and which shares reveal decoy secrets. The ‘colour image secret sharing’ is one of the newer proposed methods which are capable of encrypting a color image. Its author claims that using the decryption module, perfect reconstruction can be achieved. Encryption of the image happens at the bit level of the blocks of the image. The result is a set of color-noise-like image shares. Because the encryption happens at the vector level, the shares have no correlation to the original image, which makes them resistant to brute force attacks that attempt to decrypt them. With this method, overlaying of shares doesn’t reveal any data; the decryption module has to decrypt the shares for the data to be revealed. This is good for added security since only those with software which implements this algorithm are capable of revealing the secret image. Two advantages of this method are that it decrypts the image shares without altering the secret image or effecting its quality or dimensions, and that the decryption satisfies the perfect reconstruction property. This means that after decryption, one would obtain a revealed image that is identical in look and content to the original secret images. Figure 8: proposed algorithm using both steganography and VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY with perfect reconstruction 14 CONCLUSION Steganography and visual cryptography have many similarities and differences, and thus have various uses in the digital and real worlds. Different algorithms for steganography and visual cryptography have different advantages and power, as well as disadvantages and weaknesses. So we notice that certain methods are easier to detect than others. But generally, the job of forensic and security investigators is not easy. When steganography and visual cryptography detection tools are used exclusively, it is almost impossible for investigators to uncover hidden or encrypted data. On the other hand, if these detection tools are used in conjunction with other tools and factors that narrow down the search to a somewhat smaller data set, then it makes the lives of investigators much easier and gives them a better chance of detecting suspicious data. It would be very interesting to learn how detectable data is after applying visual cryptography with perfect reconstruction to an image with hidden data. Also, an interesting detection question is whether we can reconstruct a set of ‘n’ shares into a meaningful image that is different than the image used to create those shares by omitting some of the n original shares and by including an additional share specifically constructed for such purpose. Basically this is a question about the uniqueness of the shares created by different visual cryptography algorithms.

Corporate social Responsibilities of McDonalds UAE Report

Table of Contents Introduction Definition of CSR McDonalds’ policy on CSR What McDonalds does to carry out their policy Agreement with the policies of McDonalds concerning CSR Reflection Conclusion References Introduction McDonald is a food company that has established outlets in the global markets. The company has been in operation since 1940 and has diversified in the number of food products it offers to the global markets. The company was established by Richard and Maurice McDonald, and the main goal was to produce hamburgers. The headquarters of the company are based in the United States, and various subsidiaries have been established in over 120 countries. The company has applied the strategy of franchising, affiliation or corporate operations. These strategies have enabled the company to expand in many countries (Hill

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