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Effect of Children’s Participation in Violent Video Games

Effect of Children’s Participation in Violent Video Games. Youth in the United States spend an average of 40 hours a week using some type of media, whether it be video games, computer games or phone applications. This number rapidly increases every year and differs in each age group, especially now with the diverse technology we have in this day and age. However, the effects of all video games and media are not the concern. The concern is for violent and gore stricken video games or media that start to circulate at a young age and continue to circulate through adulthood. The amount of violence that young children are subject to in video games and media is startling, to say the least. These violent video games come with certain side effects that parents, teachers and adolescents themselves are not aware of until it has already begun to happen. Some of these effects include aggressive behaviour or increased aggressive behaviour if some aggression or hostility is already present, prosocial behaviour or loss of altruism, the desensitization to violence and gore from being around it so often, the loss of attentiveness and view of reality as well as lower academic performance paired with consistent fights with peers and/or superiors. Ever since video games adapted past cartoon worlds like Super Mario Brothers and Pac-Man, there has been a lot of research done surrounding the effects violent video games and media have on adolescents. The majority of studies have proved that their suspected effects are in fact actual effects that children have after being exposed briefly to said violent video games. Even with the many people out there that believe that the negative effects video games could possibly have are myths and lies made up to reduce the consumption of new and growing technology that takes over the lives of children, but the facts are that the more technologically advanced video games get and the closer to reality they appear, the harder it will be for children to distinguish between what is reality and what is virtual reality. To start off, the suspected effects of violent video games such as increased aggression, the loss of altruism, increased physiological arousal and prosocial behaviour have not come out of nowhere but through “5 decades of research in the effects of exposure to violent T.V and movies…” (Anderson and Bushman). Due to the fact that video games and technology are constantly evolving, the effects of these violent video games could get inherently worse. The psychological effects that would most likely surface from these games are as listed: the decrease of prosocial behaviour, which in turn is the loss of wanting to help others for nothing in return and an increased level of physiological arousal, which will end up causing the child to be less attentive and unfocused at a young age. Those listed effects could greatly impact the way any child learns while being exposed to games with such high violent content. They can also lead to blurred thoughts on the morality of the violent actions produced in the video games. From exposure to such violence at a young age, children perceive violence as fun. They “are getting a message that when you have conflicts, you fight with violence and that you have to fight in order to resolve your differences” (Barbaro and Earp). Industry leaders deny that their products cause any harm to children whatsoever, but there are studies showing that “even with brief exposure to violent T.V or movie scenes causes significant increases in aggression” (Anderson and Bushman). Obviously, the market of the products would be at stake if the companies selling the video games were to publicly come to the conclusion that their products do in fact effect adolescents negatively, therefore, their only option is to announce that there is nothing harmful about their games and move on. However, a 2001 study found that “across 54 independent tests of the relation between video game violence and aggression, involving 4262 participants, there appear to be five consistent results of playing games with violent content. Playing violent games increases aggressive behaviours, increases aggressive cognitions, increases aggressive emotions, increases physiological arousal, and decreases prosocial behaviours. These effects are robust; they have been found in children and adults, in males and females, and in experimental and non-experimental studies. This is not to say that no studies have failed to find evidence of an effect. However, the majority of studies have found such evidence.” (Gentile, Lynch and Linder). To this day, “the multibillion-dollar youth marketing industry has used the latest advances in psychology, anthropology, and neuroscience to transform American children into one of the most powerful and profitable consumer demographics in the world.” (Barbaro and Earp). While big-time companies are making money off of child consumers and their parent’s strong will to appease their children, they are suffering mentally by the effects of playing these violent video games. Second of all, a lot of these games would not fall into the laps of children without the help of consent from an adult. A study has shown that “fewer than 1 in 5 parents have ever kept their children from getting a game because of its rating.” (Gentile, Lynch and Linder). The violent video games have ratings and restrictions for a reason, and when a parent comes in as a proxy to buy the game for their child that isn’t of age, that is when parental mediation fails. According to studies, “parental mediation is correlated with better academic performance, and has been shown to increase beliefs in social norms and to decrease fear.” (Gentile, Lynch and Linder) This argument does not account for the fact that yes, any child could go over to a friend’s house and play a game they are not being allowed to play because of the rating/age restriction or by their parents, but when a thirteen-year-old is playing a violent game that is age restricted to a nineteen-year-old where killing people for no reason is the sole objective, the results can be overall not in our control and damaging to the children. It has been shown that “adolescents who were more hostile tended to consume more violent video games, prefer more violent content, and have fewer parental limits on the content of their video games” (Gentile, Lynch and Linder). Therefore, the act of having a parent be there to buy the game for the child should not be allowed. If the child is anywhere with the parent it should be a rule that they are not allowed to purchase the game. We may not be able to stop the parent from purchasing the game for their child in the end, however, with more parental mediation on these types of games and if the games are harder to get at, it makes the fight for the game a lot more difficult and less appealing to the parent when looking to purchase the games. Next, one of the biggest reasons to have this debate is to sort out the amount of violence being portrayed in video games and show present it affects children in their daily lives and for the future. The most important effect from that is the term “desensitization”. The term