Get help from the best in academic writing.

Effect of English Language in the World

At the present time communication and traffic are growing, and globalisation has linked the world more closely together. The world becomes smaller and smaller every day; technology is constantly updated, business contacts and information sharing speed is also accelerating. This project investigates English as an international language and evaluates its effect on international business and marketing. This project aims to identify the advantages and disadvantages of English as a global language with specific reference to marketing. Firstly, this project will critically appraise the importance of language to culture. The project will then go to investigate the present position of English as an international language in marketing, followed by a critical appraisal of the advantages and disadvantages of English international language in marketing. Chapter 1: Introduction The English language is used as a global international language. I chose to do a literature based survey on English as an international language because I am interested in this. According to Crystal (2003) there are 320-380 million people whose first language is English, 300-500 million people whose second language is English and a number of about 500-1000 million people who recognize the importance of English as an international language. The history of English language began over 1500 years ago. In 1066, the Normans conquered the English. French became the language of the rich and powerful, but the poor primarily spoke English. In the 14th century, the British used many words from French or Latin, and much of the vocabulary no longer exists. However, as Britain began to be more powerful and build up an empire, from the about the end of the 17th century, the English language became more important. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England …Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States …that has given English its present standing in the world. (Soars, 1986:52) This project investigates English as an international language and evaluates its effect on international business and marketing. This research aims to identify the advantages and disadvantages of English as a global language with specific reference to marketing. Firstly, this project will critically appraise the importance of language to culture. The project will then go to investigate the present position of English as an international language in marketing, followed by a critical appraisal of the advantages and disadvantages of English international language in marketing. Chapter 2: Literature review There are many people speak English now. And David Crystal(2003) said that there are 320-380 million people refers to the traditional bases of English, where it is the primary language: It includes the USA, UK, Ireland, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. There are 300-500 million is the second language. And there are 500-1000 million people recognize the importance of English as an international language. Why is English an international language? It is from a book with “English as a world language” said that English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that has given the English language its present standing in the world. And Crystal support that there are seen kinds of answer given to the question: historical reasons, internal political reasons, external economic reasons, practical reasons, intellectual reasons, entertainment reasons, and some wrong reasons. Why English language is a branding? According to Maggie St. John (1992) said that the most basic concept underling marking is that of human needs and marketing has become a key factor in the success of western businesses. Because English language include this points, so English language is a branding. Chapter 3: Methodology I chose to do a literature based survey on English as an international language because I am interested in this. It was therefore necessary to get more information about this topic. I used books and relevant e-journals from the JMU library and got help from my tutor. The objective of this research question is to evaluate the effect of English as an international language on international business and marketing and then to identify the advantages and disadvantages for business and marketing. Hopefully this research will be useful research because there are many people studying English and they do not really know why; they just know they need to study to find a good job. This research will perhaps make people see more clearly why they need to learn English, not just to look for a job. In order to make this information valid and reliable, I will make a questionnaire and send it to 20 or more people learning English; 10 come from China and 10 come from the other people whose first language is not English. The questionnaire sheet will sent by e-mail to my friends. If I had more time it would be possible to do a much bigger, more representative survey. Chapter 4: Analysis and findings 4.1 To critically appraise the importance of language to culture. As Lotman states, (cited Bassnett, 1991) No language can exist unless it is steeped in the context of culture; and no culture can exist which does not have at its centre the structure of natural language Language, then, is the heart within the body of culture, and it is the interaction between the two that results in the continuation of life-energy. In the same way that the surgeon, operating on the heart, cannot neglect the body that surrounds it, so the translator treats the text in isolation from the culture at his peril. (Bassnett, 1991:14) 4.2 To investigate the present position of English as an International Language in marketing. Nowadays, the present position of English as an International Language occupies a high position in marketing. What is marketing? Today market is the commodity economy, the carrier or the actual running performance. The more developed commodity economy, the market scope and capacity of the more expanded. The there markets are interrelated meanings. Firstly, there is the sum of commodity producers and consumers of goods of economic relations between the convergences. Second, there is a demand for purchasing power; third is the reality of customers and potential customers. With the development of market economy, all kinds of markets are in development. With the social interaction, the market