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Educational Social Policy In Britain After WW11

The following essay will attempt to analyse and highlight the development of educational social policy in Britain after the post-second world war era. It will be important for the essay to illustrate how the secondary school system was changed by the 1944 Education Act, and how this impacted on secondary schooling in the decades that followed. The essay will attempt to illustrate and highlight the key developments within the education system such as the move back from local authority to more centralized government control. Finally, the essay will analyse social policy implemented by New Labour and in particular how the policy changes have affected secondary schools in the most deprived areas of the country. The essay will also focus on the continuation of specialist schools from the Conservative party to New Labour and aim to review the criticisms on the schools. After the Second World War in 1945, Clement Attlee’s (1945-1951) Labour government implemented the “Education Act 1944” which created a three tier school system involving secondary schools, and for the first time in Britain ensured the provision of free education for all children. The new system of secondary schools would cater for children aged between the ages of 11 to 15 years old, and divide the children in to three distinct types of schooling. These were Grammar, Technical and Secondary modern schools, entry to the schools would be determined via a universal examination, known as the eleven-plus (Bochel
French sociologist Emile Durkheim is considered by many as the father of modern sociology along with Karl Marx and Max Weber. He is credited with establishing social sciences as part of formal academic curriculum (Durkheim, 2002). He lectured and published works on religion, suicide, and other aspects of sociology, among which are The Division of Labor in Society and his seminal work, Suicide in 1897. Influenced by introductory sociologists, Comte and Saint-Simon, Durkheim’s holism approach stated sociology should study and observe cultures and social actions at a macro level. He provided sociology with a professional and systematic standing, for which he stressed that a domain should be specified for the study of sociology that separates it from psychology and individuality and focus only on the social concern. He claimed that a society has its own mind and life and is not primarily driven by intentions and doings of individuals, which is precisely what gives purpose to sociology (Free Essays, 2003). In advancing the positivist concept of sociology, he worked to prove society as distinct, regarding social phenomena as causally functioning forces, which was previously not the case. He took steps to discard the abstract and deductive approach of a general individual as perceived by economists and moralists, as stressed that real man was far more composite. The idea of ‘social realism’ was presented in his work, ‘The rules of Sociological Method’ published in 1895. According to him, social facts should be seen and examined as real and tangible, dependent on the laws of nature and which can be explored by scientific laws (Jones, 1999). Social events are not to be seen only as a sum of acts by abstract persons but objective realities of their own identity that are subject to certain rules, and these rules can be ascertained by proper application of empirical scientific methodologies. He came to take on this realist position after his trip to Germany in 1886-1667, in face of historical and social circumstances that were taking shape in France during that time, when it was actively undergoing the process of social reform, and hence, Durkheim’s realism began to develop in that period only. His social realism has come to be considered a central contribution to sociological thought. In order to account for social realism, it is also important to understand the concept of social facts. In order to understand Durkheim’s realism, the eminent procedural injunction of treating social facts as things must be applied. These are the facts that involve or rely on the features that distinguish him and the social life in which he participates apart from the non-living nature (Collin, 1997:6). These are the intentional facts tat deal with man’s intentions, choices and desires aimed at the world around him, no matter how direct or indirect that is. Social realism, as Durkheim’s puts it, can be conceived as an epistemological process to affirm the independent existence of ‘duties and obligations’ and to recognize the nature of restraint as drawn from the society. According to Durkheim, realism consists of realities that are as significant and distinct as psychology or biology, which can neither be termed empirical or idealist. These structures are dealt as real events operating sovereign to individuals whose action are shaped by them, hence acting contrary to both. His work, ‘Suicide and the Birth Rate’ that was published in 1888 presents a more detailed and developed realist vocabulary by Durkheim (Morrison, 2000). In this, he splits and first talks about the advantages of his own social approach with regard to birth rate and suicide, making a point that the work made it obvious that the reasons behind the issue was social or moral, rather than demographic or economic factors as previously studied by respective social scientists. He then raised the status of birth rates to social facts, as of composing a living reality. Rather than viewing them as of organic nature like fertility, he perceived birth rates as a social subject matter, and brings them, as put by Durkheim, under the heading of ‘ruling social customs and ideas in society.’ They are therefore social facts such that they direct the fundamental practices whose terms are then met by individuals, instead of being implied as a mere natural necessity. During the discussion on birth rates and suicide, he also asserts that social functions that families serve act as a restraint on individuals’ egoism and binds them together. Its absence gradually weakens this bond of solidarity and the resulting gaps are filled by egoism. Durkheim’s outlook on society was influenced by individualist theories presented by Thomas Hobbes and Jacques-Jean Rousseau, which focused on individual person’s nature to explore the roots of a society (Morrison, 2006). According to Hobbes, nature is a condition that exists when the government and laws are absent. In such a state, people would use violent means of obtaining power and there would be no security. Hence, there would be no peace in a state of nature when people would struggle for dominance and achievement of motives, leading to war against all. He asserted that society only comes into existence when people deal out of the nature and shun aggression to meet their objectives. They then form a society in order to achieve peace and security by yielding for rules to a ruler who can control all of them. Durkheim, on the other hand, disagreed with this notion as it implied that individuals are innately resistant to society, which, according to it, is only formed when individuals are forced to comply with the laws by an external leader. In this view, Durkheim disagreed and said that this restraint is merely an individual’s consequence and is added additionally to social reality. He said that this restraint is rather impressed by the society instead of the individual, thereby making it central to his stand on societal structure. This led him to believe that this restraint can in fact, be studied as part of social reality. Jacques-Jean Rousseau presented another individualistic theory of social-contract drawn in The Social Contract and the Origin of Inequality. Rousseau concentrated on issue of the creation of common social rules in society, and like Hobbe, paid significance to human characters in the making of society. According to him, as the society develops, it is likely to build private property and self-interest, which results in conflict between individuals who compete in a hostile and selfish world. He aimed to explore how individual interest is replaced by common interests. It is when individuals let priority be given to the general will rather than the individual will that the society is formed. This general will is important because he asserted that it is formed when individuals gather their own separate wills, and as this happens, individual will is altered so much that the people involved become part of the entirety formed by their common unification. This so means that the general will is created and receives its unification by depending on the amalgamation of individual wills, hence moving on to build the collective will of the society. In this way, the society becomes an alliance whose ethical and joint authority is formed by multiple entities, and the product of the society, he believed therefore, was a mutual expression of individual wills. Despite being similar to Durkheim’s views in some respects, he disagreed with Rousseau in certain other matters, beginning with Rousseau’s inclination to seek origination from the individual nature to reach social issue dealing. However, Durkheim is of the view that the collective makeup of the society is distinct from the individual, and so it can be examined as a social reality in its own self, and so he believed that it was independent of the individual. Durkheim also happened to be critical of Rousseau’s concept of the emergence of society as it clearly relied on the philosophical and idealist concepts of individualist characters, and so it did not succeed in taking the realist approach of treating society as an autonomous reality that is present external to individual. From Rousseau’s point of view, society could always be brought down into individual wills. This raises question on the issue of social obligations that was seen by Durkheim in contrast as an autonomous basis of investigation, having created from within the society. For Emile Durkheim, religion is a key factor in the being of groups and individuals. He spent ample amount of time in exploring the dynamics of religion and how it influences and directs individuals and society (Townsley, 2004). He views religion as the reflection of society instead of the representation of supernatural realism and proved this assumption using sociological method. Durkheim describes religion in the book, Elementary Form of Religious Life as “a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden-beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a Church, all those who adhere to them.” He illustrates religious depictions as collective representations that convey shared realities, moving on to define rites as ways of acting that are created only among the assembled groups and that aim to induce, uphold or reconstruct certain mental states in groups. He also points out how all of the initial systems of representation were religious when they originated, and introduced researchers to a new way to confer epistemology. For the purpose of explicating the sociology of knowledge, Durkheim uses the history of religions to show how religions reflected the structure of society. He observes that there is nothing objective in the world apparently that forces us to group things with each other, our experiences being dissimilar and sporadic. In actuality, we never observe beings that merge their natures and modify into one another. It is in fact, only the religious practice of grouping different symbolic clans together that enabled us to start grouping other things in our surroundings, based on his study of tribal groups. Thus, the realities of nature, man and society to which religious assumption was applied then are quite similar to those that would later serve as objects of scientists’ reflection, as Durkheim put it. Both attempt to interconnect things, establish internal associations among those things, categorize them, and arrange them. This is how Durkheim tries to show that religion shape the epistemological foundation for human experience. He, however, takes a step further and made effort to drastically overturn this conception of the relation of religion and society, and said that society is the origin of religion instead of making religion the beginning of society. In this respect, he agreed with his predecessor, Karl Marx in making religion a reflection of society. However, in contrast to Marx who sees god as a glorification of human nature, Durkheim, in many ways, perceives god as society itself. In this manner, he strives to show how religion stabilizes everyone, and stimulate unity, identity and coherence between members of the community. This happens when ritual are restructured that invokes intense feelings and attachment between partakers. The symbolic meanings attached with these rituals will seep into the daily lives of these members, from where they can be passed on to those who have not participated, who can uphold these symbols too, and eventually pass on to others. This is how moral systems would effectively penetrate into and pass on in the societies.