desensitization has been “used by scholars, public policy analysts, politicians, and the lay public to mean effects as varied as: (a) an increase in aggressive behavior; (b) a reduction in physiological arousal to real-life violence; (c) a flattening of affective reactions to violence; (d) a reduction in likelihood of helping a violence victim;” (Carnagey and Bushman). When children are exposed to as much virtual violence as they are in these video games, they begin to get desensitized to real-life violence. According to research done in the cognitive behavioural treatment of phobias, “A narrower, clearer definition of desensitization to violence is a reduction in emotion-related physiological reactivity to real violence.” (Carnagey and Bushman). Although it can also be argued that using video games to desensitize people to real life violence could work to benefit some of the population. For example, “can we use video games to systematically desensitize individuals who need to be desensitized to specific stimuli that cause them problems (e.g. a car accident victim afraid of driving again.” (Carnagey and Bushman). For an opposite example of how the virtual violence can be used and translated into the real world, there was a game released in 2003 called Manhunt, where the only objective is to stalk and then murder people in the game. In the United Kingdom, “The original Manhunt game was given an 18 classification in 2003 and was later blamed for the murder of a 14-year-old boy. Stefan Pakeerah was stabbed and beaten to death in Leicester in February 2004 and his parents claimed the killer, Warren LeBlanc, 17, was inspired by the game.” (Orr) The more a game like this is played, the more adolescents become accustomed to the feeling of violence playing a crucial part in their lives. Studies show that “even just 20 minutes, can cause people to become less physiologically aroused by real-life violence.” (Carnagey and Bushman). Therefore, if the desensitization of violence continues to affect children and translate to real life violence, there needs to be serious reconsideration when releasing content like this for the future. Now, there are a lot of ways for children to acquire these violent natured video games, but how do they hear about them? A lot of this knowledge and understanding comes from their peers. There have been “claims that production and consumption are old fashion ‘industrial age’ concepts, and that the internet age, where access to the means of producing and distributing information is ‘widely available’, consumers become cultural producers and distributors” (Hesmondhalgh). Due to the fact that your social standpoint online is very important in today’s society, there are certain Lastly, with evolving technology and more versions of virtual reality that are truly immersive, it can be difficult to separate one’s self from the virtual second life and their own reality. They have games now such as Second Life, Sims or World of Warcraft where an alternate version of your life that you create exists. The attraction and attachment to these types of other worlds are known as telepresence. Telepresence is defined as “the technologically mediated sense of detachment from local space and reattachment to hyperspace” (Mejias) or “the experience of being somewhere where our bodies are not. (Mejias). It is becoming more and more common to have one of these online virtual second lives, but some of them are not used in the way they might have been intended. In April of 1999, 13 students and teachers were killed and 21 were injured in The Columbine High School Massacre. Doom was the first ever first-person shooter game in the to be released and that came with a lot of controversy over the content of the game. After the shooting, “Doom became the center of debate once again when it was discovered that Klebold and Harris had been avid players and even compared the school shooting to Doom, saying murder would just be as easy as playing the game.” (Bennett). They used a computer modification “that allowed PC versions to be modified into personalized levels created by the user.” (Bennett) and created 2 shooters with weak victims that could not protect themselves as an added level. Telepresence can almost feel like an out of body experience, “our minds seem to expand to all corners of the universe, but when our interaction with the world is reduced to mediated signals, how do we know if things on the other side are real?” (Mejias) and with so many different ways to experience a world that is virtual, the opportunities for good and bad can arise easily. In conclusion, research and studies have shown that the effects on adolescents playing violent video games or watching violent media are damaging and severe. Those effects include aggressive behaviour or more hostile behaviour if aggression in the child is already present, the loss of altruism, desensitization to violence or gore, lower grades or continuous fighting with peers and teachers, loss of attentiveness and the loss of reality into a virtual reality. A majority of studies and research proving that the effects listed above are in fact real and happening to the children that take part in playing the many violent video games is reason enough for the regulations and rules to be changed. Purchasing a video game with a high age rating or restriction should only be allowed if you meet that age restriction, and not only if your parent is there with you to buy it because you are not old enough. Paying close attention to your child in school as well as with peers and teachers will also help spot any changes the games may cause in behaviour. Therefore, believing gaming industry leaders when they say their products cause no harmful effects to children, that monitoring your child is enough while they play these violent video games or just thinking that their aggression is a phase they will move on from, could end up affecting everyone involved in the long run for the worse. Furthermore, as the world evolves and the games become a lot more realistic, it will be hard to differentiate between was is reality and what is virtual reality. Works Cited Anderson, Craig A. and Brad J. Bushman. “Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behaviour, Aggressive Cognition, Aggressive Affect, Physiological Arousal, and Prosocial Behaviour: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature.” Sage Journals (2001). Andrejevic, Mark. The YouTube Reader. Stockholm: National Library of Sweden, 2009. Bennett, April. Doom and Columbine: The Effect Of The Columbine High School Massacre On The Video Game Industry. 28 March 2016. 25 November 2018. . Carnagey, Nicholas L. and Brad J. Bushman. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 43.3 (2007): 489-496. Consuming Kids: The Commercialization of Childhood. Dirs. Adriana Barbaro and Jeremy Earp. Perf. Dan Acuff, et al. 2008. Gentile, Douglas A., et al. “The Effects of Violent Video Game Habits on Adolescent Hostility, Aggressive Behaviours, and School Performance.” Journal of Adolescence 27.1 (2004): 5-22. Hesmondhalgh, David. “User-generated content, free labour and the cultural industries .” ephemera theoryEffect of Children’s Participation in Violent Video Games
Workplace Harassment and Discrimination Presentation.