is not necessarily true sites and locations. Social division of labor and commodity market is the inevitable product of economic development. Meanwhile, the market in its development and strengthening of the process, but also promotes the social division of labor and the further development of commodity economy. Market through information feedback, a direct impact on people what is produced, the production number, and time to market, product sales, etc.; join the process of economic development, commodity production, supply, marketing parties, for the production, supply, marketing parties exchange place, exchange time and other exchange, in order to achieve commodity producers, operators and consumers to their own economic interests. (John, 1992). So accomplish a great deal of English education market. Primary and secondary students to learn English before they can enter university; students pass exams in English, they can not get places; As for the serving staff, English is a compulsory subject title examinations, title means more money, sub-house; those who want to study abroad, no a certain TOEFL, IELTS (English assessment test), you can not apply for a scholarship; want foreign companies have gained a seat, not English to work hard to find, even if found, but also the lack of promotion opportunities. The huge demand to learn from the huge crowd, rough statistics, the number of people learning English, just the middle and high school students, has nearly 190 million. According to the Chinese Ministry of Education Statistics 2005, the national junior high school students have 65144000, in the national senior high school students to reach 3990.09 million. (Diyazhao) 4.3 To critically appraise the advantages and disadvantages of English Language in marketing. We all know there are many advantages of learning English, The usefulness of English far more than meet the test and get a degree that simple. While the United Nations has six official languages, although Chinese is the world’s most widely spoken language, but now, the world’s most widely used language is English. China’s largest population, China wants to develop to isolation from the world, to get the world to gain a foothold in the world to seek their own way, will not be the most widely used language that how about other areas? On second thoughts, we as individuals want to break a world in the world, confined to the domestic is not enough, although the history of closed-door policy has become in the past, but it always warned us to learn foreign advanced science and technology to develop their own to improve their own! However, if the language does not pass even the most basic communication can not do, how can we talk about learning and development? But few people would think of a disadvantage. Because people want to learn English, they all feel is a good thing, but people often do not think learning English will let another language extinction. The people of the world only know 2 languages come from china: Cantonese and Mandarin. But China has more than the 2 languages. For example: Hakka. I am from China, I am also a Hakka, but since I live in a big city in the city led me to only speak Cantonese and Mandarin. But I spoke Hakka when I was small. However, due to speak Cantonese and Mandarin for a long time resulted in the Hakka dialect pronunciation of my non-standard, and sometimes my family does not understand what I said when I use Hakka. If this continues, the Hakka may be extinct. This is just an example. Chapter 5: Conclusion In this research, it enhanced English as a global language, It seems to capture the other indices between the world’s languages, roughly on the number of economic factors or the basis of mother tongue, do not convey the relative relationship between things. The awareness of the importance of language learning is point of departure. Taking into account economic factors has been discussed, including severe language products and open world trade index. Taking into account the human development are index of different countries. It combines education with literacy and the quality of life measures were generated. At least it is not some standard, but far ahead of all other languages, including Chinese. Chapter 6: Recommendations According to my research, this research shows why English as an international language. From this research, we should: firstly, we should know why we learn English. Because if you do not have an objective, and you cannot learn English very well. Finally, you need to know why English as an international language, not your mother language, it will let you know how different from English with your language that you can learn English harder. Chapter 7: Self Evaluation First four weeks This is the first time I have ever done research and I had little confidence, so initially I had trouble finding a topic or expressing a particular idea. I started to get some ideas from the internet. Luckily, I found an idea about English language as an international language from the internet. Although I had an idea, I did not know what I could do next. Then I talked with my teacher and she helped me to finish the research proposal. When I finished the proposal, I did not know how to research the information from books or websites, because there is so much information for me to choose from, I did not know which one is best for my research. Due to having classes taught about how to take notes and avoid plagiarism, I know now how to do these things and I am learning how to look for information. Mid course Midway through this research I had many problems. Firstly, I had toothache and I could not focus on my research and missed some classes, sometime I got so lost that I did not know what I can do next. I also found some books from library, but I did not know how to connect them with my research. Luckily, my tutor has told me how to connect them. I think my classmates are faster than me, so I need to catch up with them Final evaluation This is the final research, from this research; I learned how to write a full research and how to write references. And I knew there have a software can check you essay is copy or not that I very worried about this software. Then I checked my work again and again. Because I have an essay is for business that I have a lot of work to do. So sometime felt tired. However, I am a student, learning is student task.
CMN 10V University of California Persuasion and Health Comm PSA Video Essay.