Do the Laws of Physics Lie? Cartwright (1983) claims that the laws of Physics lie. There is causal power of things and specific interpretation of objects, which make the author reconsider the basic concepts of physics. First, the core idea of Cartwright is to underline the main goal of physics or the description of things happening around. Physicists accumulate some data, process them and summarize them to get general laws of physics. The author argues that in fact these laws cannot clarify a real state of events and they are used like artificial blocks of summarized ideas. She refers to Newton’s law of gravity and describes electrostatic attraction, but this law does not explain the events happening in the world. She wonders if the laws of physics correlate laws of ideal circumstances or they really refer to causal powers. In other words, the author correlates both the opposition of law and the role of philosophy. The descriptive power of physics is beyond any doubts. It is more important to focus on factual laws rather than on descriptive ones. The role and essence of laws if they represent a factual basis is clear for Cartwright. A more powerful aspect of laws in physics is their descriptive potential. If all these laws are only about description, why should humans perceive them as true ones? These and other related considerations occur in the minds of readers. Though some things are identified as ‘the laws of physics’, these laws can describe one or another situation in a partial way. The real situation from life requires a diversified and multifaceted approach. The laws of physics are applied to some parts of real situations. Physics does not describe what really happens. Through an empirical perspective, these words mean that some events really happening and they should be observable. Cartwright underlines that these explanations if correlated with the laws of nature define the essence of causal powers, which are not obvious and evidently observable. There is a need for distinguishing between “thing that happens as a matter of observable, empirical fact, from ‘hidden causal structure” (Cartwright, 1983, p. 55). It is possible to agree with the author but also it is necessary to focus on other issues. For example, are any other forces involved? What are the essence and the main meaning of these laws? Of course, the author claims about idealistic conditions as non-violating of physics law value. What about other cases when conditions are violated and no perfect surrounding is given? Another idea is to suppose the existence of idealistic laws, which will be effective in different cases. This is a matter of a super law question. Cartwright answers to this idea in two perspectives: first, humans cannot always generate super-laws. Secondly, the existence of Newtonian mechanics and a concept of vector support the idea of idealistic laws. In such a way, it would be possible to explain what happens and there would be a chance to explain any given situation. It is possible to agree with the author of this article that physical laws create ideal conditions for explanation or explanation of some events or objects. In the case of idealistic conditions violation, the laws of physics are inefficient. When applying the concept of ‘phenomenological laws’, Cartwright would support the idea of their descriptive power. Basically, Cartwright evokes considerations about facticity of laws and their explanatory power. From the point of view of the author, causes explained by laws are more important than their factual role in the world. Of course, the author agrees that the laws of physics confirm some facts, but it is difficult to observe these facts. They cannot be easily traced for sure. I totally agree with the claim that only something that is evident defines a factual basis or concerns some facts. Otherwise, any avoidance of facts underlines insufficiency of a hypothetical or potential theory. It is possible to argue with Cartwright’s ideas and consider the following example: after Einstein’s work on the photoelectric effect, the photon became an integral part of our understanding of light. Nevertheless, there are many other scientists involved in optics, who challenge the reality of photons. In terms of fundamental theories, a photon is an artifact of existing theories. For example, if to refer to some background knowledge, Lamb does not believe that the existing theory of light is absolutely wrong. He believes that a more reliable theory will retain most of the current views on light, but will show that the effects we associate with photons will be transferred to another aspect of nature. From this perspective, a scientist may be a realist in general, but an anti-realist in relation to photons. Therefore, there are some elements, objects or events associated with a factual basis. Even if some researchers agree upon the existence of one or another object or process, they should prove their point of view basing on some reliable data or facts. Unseen or unproven suggestions do not relate to science. Such partial anti-realism is the subject of optics, but not philosophy. Nancy Cartwright defends the principle of causes. In her opinion, if there is a reason, it is possible to make a serious statement. Reasoning plays an important role in the ideas of Cartwright. It is better to realize why a certain type of regularity leads to a certain effect. Perhaps, the clearest proof of this understanding is that we actually use events of one type in order to produce events of another type. Therefore, in her words, positrons and electrons should be called real, because we can spray them on a niobium drop thereby changing its charge. It is quite clear that this will happen in the result of spraying. In other words, a process (spraying) reveals certain features of analyzed elements. There are some particular experimental instruments, which will lead to these effects. It is possible to talk about the reality of electrons, not because they are basic structural elements, but because we know about their rather specific causal forces. Cartwright goes further. She denies that the laws of physics establish the facts. She also denies that models that play a central role in applied physics are literal ideas