WORK IN THE REAL WORLD DISCUSSION FORUM OVERVIEWIn your role as an I/O consultant, you belong to a professional organization with a very active discussion forum. In the forum, you will present a current news story that demonstrates a work-related issue. Your current news story will be within the last six months. As the I/O consultant, you will critically review the news story and reflect and consider all aspects and viewpoints the author provides. You will also note viewpoints that are not emphasized or not included.PART1:In your initial post, state the title of the news story and include the link so that others can access the story. Briefly summarize the story and explain the work-related issue/dilemma and how it relates to a topic covered in the course. Your post must be at least 200 words and show a clear connection between the news story/event and the course material.Read the reviews from the other I/O consultants and reply with meaningful comments to a minimum of two of them.PART2: POWERPOINTYou powerpoint must be five to ten pages in duration and include supporting visual aids, should include clear identification of the problem. You should create a realistic scenario. Don’t just say “communication problem,” which describes how that plays out among team members in the workspace. Be sure to include enough detail. Is this a problem among just two individuals? A subgroup? The whole team or department? What are the consequences of this problem?For each video, you will identify a problem or issue that you have experienced or observed in a workplace and fully describe it. You’ll discuss how this problem relates to one or more topics covered in class. Specifically discuss how the class concepts, issues, and theories relate to the problem. Be specific and thorough. Provide insights, recommendations, and/or solutions that address the issues or solve the problem. Include any barriers or challenges that might arise when implementing your suggestions. Make sure that you incorporate scholarly research in both your discussion of the issue and your proposed recommendations. Cite your sources.Consider these questions:What theories and concepts from psychology are operating in this situation?How can these principles be used to work toward a solution? What does a solution look like? How does it differ from the problem state? Be specific for your scenario.What challenges will you and the management face in trying to implement a change or solution? How difficult will it be? How much time will it take? How will you know when things are improved?This module week’s vlog should be about the background of I/O psychology or research methods in I/O psychology.Be sure to relate how your real-world issue fits in the context of the historical development or the foundational research of I/O. For example, how the development of workplace violence or sexual harassment has developed over time.
Workplace Harassment and Discrimination Presentation

Human Resources Evaluation Management Plan.

Human Resources Evaluation Management Plan..

I’m working on a management Essay and need support to help me study.

The final project for this course is the creation of a Human Resources Evaluation Management Plan. You will be given a scenario in which you will assume the role of a human resources (HR) manager who has just joined a new organization. In this role, you have been tasked with taking an inventory of the HR department and have been given six weeks to come up with a plan for improving the company’s HR problems. You will write a 10-15 page written plan describing how you will approach this task. I NEED A COMPLETE PAPER AND NOT JUST DRAFT THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE PAPER ARE IN THE ATTACHMENT PLEASE READ.
Human Resources Evaluation Management Plan.