Persuasion and Health Comm ActivityNo unread replies.No replies.This is an assignment activity for the persuasion and health sections of CMN 10V.You’ve learned about persuasive strategies and about efforts at changing behavior. This activity is designed to help you APPLY what you have learned by identifying, sharing, and discussing a specific incident of persuasive communication.1. First, select a health-related PSA (public service announcement) video from YouTube. This PSA must meet specific criteria:It must be professionally produced and/or distributed by a national or state-wide non-profit. Lots of PSAs on YouTube are created for high school or college health classes–do NOT choose one of those.It must be between 30 seconds and 90 seconds long. You must be able to intelligently and accurately apply the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) from the Persuasion lecture to the video2. After you have selected your PSA, write a 150-250 word paragraph (up to one typed double-spaced Times New Roman pt.12 page) explaining how certain components of the PSA are expressed through the EPPM. Your analysis should:Summarize the PSA’s argument and how the PSA aims to persuade audiences.Justify how the targeted audience will most likely respond according to the EPPM. The justification will use cues from the PSA to select the most likely EPPM pathway that the PSA will follow. Make sure to include what is the most likely outcome of the message based on the components of the PSA and the EPPM (e.g. Adaptive Changes or Maladaptive Changes).Offer two alternative message strategies that the PSA could have used to achieve a better EPPM outcome. DO NOT imagine entirely different PSAs. Instead, try to think of the changes that could be made to YOUR PSA that, if implemented, would result in a better outcome. [If you re-examine Persuasion Video #3 around the 4:00 mark, you will have a clear sense of the task required.]3. Post a link to your PSA and the text of your analysis in a single post below.4. Read (and view) a number of posts by your classmates. For at least two of them, provide a thoughtful, insightful response. Your response should refer specifically to either elements of the EPPM or to the six principles of persuasion from the reading, but should also reflect your original (and even critical) analysis.
CMN 10V University of California Persuasion and Health Comm PSA Video Essay

Protective Factors in Infancy. Can you help me understand this Psychology question?

Protective Factors in Infancy
For this discussion, refer to your assessment results from the abbreviated version of the Nicholson McBride’s Resilience Quotient Questionnaire, which you completed for your studies in Unit 2. Using your initial assessment results, consider your own life experiences that will support your critical analysis of risk and protective factors.
My score was a 53 which meant An exceptional level of resilience. Your score indicates that you are very resilient most of the time and rarely fail to bounce back –whatever life throws at you. You believe in making your own luck.
The first moments of life begin to impact an individual as an individual and within a system. Protective factors exist, even in the earliest moments of life. “Resilience is about developing and maintaining the strength to overcome adversity,” (Davis, as cited by Murphy, 2012, p. 60). “In children, resilience can be developed by helping them develop the internal and external assets that will sustain them when life is difficult or when hard times occur” (p. 60). Consider this information as you study the process of resilience at different times in the lifespan.