about the arrangement of some things. She is an anti-realist about theories and a realist about objects. Her objective consideration about different objects or facts is of vital importance for setting the limits between science and philosophy. Thus, there is no true theory of electrons penetration in the structure of atoms, molecules, and cells. Rather, there are certain models and sketches of some theories. Cartwright emphasizes that in some areas of quantum mechanics a researcher regularly uses a whole arsenal of models of the same phenomenon. No one thinks that any of them is complete truth, and these models may even mutually contradict with each other. All of them are intelligent tools that help us understand different phenomena and develop different aspects of technology experience. They explain some principles of correlated processes and create favorable conditions for the development of new and unimaginable phenomena. What really “makes things happen” is not a set of laws or a set of true laws. In fact, there are no true laws forcing anything to happen. Actions are produced by electrons and other related elements. Electrons are real and they produce some actions. This is a good example of reversing the empiricist tradition. According to this approach, only regularity and repetition of events are real. Cartwright, in the same manner, says that there are no deep and perfectly uniform regularities in nature. These regularities, she believes, are only a method of constructing theories, with the help of which humans try to understand the world of things. She produces a radical doctrine, which can only be understood in light of its detailed consideration. Cartwright focuses on the essence of entities and claims that, on the one hand, modern physical science is responsible for such technical devices as lasers, optical fibers, electron microscopes, superconductors, etc. Cartwright agrees with the existence of fundamental physical theory. The author points out that the standard “conclusions” of the phenomena underlying these technical devices are mediated by ad hoc auxiliary hypotheses, mathematical suppositions, and phenomenological constants. Mathematical conclusions fit with the context of physics. In other words, if applied in certain experiments and under ideal conditions, laws of physics can be effective. For example, lasers and superconductivity exist on their own, and quantum electrodynamics is a separate fundamental and explanatory entity. That does not mean that the elementary particles electrons, protons, and neutrons can cause some effects, but in their essence, they do not exist as an entity. Human confidence in their existence rests not on belief in the validity of the fundamental theory, but on the possibility of manipulating these objects in studied conditions. Cartwright raises an important question of the scientific truth and its fundamental importance. Applied studies often underestimated technical sciences, and final conclusion of Cartwright creates an “iron curtain” between fundamental and empirical laws and raises a number of doubts. Can theory exist without practice? If the laws of physics are ineffective, why they are widely applied in different research fields and human activities? What is the main role of theory? Maybe, the theory of physics is nothing more than a chain of assumptions or approximations? Anyone who used approximation methods that constitute at least half of the ways to solve problems that are significant in the sciences knows the following. In order to provide an approximate solution, when the main equation is not exactly solved, the exact definition of related parameters is a necessary condition for further successful implementation of these parameters. For example, in the general theory of relativity, we have no general exact solution of the Einstein equations. But we can, for example, find approximate solutions to these equations for weak gravitational fields to get some conclusions from the Newtonian theory of tension if to apply the correspondence principle with the gravitational physics. In order to find approximate solutions, we decompose the metric in a series in powers of the gravitational potential and neglect quadratic and other terms. How can we get an approximate solution without the Einstein equations? It is possible to conclude that structural realism allows one to “grasp” the continuity of the transition of the mathematical formalism of the “new” theory into the “old” formalism required by the correspondence principle. Cartwright concludes, “There is a simple, straightforward view of laws of nature which is suggested by scientific realism, the facticity view: laws of nature describe how physical systems behave. This is by far the commonest view, and a sensible one; but it does not work. It does not fit explanatory laws, like the fundamental laws of physics” (Cartwright). A standard narration of laws, “If there are no charges, no nuclear forces, . . . then the force between two masses of size m and m′ separated by a distance r is Gmm′/r 2” (Cartwright, 1983, p. 72). These laws are perceived as true and objective ones. What does this law explain? “The laws of physics, to the extent that they are true, do not explain much. We could know all the true laws of nature, and still not know how to explain composite cases. The explanation must rely on something other than law” (Cartwright, 1983, p. 73). Of course, the value of explanation in science is very important. Scientific explanations use laws. Finally, the author claims, “If the laws of physics are to explain how phenomena are brought about, they cannot state the facts” (Cartwright, 1983, p. 73). The author raises a question between factual content and explanatory power. From this perspective, a complex phenomenon one can explain in terms of the interplay between simple and causal laws. What is the main message of these laws? The operation of these laws, if they are isolated or in their interaction, should be the same. The author thinks that it is rather problematic to apply one law to describe or explain different things. If several unrelated factors are involved, how can one law explain one or another phenomenon if the conditions are not ideal ones? These and many unanswered questions make the readers think more and more about the main message sent by Cartwright. References Cartwright, N. (1983). How the Laws of Physics Lie? Oxford Scholarship Online.
Funeral Rituals – Discussion.