Introduction to HIV/AIDS

professional essay writers NAMES OF MEMBERS K.J. TIKISO M.J. MOHOLOHOLO M.R. MATUKA J,M. MOHOLO M.O. MLOTUMI HIV and AIDS outline (Foreword): HIV and AIDs is the most threatening disease which everyone on this planet earth is scared to contact the virus, simply because there is no medication found to cure the virus yet. The disease leaves most of the children without parents and some instances with single parents. An unfortunate part about the disease is that some of the health workers don’t have choice to when it comes to which patients they can treat, e.g. Hospital workers and Emergency Service workers. The aim of these projects set as and educational (awareness) tool, identify methods of counselling and support services in the emergency medical service environment. Glossary of terms AIDS- Stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome which means the body loses its ability to fight infections; HIV weakens the immune system Anal intercourse -Penetration of the anus of a man or female Antibody- A specific protein made by a person’s white blood cells to fight a disease; for example, antibodies are produced against the different kinds of colds, flu and HIV. Anus- Opening at back of body through which waste matter is AZT A –drug that attacks the HIV/AIDS virus and slows down the disease. Blood transfusion receiving blood after a major accident or certain operations. Carrier – Someone who is infected with HIV/AIDS. Condom- A contraceptive usually made of thin latex rubber and worn on an erect penis; condoms greatly reduce the chances of both males and females catching sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS Confidential- Information that must not be told to others. Counselling-Talking to someone about their concerns and helping them deal with their problems; pre-test counselling involves talking to someone and explaining the consequences if the result is positive. Counsellor– Someone who listens to your problems and gives you advice. Co-workers- Means people you work with. Diarrhoea- Upset (runny) stomach Discharge- Pus or moisture that oozes from an infected area. Discrimination-Treating people unfairly or differently from yourself based on prejudice. Donating blood- Giving blood to be used in medical emergencies. Epidemic– A disease that spreads fast from one person to another person. Expiry date- Date limited for something to be used for certain period. False negative- Is a blood test for HIV that does not clearly show the presence of HIV in a particular person with HIV; this may happen if the test is done before the person has developed antibodies that will show up in a test. False positive- A blood test for HIV that shows the presence of HIV in a person who does not have HIV; this happens when the test finds antibodies to another organism. Female condom – A contraceptive usually made of thin latex rubber and worn inside the vagina; to reduce the chances of both males and females catching sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. Germ- Tiny, living things that may bring illness. HIV- Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV positive -A person whose tests have shown that s/he is infected with HIV. HIV negative- HIV antibodies not detected in blood. HIV test- A blood test, which detects antibodies to HIV. The test determines whether a person has HIV. Usually two tests need to be done to determine whether or not the person has the virus. Homosexual- Someone attracted sexually to people of the same sex. Immune deficiency-A condition where the body’s defence system is weakened. Immune system- A defensive mechanism that fight against the viruses attacking the human body . KAP- study Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Study used to determine the HIV and STI risk of a company Masturbate- To sexually stimulate oneself by touching one’s private parts. Penetration- When the penis enters the vagina or anus. Penis- Male reproductive organ. Prevent- Stop something from happening. Retrovir- The commercial name for AZT, a drug that slows down the HI virus. Safe sex- Ways of having sexual activity that reduce the chance of catching or transmitting sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS. Semen-The fluid that spurts from the penis when a man ejaculates. Sperm- Reproductive fluid of males STI- Sexually transmitted infection; a disease or infection that is passed from one person to another during sexual intercourse; for example, gonorrhoea, syphilis and HIV. Support group– Group of people who offer understanding and counselling for specific problems. Traditional healers- People, without a formal medical qualification, who issue natural medicines. TB-Tuberculosis – a disease that usually affects the lungs and is passed on by coughing. Unprotected sex- Also called unsafe sex; sexual intercourse where an exchange of body fluids takes place with no barrier such as a condom; can transmit an STI including HIV/AIDS between partners. Vagina-Female reproductive organ. Vaginal lubrication- Vaginal fluids VCT– Voluntary Counselling and Testing. Virus- A tiny organism or germs that can cause disease in humans, such as measles, colds, flu, polio and chickenpox are caused by different kinds of viruses. Window period-The time that passes between when a person is infected with the HI V, and when signs (antibodies) of the virus are found in his/her body; usually 3 to 12 weeks; the HIV antibody test may be negative although the person has HIV. HIV and AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that causes disease. The virus is passed from one person to another through blood, breast milk and/or vaginal fluids or semen. Once a person is infected with the virus, they are HIV positive. The HI Virus is miniscule, but its impact on the body is substantial. HIV attacks a particular set of cells in the human immune system known as CD4 cells. It attacks a person’s immune system, making it less capable of fighting infection. As the immune system weakens, the infected person may experience flu-like symptoms such as a cough, diarrhoea and skin sores (A Guide to HIV/AIDS in the Workplace, 2005:10). AIDS is an acronym for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. A person is considered having AIDS when his/her CD4 count is less than 200. At this stage, diseases like TB, brain infections, skin diseases and pneumonia are common and often cause death. The average period from HIV infection to developing AIDS is, in the absence of treatment, approximately 8 to 10 years (A Guide to HIV/AIDS in the Workplace, 2005:10 HIV and AIS is briefly explained as: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the virus that leads to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). People do not get AIDS as soon as they are infected with the HI Virus. HIV is not AIDS. The HI Virus cause AIDS (A Guide to HIV/AIDS