Describe the factors that have contributed to resiliency from the social, psychological, and biological dimensions of your life.
Consider that the concept of self that has developed is a factor of the interaction of many variables and the meaning one attributes to these variables. Describe the importance of any of these factors in the environment, and identify at least one risk factor you have encountered. Remember that it is not just the factors or the traits you possess, but the interaction and utilization of these traits that impacts your experiences.

Write a 250-word minimum initial post to this discussion. Include two scholarly resources. Be sure to include relevant, required information, adequate explanations, and alternative viewpoints.
Protective Factors in Infancy

“Kinky Boots” and “Les Miserables” Research Paper. Introduction Inspired by a true story, Kinky Boots is a film about an unlikely collaboration between a drag queen and a shoe factory owner. By putting together their efforts and aside their myriad personal issues and insecurities, they work together to save the shoe business by inventing high heeled men’s boots. Les Miserables is the take of Jean Valjean an ex-convict trying to live by the law but is forced to be on the run escaping recapture by the ruthless Inspector Jevert who intends to re-incarcerate him. He adopts and brings up Cosette and after going through numerous challenges, they end up being swept up in the political turmoil that rocked Paris prior to and during the French revolution (Failes par. 6). In Kinky Boots, the lighting mood is warm and bright, which have the result of bringing out the optimism and romance that makes a big part of the movie (LNS Online America par. 7). This contrasts sharply with the overall dark lighting in Les Miserables. However, then again, this is not surprising since the theme of the film is a darker and more forlorn (Failes par. 9). The overriding emotion in the film is one of hopeless and fear rather than the optimism and the hope that is dominant in Kinky Boots. Body In Kinky Boots, there are several instances where non-motivate light is applied to reinforce the mood of the current scent and/or create and fill multiple spaces within the same scene. For example after the death of Charlie’s father, the lighting goes of abruptly with only a beam of light illuminating Charlie. This serves to personify the sorrow and depression that Charlie is facing, he fells alone and abandoned with no hope and this ultimately inspires sorrow in the audience who are forced to focus for a few moments on the monstrosity of the loss and loneliness of his brother. In Les Miserables, after Fountine has sold her teeth she is depicted lying in bed with light only showing her face and the rest of the body shrouded in darkness (LNS Online). Like the scene in Kinky Boots, this helps the viewer appreciate her sorrow and isolation as well as compelling them to focus on these. Separation of space is another way in which lighting is used in Kinky Boots, at one point, Lolar is dancing in the club with a backdrop of shining red light while in a separated image, Charlie is in his office contemplating the business ideas he got from her. His part of the scene is covered in normal blue light, which juxtaposes their different environments. Lola’ club scene is illuminated by red, a colour that stands for excitement and action while on the other hand Charlie presented in a cooler and more relaxed blue light. Ultimately, the separation of the two spaces is achieved through the contrasting colours (LNS Online America par. 3). As aforementioned, the lighting in the play Kinky Boots is mostly warm and bright, the brightness and warmth of the whole set is characteristic or the commercial comedy that it is. Therefore, the lighting does indeed resonate with the overall theme of the play as well as concept of production. IN addition unlike in a film where the lighting can be manipulated from one scene to the other sometimes even after the shooting is done. Live performances often have to be consistent, therefore, a universal lighting theme is more often than not both practical and suitable (Jones par. 4). The film on the other hand has the advantage of a bigger budget and more opportunities for technical adjustments. However, in this case, the lighting was universally dark, which was quite in harmony with the melancholic theme. In addition, given that this is a period movie, it made sense that it should be “darker” both for historical and dramatic reasons. To most people, the period in which the film was shot was considered a rather dark one in European history. Furthermore, there is a limit on the extent or number of lights one can use in a historical movie. The play, on the other hand, is based on a metropolitan and existing setting full of pomp and colour and one expects to encounter pretty or light in various forms. In the play, the lighting is in conjunction with all the other elements of design such as the costumes set and even props. The warm bright light resonates with the excitement and overall cheerfulness of the comedy. When Lola and her friends go out to dance in the club, they are dancing in red dresses in the backdrop of red lights and this brings out the sensual and exiting elements of their performance more so given their revealing clothes. In the same way albeit in a very different context, the lighting, sound, props and costumes in Les Miserables are dark and this coolly absorbs the dark light creating and enhancing the sad melancholy the director wished to bring out. There is hardly a smile from any of the characters; most of them display either anger, fear despair or hopelessness (Jing-yue 13). This is reflected on their dull costumes and scenario often devoid of anything bright, in fact, it would have been illogical for the production to use anything other dark light. Even the weather is cold in most scenes with wetness, ice and water constituting majority of the landscape. Conclusion In conclusion, when one considers the merits of both performances, they must take to account the fact that their mediums of production makes them fundamentally different in their varied scopes. Theatre is more dependent on the direct actions of the actors to bring out the message while film can apply a variety of cinematographic designs to enhance the scenery and action. In the play Kinky Boots, the light is used for instance to separate scenes, which is, however, not a necessary technique in film since it can be achieved by manipulating and pictures to appear of separate parts of the screen. One would expect that film by virtue of being more technically enhanced should be more engaging than theatre. However, I found the play to more engaging since probably because of proximity to the actors or the fact that one gets to hear their real voices and view them live rather than on screen. In a play, actors tend to be more expressive, they will be louder and their facial expressions would be more intense, in film they are not nearly as engaging since they are shot in separate scenes sometimes without a sense of continuity. Therefore, even as many people may find it more interesting and convenient to watch films plays will, I have discovered provide a more intense and exiting experience. Works Cited Failes, Ian. Making a musical: Les Miserables. Jing-yue, Zhang. “The Great Symphonic Poem-The Polyphynic Structure of Les Miserable.” Journal of Taiyuan University of Technology (Social Sciences Edition) 6 (2012): 13-17. Print. Jones, Kenneth. 2008. Kinky Boots, the Musical, Walking Toward Broadway. LNS Online America. 2014. Theatre in Review: Kinky Boots (Al Hirschfeld Theatre). “Kinky Boots” and “Les Miserables” Research Paper