Think of a funeral ritual you have personally attended. How were the components we have discussed in class (e.g., worldview, myth, symbol, ritual specialists, altered states) reflected in the ritual? You can focus on any two of the components. How did the ritual reflect beliefs about the soul and the afterlife? How does it compare to rituals in other cultures that you have learned about this week? Include specific examples.If you have never been to a funeral ritual, you may research and post about a funeral ritual (answering the same questions as above and citing your sources).
Funeral Rituals – Discussion

English composition 1010 sentence revision.

English composition 1010 sentence revision..

A.  Complete Exercise 3 on p. 152 of your online text Writing for Success.
not simply “change a word”; rewrite the sentence to ensure that you have
quality writing!  Apply what your text says about fresh, original
language.  You need not copy the original sentence.  On your own sheet of paper, revise the following sentences by replacing the clichés with fresh, original descriptions. 1. She is writing a memoir in which she will air her family’s dirty laundry. 2. Fran had an ax to grind with Benny, and she planned to confront him that night at the party. 3. Mr. Muller was at his wit’s end with the rowdy class of seventh graders. 4. The bottom line is that Greg was fired because he missed too many days of work. 5. Sometimes it is hard to make ends meet with just one paycheck. 6. My brain is fried from pulling an all-nighter. 7. Maria left the dishes in the sink all week to give Jeff a taste of his own medicine. 8. While they were at the carnival Janice exclaimed, “Time sure does fly when you are having fun!” 9. Jeremy became tongue-tied after the interviewer asked him where he saw himself in five years. 10. Jordan was dressed to the nines that night.
English composition 1010 sentence revision.