in the Workplace, 2005: 10). ORIGIN OF HIV HIV/AIDS virus was first discovered in central Africa in the Republic of Congo in the year of 1959.It was said that this virus was found in the men who were hunting monkeys so that they can be able to eat. It is a theory that these hunters that ate monkeys might have been exposed to the virus that infected them; this virus does not cause immunosuppression among monkeys. The origin of HIV-1 There are two types of HIV, which are HIV1 and HIV 2 HIV-1 virus is the cause of AIDS worldwide, in 1986, a second type of HIV called HIV-2 is less transmittable and is largely smaller to West Africa this is a virus of the sooty mangabeys (Gao F; (1999).In 1999 a group of researchers has found that SIVcpz (simian immunodeficiency virus) is almost identical to HIV-1 (Gao F; 1999). This SIV come from a captive frozen sample collected from a wild chimpanzees and this confirmed that they were a reservoir of SIVcpz (Keele W; 2006). There are four stages of HIV/AIDS according to, A Guide to HIV/AIDS in the Workplace (2005:12) namely: Stage 1: Infected The period following the initial HIV infection is called the window period. This is the period between infection with the virus and when HIV antibodies develop in the bloodstream. At this stage there is no way of detecting HIV infection in the body. Stage 2: HIV well For many years, people with HIV may look and feel well although the person with HIV is experiencing no symptoms, the virus is still changing shape inside the body and weakening the immune system. This stage can last anything from three to twelve years. The average time is six years. Stage 3: HIV ill HIV slowly weakens the immune system. Between five and eight years after infection, people start getting sick. They usually begin to lose weight and their bodies become weak. The early signs of HIV are: • Weight loss • Swelling in the neck, behind the ear, under the arm and in the groin • Sores on the mouth or genitals which do not heal • A white rash inside the mouth or on the genitals • Signs of TB – coughing, sweating and losing weight • Painful sores or rashes • Fevers and sweating at night • Diarrhoea that does not stop Stage 4: AIDS After this period, severe immune cell loss leads to the symptomatic period, in which the body experiences the symptoms associate with AIDS. This is the final stage and is referred to as AIDS sickness. On average it takes a person 18 months between getting very ill with AIDS and dying. Later signs of AIDS are: • TB and pneumonia • Thrush (a fungal infection of the mouth or vagina) • Re-occurring shingles and skin rashes and lesions • Various cancers • Meningitis • Weight loss of more than 10% IMMUNE SYSTEM Everybody has an immune system that is made up of specialized cells designed to recognise any foreign cells that enters the body that causes illness some of this cells could be bacteria which can cause a sore throat or virus which can cause cold (Hughes M.D, Johnson V.A, Hirsch M.S, 1997; pg. 277). When the foreign cell enters your body your immune system will respond in three simple. Step1: they will recognize that there’s a foreign cell in the body. Step 2: they will send the message to the immune cell to destroy the foreign cell. Step 3: they will take a point of remembering a foreign cell set up the memory system that will sabotage them and nobody will be able to react more quickly against them VIRAL LOAD VERSES CD4 COUNT VIRAL LOAD Viral load is a term used to describe the amount of HIV in the blood. The more HIV in your blood the faster your CD4 cells are likely to disappear and the greater your risk of developing symptoms of further illness with the next few years. The viral load tests estimate the number of HIV particles in a sample of blood. They do this by looking for HIV genes which are named HIV RNA. The result of a viral load test is described as the number of copies of HIV RNA per millilitre (National AIDS manual; 2002). CD4 COUNT CD4 count or T- Helper cells are white blood cells which organise the immune system respond to some microorganisms including bacteria fungal infections and viruses. The CD4 count is the measurement of the number of CD4 cells in a cubic millimetre of blood. This is sometimes written as CD4 cells/mm3. The Cd4 count of a person who is not infected with HIV may lie anywhere between 500 and 1200. HIV can infect Cd4 cells and use them to produce more HIV copies. Even while a person with HIV feels well has no symptoms millions of CD4 T-cells are infected by HIV are destroyed each day and millions more CD4 T-cells are produced replaced them.CD4 count can go up and down in response to infection, stress, smoking, exercise, menstrual cycle and contraceptive pill (National AIDS manual; 2002). Counselling Irinoye (1991: 181) define counselling as “to advise, to recommend, to advocate, to exhort, to suggest, to urge. Irinoye (1991: 182) references the World Health Organization by stating that, “AIDS is a confidential dialogue between a patient and the counsellor or care provider aimed at enabling the patient to cope with the stress and to take personal decisions relating to HIV infection and AIDS morbidity and mortality”. The aim of counselling infected patient is to exchange information, showing skill acquisition and emotional support between the counsellor, the person infected with HIV and others significant to the client who include family members, friends, health practitioners, employers and people who give spiritual support. Support Services People with AIDS need special support and treatment. There is a need for them to regularly go to hospital. People with AIDS usually suffer from serious illnesses such as TB, pneumonia or certain types of cancer. They become very ill with these diseases and they eventually die (A Guide to HIV/AIDS in the Workplace, 2005: 10). HIV/AIDS can be fought through awareness, prevention and proper treatment of persons living with the disease. HIV is spread through the following methods: Unprotected Sex Coming into contact with infected blood or body fluid (e.g. semen, vaginal fluids and linings of genital areas, blood transfusions) Mother to child (A Guide to HIV/AIDS in the Workplace, 2005: By identify the most common way to spread HIV, it enables an individual to be always alert when faced with similar conditions. The government has set a financial support to all infected patients, to illuminate poverty and to boost their immune system by eating a healthy diet. Government has set the legal documents which protect the employee’s rights to confidentiality, and this has proven to save jobs of most employees. References: A Guide to HIV/AIDS in the Workplace. 2005. Fasset. 1-65 Irinoye, O. 1999 Counselling People affected by HIV and AIDS. The Contiming African HIV/AIDS Epidemic. 181-192 Gao, F. et al (1999) origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee for troglodytes. Nature 397:436-441 Keele,B.F. et at. (2006) human immunodeficiency viruses: siv infection in wild gorillas, Nature 444:164 Hughes M.D, Johnson V.A, Hirsch M.S. Monitoring plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in addition to CD4 lymphocyte count improves as- sessment of antiretroviral therapeutic response. 1