w5 d1 res3 dannnnnnnb

w5 d1 res3 dannnnnnnb. I’m studying and need help with a Health & Medical question to help me learn.

Please note that each and every assignment has its own word limit.

The stress buffering model of support has shown to have many health benefits. It exposes the fact that stress has an adverse effect on health. While it has a formal title, many people may see this health behavior as just as social support and not necessarily associate it with formal steps or processes or understand the theory behind the benefit. This model was also once known as the stress prevention model (Glanz, Rimer, & Viswanath, 2015). The health benefits of social support are well known. In technical terms, social support influences cognitive processes, encourage proactive coping, and decreases exposure to secondary stressors (Glanz et al, 2015). One great example that the book displays is how stress at work can spill over into conflict at home. In stress buffering, a supportive partner at home, can significantly buffer that stress and reduce secondary and tertiary effects of that stress. This example can be flip flopped as well. Stress at home can spill over into work, and cause secondary stressors. Support at work however can decrease this effect. This model recognizes that regardless of stress prevention techniques, stress may still be experienced. It shows that social support decreases effects of stress and physical health. While some areas of work may have high stress, those with high levels of emotional support, had better health outcomes.
Another theory that can integrated with this model is the stress prevention model. This basically states that prevention is the best way to prevent the ill effects on stress on health. In order to have effective stress prevention, there has to be a knowledge base, an open attitude.

Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Viswanath, K. (Eds.). (2015). Health behavior: Theory, research, and
practice (5th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Wiley/Jossey-Bass.

Respond to the bold paragraph ABOVE by using one of the option below… in APA format with At least two references and a minimum of 200 words….. .(The List of References should not be older than 2016 and should not be included in the word count.)

Ask a probing question.
Share an insight from having read your colleague’s posting.
Offer and support an opinion.