Writer’s Choice Essay

essay writing help This is for my study for my capstone project/dissertation. I am meeting with my professor in a weeks time to show her my research and what data I have collected for the study. I have provided my research proposal attached to this order, which will help you understand the study. I will need a well-thought-out questionnaire for my qualitative research regarding the study. I have told my professor that I have done a trial run questionnaire distribution during the summer. The trial run would need to consist on 15-20 participants who are ages 20-25 and newly working in Hong Kong who are multilingual/bilingual. The study would need to have the outcome of proving that being multi-linguistic/bilingual affects an individuals identity. I will need to show my professor the questionnaire, data collected from the trial run, and any further research done based on this study. I will need a break-down of the analysis and data from the trial run. This work was meant to be done over the summer holiday, so just to get an understanding that this is not supposed to be a finished study, but the process of the study. The most important part of this order would be the questionnaire and the data from the trial run. It would need to ask questions that would fit the study and of course help with the wanted outcome. I will need to explain everything to my professor, so please help me with that! What this order includes: questionnaire, trial run data, further research materials on study. I am currently residing in Hong Kong so the deadline must be Sept 5 HKT. I will be meeting my professor on Sept 7 so I need the deadline to be Sept 5 HKT.

Transparency Public Accountability and Independent Oversight Paper

Transparency Public Accountability and Independent Oversight Paper.

price answer under the question, APA and include references 1) Title: Private or Public? Many of our most secret projects are being conducted by private companies or are being staffed by private contractors. Is this the best way to conduct this activity? Is this the safest method? What are some of the pitfalls of using private companies? What are some of the pitfalls of using governmental agencies?2) SQL injection (SQLi) and server-side request forgery (SSRF) are vulnerabilities that attackers exploit. How are these different? Are some environments more susceptible than others? Please explain your position in 200 words or more. Please use at least 1 cite using APA format3) Which explanation about SSRF is correct? Justify your choice. A SSRF exploit that returns a response to the attacker is also known as a blind SSRF. Single-side request forgery, or SSRF, basically allows the targeted server , or compromised server, to execute requests against other servers that the targeted server can access. A server-side request forgery vulnerability allows an attacker to make server perform unintended network requests. Invoking a “GET” or “POST” HTTP command after verifying an SSRF can be submitted does not provide any information that the site can be exploited. Vulnerabilities where database-backed sites allow attackers to query its databases using SQL commands is called SQL injections.
Transparency Public Accountability and Independent Oversight Paper

Grand Canyon University Complementary and Alternative Medicine Research Paper

Grand Canyon University Complementary and Alternative Medicine Research Paper.

Write a short (50-100-word) paragraph response for each question posed below. Submit this assignment as a Microsoft Word document.Define CAM.Describe the patient who uses CAM the most.List some common misconceptions about CAM.Identify methods of including the use of CAM in patient education.Discuss the safe use of CAM.List ways in which conventional medicine and CAM can be integrated.Define ethical theories, ethical principles, and values.Provide examples of ethical issues in patient education and compliance, and describe ways in which an effective professional/patient relationship and a poor health professional/patient relationship can impact these issues.Explain what is meant by “ethical patient education practices”.Explain the purpose of informed consent.Discuss what factors determine the patient’s ability to give informed consent.Compose a sample informed consent form. .Discuss the process of communication to use with the patient and the family when obtaining informed consent.due to me sunday night by 8 pm eastern standard time include references
Grand Canyon University Complementary and Alternative Medicine Research Paper