Materials and the Environment Report

Materials and the Environment Report. Abstract Human activities have great influence on environment. The environment can absorb the effects of human activities to a given extent. However, there is a threshold; if exceeded, it diminishes the quality of the environment. In the modern world, there have been increased human activities that have surpassed the environmental threshold. With the current growth rate of 3% per annum, mining, disposals, and other processes present increased human activities that the environment cannot absorb. For instance, the economic developments have resulted to increase in the number of cars used. The core concerns include material production and energy consumption system, the eco-attribute of the materials and eco selection. The materials have great implication on the on the environment. Therefore, it is important to analyze the various phases of material use and their environmental implications. To enhance the understanding of the materials and environment, Ashby (2011) provided in depth analysis of the materials and the energy consumption. The following paper explores the various phases of energy consumption with key focus on the eco-selection. Introduction All the activities of the human beings influence the environment. Ashby (2011) noted that the environment is designed in manner that it has a capacity that can cope with the effects of the human activities. Increased human activities have negative impacts on the environment. According to Ashby (2011), the human activities normally diminish the quality of the environment. In the contemporary society, the main aspects of the human activities that influence the environment include the processes of manufacturing and the use of the materials. The following report explores sustainability measures with core focus on the eco-selection and recycling of materials at end life. The recycling will discuss car recycling in United Arab Emirates (UAE). The Materials Life Cycle In the analysis of the human activities and the resultant effects, Ashby (2011) noted that the current growth rate of about 3% around the world would lead to increase in the human activities such as mining and the rate of waste disposal. As a result, there is need for design for the environment in order to correct the degradation of the environment. In addition, Ashby (2011) noted that there is need for design for sustainability. This entails adaptation to lifestyle that is environmentally conscious. The design for environment and design for sustainability ensures that current human activities are in line with the needs of the future generations. The human activities are best represented the material life cycle which is based on four key processes that include: Material production Product use Product disposal Product manufacture The cycle represents how the materials are manufactured into products, used and disposed. The used materials end up in the recycling process, or they may be taken to landfill or incarcerated. The key feature of the various phases of the life cycle is that there is energy consumption. The result of energy consumption is the emissions of carbon dioxide. In addition, there are emissions of other gasses, heat, solid wastes, and liquid. The problems that result from the cycle are that the byproducts exceed the capacity that the environment can hold. The damage caused by the byproducts can be felt at various levels. For example in UAE, the economic growth has resulted to increase in demand for cars. The implication is that many cars are imported and at end life they are disposed as scrap with a lot of wastes going to landfills. Ashby (2011) noted that at the local level, the negative influences can be remedied by putting in place intervention strategies. At the national or global magnitude, the corrections of the effects require integrated interventions. Ashby (2011) pointed that there is the need for wider social interventions such as the enactment of legislations that require reduction of consumption of the carbon fuels in cars. Materials and Energy Consuming Systems According to Lewis and Gertsakis (2001), there exists an interactive system between materials and energy. Ashby (2011) noted that the main driving forces of the consumption in the systems include the uptake of new technology, the increase in wealth, the growth of population and education. The driving forces influence the use of products that in turn result in the consumption of materials and energy. For instance, the establishment of matching materials as per system requirements results in a fit that is essential for eco-design (Ashby, 2011). The use pattern of products exemplifies the consumption levels. The levels are categorized on the basis of load factor such as the high load factor, modest and low load factor. The various levels of consumption include the primary consumption of power, secondary consumption, and non power consumption. Based on the level of consumption and the load factor, the consumption can either be energy intense of material intense. In the case of vehicles, load factor is experienced in the production of steel for making the cars from the ores and in the use stage where fossil fuels are used to power the vehicles. The Eco-Attributes of Materials The eco-attributes of materials is an important concept in the production of materials. According to Lewis and Gertsakis (2001), understanding of materials, production processes and the consumption of energy by the various materials plays a very critical process in the design for sustainability. Ashby (2011) noted that the energy used in the material production, manufacturing, and the other related activities in the four phases is normally from the fossil fuels. The use of the energy takes place in different forms. The key forms include gas, oil, or coal. According to Ashby (2011), the energy can also be transformed into electricity with a conversion efficiency of 38% as per European average conversion. The electricity can be generated from different sources. For instance, it can be from wind, nuclear and hydroelectric sources. Thus, the fossil fuels are not the sole sources of electricity generation. In Europe, the production of energy is mainly from the fossil fuels. The exceptional countries that have alternative energy sources include Norway that relies on 70% hydro and France that relies on over 80% nuclear energy. Eco-selection Eco-selection entails incorporation of responsible designs that ensure affordable and safe