Validate an idea with your own experience.
Make a suggestion.
Expand on your colleague’s posting.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.
It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the context of ethics and the readings for this class

To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the word/page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create subheadings to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.
w5 d1 res3 dannnnnnnb

University of the Cumberlands The Honolulu Elevated Rail Project Case Study

essay writing service free University of the Cumberlands The Honolulu Elevated Rail Project Case Study.

Case 13.3 “Dear Mr. President—Please Cancel our Project!”: The Honolulu Elevated Rail ProjectThis case is a great current example of a very expensive project that was kicked off because of an assumed need—to relieve congestion in downtown Honolulu through an elevated urban rail system. Critics argue that in addition to having a ballooning cost, the actual planning was poorly conceived, leaving Honolulu with an intrusive and ugly rail system through the downtown area, ruining panoramic views, and impeding traffic. Additionally, advocates underestimated the power needs for the rail system, requiring the transport authority to renegotiate electricity fees for the system. Finally, the original costs that were assumed for the project were calculated during an economic downturn and with the economy booming again, the costs of the project have gone up dramatically. All of these elements points to a state Governor who is anxious to be rid of the project and hoping that President Trump will deny additional federal funding, in which case the project will likely be cancelled.QuestionsWhy are public works projects like the Honolulu Rail project nearly impossible to stop once they have been approved, even if later cost estimates skyrocket?Project Management researchers have charged that many large infrastructure projects, like this one, suffer from “delusion” and “deception” on the parts of their advocates. Explain how “delusion” might be a cause of ballooning budgets in this project. How does “deception” affect the final project budget overruns?Case Study 14.1—New Jersey Kills Hudson River Tunnel ProjectThis case illustrates the challenges in making an early termination decision. Often, particularly in the case of public projects, there is a real difficulty in stopping a project once it has gotten “on the books.” As a result, projects with huge cost overruns, like Boston’s “Big Dig” are allowed to continue almost indefinitely. New Jersey Governor Chris Christie made a tough call in deciding to cancel the Hudson River Tunnel project because he was given a number of rosy projections that did not match the actual costs incurred to that date. This is a great case to let students pick sides: should Christie have cancelled the project or not? There are arguments to be made that the need was strong (although others could argue that the need was over-sold). On the other hand, the history of the project to date and the uncertainty about future federal funding made it a real gamble, especially during a time of economic recession.QuestionsHow would you respond to the argument that it is impossible to judge how successful a project like this one would have been unless you actually do it?Take a position, either pro or con, on Christie’s decision to kill the ARC. Develop arguments to support your point of view.In your opinion, how clearly must a large infrastructure project like ARC have determined its need, costs, and so forth before being approved? If the criteria are too stringent, what is the implication for future projects of this type? Would any ever be built?Please download textbook from this link. Use textbook chapters to answer the questions on assigned readings – chapter 13 and 14…done
University of the Cumberlands The Honolulu Elevated Rail Project Case Study

need it today asap

need it today asap. I need help with a Marketing question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

The Discussion Board (DB) is part of the core of online learning. Classroom discussion in an online environment requires the active participation of students and the instructor to create robust interaction and dialogue. Every student is expected to create an original response to the open-ended DB question as well as engage in dialogue by responding to posts created by others throughout the week. At the end of each unit, DB participation will be assessed based on both level of engagement and the quality of the contribution to the discussion.
At a minimum, each student will be expected to post an original and thoughtful response to the DB question and contribute to the weekly dialogue by responding to at least two other posts from students. Two additional responses are required after Friday of each week. Students are highly encouraged to engage on the Discussion Board early and often, as that is the primary way the university tracks class attendance and participation.
The purpose of the Discussion Board is to allow students to learn through sharing ideas and experiences as they relate to course content and the DB question. Because it is not possible to engage in two-way dialogue after a conversation has ended, no posts to the DB will be accepted after the end of each unit.
Assignment DetailsThis assignment has 4 parts.

Collaboration in a business environment is a best practice that leverages the collective knowledge of the team assembled. Peer evaluation and support, provided in the spirit of continuous improvement and organizational success, result in higher quality deliverables than generally possible by the efforts of an individual. Please describe the process you plan to use to conduct research, identify findings, and develop the Comprehensive Project due in Unit 5 and present a preliminary outline indicating how you intend to organize the project deliverable.
Please review the process and outlines of other students, providing an objective assessment and constructive feedback that will help strengthen the effectiveness of their efforts and the quality of the finished product.
Understanding the customer profile is essential to the overall marketing plan. The customer profiles also help with selecting the correct media for the target markets. Visit Experian’s Consumer Profiles and complete the following:

Provide an overview of your product
Choose three possible profiles for your product’s target market/audience. Explain the profiles.

How can this type of information on consumers be used by the marketing manager in its marketing communications & strategy?
Assess the market being targeted. What group(s) of consumers would most likely be drawn to the product? What are some ethical and legal implications? Explain why you are targeting these segments and three possible channels you would use to place your product for distribution to this target market.

need it today asap

COMM142 Reading Response 1

COMM142 Reading Response 1. I’m studying for my Communications class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

(650-1000 words)
In Media/Society: Technology, Industries, Content, and Users, David R. Croteau and William Hoynes (2019, p. 13) define agency as follows, adding an example from education:
Agency is intentional and undetermined human action. Human agency reproduces—or sometimes changes—social structure. . . . With education, students have some leeway in what they study, how much time and energy they spend on schoolwork, and whether or not they even continue their studies. But, overall, their actions typically reinforce an existing model of education that has evolved only modestly in the last century. . . . [W]hile structure constrains agency, it is human agency that either alters or maintains social structures.
Rojek, on page 76 of Pop Music, Pop Culture, writes:
Whereas structuralism foregrounds the desiderata that are alleged to condition or determine individual and group action, the agency perspective launches from the position of the knowledge, motivation and action of social actors to transform history and socio-economic contexts. It takes for granted that the central defect of the structuralist approach is to deny creativity, variation and cultural difference. . . . Against this, agency approaches emphasize the creativity and aesthetic contribution of artists and audiences and their attempt to make meaning and act upon society and history. The caveat here is that subjective choice and practice are conceived not as autonomous, but as entwined in fields of knowledge and power that prioritize specific types of embodiment, recognition and conduct.
Pick one or two texts/writers we have read or read about, up to and including Week Five, the week of this assignment’s deadline. These texts may also be e.g. individual perspectives (Plato/Aristotle, relationism, etc.) discussed by Rojek in our textbook. Using examples from your own experience and/or various music-related media, explain where these texts/writers locate listeners’ and/or musicians’ agency. What, according to these texts/writers, is our agency in our everyday listening or in our musical performances? Where do these authors find “intentional and undetermined human action” or “the creativity and aesthetic contribution of artists and audiences and their attempt to make meaning and act upon society and history”? Do these texts/writers allow for agency at all?
Further notes/recommendations (also remember to revisit the syllabus for further information):

Be sure to use the space you have efficiently. Choosing just one text may be enough if you have strong arguments in your discussion of its up- and downsides and if you bring in carefully selected ideas from other texts for comparison. Two texts/writers may work well for a comparison.
While, of course, short summaries of selected texts’/writers’ main arguments should be included in your text, be sure to focus on the application of their ideas to your examples, and focus on your critical evaluation of these ideas. To quote the syllabus: “How do the readings help us to understand the relationship between popular music and everyday life? Do these readings speak to your personal experience as a consumer or producer of music? Are there alternative ways of thinking about what the readings discuss? If so, what are they?”
Be sure to isolate the key arguments of the texts you focus on. Don’t feel like you have to explain a text’s/writer’s minor lines of thought. Instead, take a reading’s key point and engage with it through evidence as well as comparison.

COMM142 Reading Response 1