manufacturing practices. The eco-selection is aimed at using materials with prior knowledge of their implications on the environment. Lewis and Gertsakis (2001) noted that the embodied energy, the resulting green house effect, and the recyclable nature of the materials should be analyzed in the initial phase of material. According to Lewis and Gertsakis (2001), the environmental impacts of products can be influenced during the design of the product. Designers and manufacturers are thus encouraged to adopt sustainable practices that take into consideration the environmental impacts. For instance, the recycling of materials in order to reduce the amount of waste that is taken to the landfills. Eco selection is a philosophy that is based on designing physical objects and the environment to ensure that human activities comply with the sustainability principles. In the eco-selection, materials used for the manufacturing are carefully chosen to ensure that they minimize the environmental impact. Thus, the eco-selection should put into consideration the type of the material, their use, and the phase of the life cycle in which the product makes the largest contribution. The selection should be based on the energy consumption and the impact of the material wastes to the environment. For instance, the energy consumption could relate to the carbon foot print and other effects of the emissions. According to Ashby (2011), rational design of the environment informs eco-selection. The process is based on the analysis phase that is core to identification of materials. The analysis guides the selection. According to Ashby (2011), eco-selection entails the assessment of energy or the carbon foot print over the life for the product. This forms the first stage that is normally referred to as the eco-audit. It entails the analysis of energy in terms of the materials, the process of manufacturing, transport, use, and the disposal processes. The second stage that informs the eco-selection includes the design, which puts in place the strategies to enhance sustainability by minimizing the energy and material consumption. Figure 1 below is a summary of the factors that inform eco-selection. Figure 1: Factors that inform eco-selection Source: Ashby (2011). The eco selection is based on understanding the phase of the product lifecycle that makes the highest contribution to the environmental degradation. In the material life cycle, the first phase is the material production. Ashby (2011) pointed that if the production of materials is the dominant phase in terms of energy consumption, then it is given the priority in the eco-selection. An example is the production of drink containers. The key areas of energy consumption are during the extraction and production, in the transportation and refrigeration. In the various processes, the energy used results to emissions of gasses. The embodied energy that is used depends on the material, thus on a one kilogram quantification basis, some drink containers have high penalty than others. The other notable phase is the product manufacture phase, which requires energy. In the production process, saving of energy is paramount; however, priority is attached to the impact of the toxic wastes and emissions during the process of manufacturing. The priority is influenced by the circumstances at the local level. For instance in making paper, a lot of water is used. In the past, the water used to be dumped into the river systems. The disposed water used to be heavily polluted with alkalis and particulates; however, today environmentally sensitive paper mills discharge water that is clean and pure. Thus, the selection of manufacturing practices is critical in the prevention of the environmental devastation. Another point of concern is the use phase. Ashby (2011) noted that the eco-impact of the use of energy consumption is influenced by various factors such as the electrical, thermal, and mechanical deficiencies. Thus, the maximization of the use of the factors minimizes the energy use. An example is the fuel efficiency of the transport systems. The mass of vehicle correlates to the efficiency. Therefore, to reduce the energy consumption, the deal is to minimize the mass of the vehicles. The fourth phase in which energy is consumed is during the product disposal phase. There are environmental consequences that relate to the final phase of a product life. According to Ashby (2011), there are many choices for the disposal phase, which have an impact on the environment. Legislations by different authorities govern the choices on product disposal phase such as recycling, taking back, or landfills. There is a common notion that the conservation of the materials and the subsequent consumption of energy can be achieved by making smaller products that last longer and to recycle them when they reach their end life. Even though the concept seems obvious, it fails to put into consideration the complex and the interactive system that exist between materials and energy. Therefore, eco-selection and sustainability explores the process of acquiring materials and the energy consumption associated with the materials. Ashby (2011) stated that the solution to the environmental problems is not based on the selection between the good and the bad materials, but it entails the in-depth analysis of the materials and selection of the materials to match the requirements of the system and ensure efficiency in the consumption of the energy. The eco-selection should thus take into consideration, the type of the material and the embodied energy that relate to the materials. For example, drink containers present an example in which the energy consumption is very high at first and the second phase. A lot of energy is consumed and there are a lot of emissions. Therefore, the selection of materials to reduce the energy use and the gas emissions is critical. The various materials that are commonly used for the drink containers include PET, high-density PE, soda glass, plain carbon steel and aluminum alloy. All the materials are recyclable. The production of the materials entails molding in which energy use differs depending on the material. The containers also have different designs. Therefore, the energy needed to shape the containers is less than the energy that is required to produce the material. The overall energy used in the two phases shows that the steel tins have the lowest energy penalty while the highest energy penalty is in glass and aluminum. Another case example that relates to energy selection and eco-consumption is in the manufacture and the design of crash barriers. The barriers can either be static or mobile (Ashby, 2011). The bumper of the vehicle is an example of a mobile barrier. An example of static barrier is the central divider of a freeway. According to Ashby (2011), the static barriers do not consume energy once installed; consequently, they do not emit CO2, and they are long lasting. Therefore, the energy consumption is normally in the material production and in the manufacture. The bumper on the other hand increases the weight of the vehicle and hence influences the fuel consumption. The implication is that the dominant phase of energy consumption is in the use. Vehicles present a great concern to the environment. A lot of energy is used in the manufacture of the materials for making cars such as the metals. In addition, as noted by Ashby (2011), the crash barriers also increase the energy consumption as there is need of fossil fuels to power the movement of the cars. At the end life, the cars also present a challenge as some materials are taken to already full landfills. The phases present great environmental impact throughout the lifecycle of a car. There is thus the need for measures to incorporate sustainability in the manufacture, use and disposal of the cars. Key to the sustainability is recycling of cars. Recycling Cars in UAE Throughout the life cycle, cars have a significant impact on the environment. The main areas of concern include the energy consumption, the wastes generated during the manufacturing, the use phase and the disposal at the end life. It is worth noting that over 75% of the materials found in the end life of cars are recyclable. The materials a are mainly metals. The remaining 25% of the materials are normally considered wastes and ends up in the landfills (Zoboli, 2000). However, the recycling of the materials can reduce the wastes to the landfills. In today’s economy, the price of steel has increased; hence, increasing the demand of the recycled steel which makes the recycling have benefits in UAE, both economically and environmentally. In UAE, there are many old vehicles that have reached end life and are being scrapped every day. The scraps are left to accumulate dust and have become an environmental problem. Through the recycling process, the materials that are disposed in the landfills are significantly reduced. Ryan (2010) noted that recycling one ton of steel conserves natural resources and saves energy. For instance, it saves 54 kilograms of limestone, 635 kilograms of coal and over 1100 kilograms of iron ore. The carbon footprint that results from recycling is less compared to the carbon and other gasses emitted in the process. Therefore, recycling promises a cleaner environment and viable business that is sustainable. The materials used for making cars consume a lot of energy both at the first phase of production and in the phase of use. The common materials for manufacturing cars include steel sheet, plain steel, plastics, zinc, rubber, aluminum and others such as the adhesives, textiles, and glass. The percentages of the materials used differ. However, steel sheet accounts for the majority of the material used for cars. The environmental benefit associated with recycling cars in UAE is that the energy used in the production of the recycled steel is less compared to the energy for producing steel at first time. The recycling of cars in UAE entails the extraction and re-processing of the cables, the metals, and the mechanical parts. According to Zoboli (2000), the energy that is used for recycling steel is 70% less compared to energy for getting the steel from the ore. The process of recycling cars is driven by economic, technological, social and environmental factors. Therefore, recycling of the cars in UAE aligns with the global strife for sustainable waste management. The increasing economic developments in UAE have resulted in increases in the number of cars being used. As a result, it has become increasingly important to device means that ensure that the end life of the vehicles life minimizes the environmental impact. The wastes being directed to the landfills have increased. Bearing in mind that the cars can be recycled, a regulatory approach to environmental impact is to adopt environmentally friendly processes that will reduce the wastes to the landfills. Conclusion Design for sustainability is a key principle geared at ensuring that various human activities put into consideration the needs of the future generations by use of products that are friendlier to the environment. The initial stages of the product design determine the impact of the final product on the environment. The key to the environmental sustainability practices entail the eco-selection that takes into consideration the various phases of the product life cycle and the implication on the environment. The main concepts of the eco-selection are based on understanding the materials and the energy consumption related to the materials. For example, the consideration on what to use and where to get it from. The second consideration is the design in which the concern is how to make it. The processes should also put into mind the end life of the product in which the designers should be concerned on how the materials can be reused. It is thus economically and environmentally viable to recycle and reuse the materials. The environmental sustainability of manufacturing cars can be reduced through the use of recyclable materials. Therefore, the rationality starts with the identification of the various phases that are of great concern in the material life cycle. References Ashby, M. (2011). Materials Selection in Mechanical Design. Oxford: Butterworth- Heinemann. Lewis, H.,Materials and the Environment Report

logistics no plagiarism

logistics no plagiarism.

n preparation for your overall logistics White Paper Recommendation to the CEO, she has asked you to give her a “taste” of the different kinds of logistic systems and decisions that different industries use. You decide to prepare a PowerPoint presentation comparing and contrasting the logistics systems that are commonly used in the following 3 industries (include each of these in your presentation):Describe the steps in making sure that flights take off on time for an airline. Describe the different steps that must occur for an on-time plane departure. For example, how does the airline make sure that the plane is properly fueled on a timely basis?Describe the logistics system that overnight small package delivery companies use to ensure that timely delivery of undamaged packages occurs on a consistent basis. Discuss how packages are scheduled for pick-up and are picked up, tracked, and transported to the final destination, along with any other key activities.Describe the logistics steps that large mass merchandiser global supply chains use to ensure timely availability of inventory for routine and sales merchandise needs. This discussion must begin with the transportation from the foreign factory to its nearby port, and continue from there until it arrives at the mass merchandiser’s regional warehouses.
logistics no plagiarism