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A familiar scenario in Africa countries such as Nigeria, Uganda or Zambia, that have introduced SAPS is the failure of organization to look after their employees; salaries re less than a living wage and other basic necessities such as adequate health allowance are not covered. There is a break in the psychological contract between employer and employee accompanied by frustrated aspirations, diminished organizational commitment and institutionalized and non institutionalized corruption at all levels. Office resources are frequently privatized and marketed elsewhere.

Clientele may privately request to be served quickly for a free or the public servant withholds the service unless a private fee is paid. Several facts conjectures are now emerging regarding SAPS in Sub Saharan Africa SSA): SAPS, as currently applied, are overwhelmingly technical marginally institutional so that the programmes are insensitive to local contexts (Standing, 1991). The characteristics of economies in SSA are such that SAPS take longer to mature, if at all, so that measures equilibria are restored. These measures are required to protect income (see for instance Robison, 1991) as well as other negative impacts (Standing, 1991).

Most of the economic problems of SSA are essentially structural in achieve very little in the long term while creating severe inflationary effects in the short term (Standing, 991). Macro economic management of economic growth and stabilization cannot be understood without a proportional understanding of the behaviour of enterprises, workers, and consumers. It is these 2 actor’s ability to respond to changes that influence the effectiveness of the economy in making use of projected opportunities (AnJad and Edgreen, 1991). The study proceeds by outlining the problem and the model suggested to examine it.

It then describes the characteristics of the labour market in sub Saharan Africa (SSA). The methodology, analysis and discussion of the data, conclusions and recommended olicy follow in this order. THE PROBLEM A central concern of this study is the supply of discretionary cooperation (Barnard, 19138; North, 1990; Organ, 1990), here understood as organization citizenship behaviour (Organ, 1990) Discretionary cooperation refers to workers’ behaviours that their superiors are not in position to demand or to enforce but which are essential for the success of an enterprise or organization (Organ, 1990; North, 1990).

In examining this micro-level behaviour we will initially accept the fundamental neo- classic macro economic position of enthroning the market and leaving it to determine nd control micro-level behaviour. The study will then seek to show that labour markets in sub Saharan Africa (SSA), Uganda in particularly, are not expected to behave according to prediction. That even when constraints and incentives are altered, the market will not, on its own, supply cooperation. This is because labour markets in SSA are not anything like markets in industrialized countries which act impersonally and rationally (Weeks, 1991).

Accounting Question

Assignment Question(s): (Marks 10)

Q 1 DK Company has projected sales and production in units for the second quarter of the year as follows :
Required: A. Cash production costs are budgeted at $6 per unit produced. Of these production costs, 40% are paid in the month in which they are incurred and the balance in the following month. Selling and administrative expenses (all paid in cash) amount to $60,000 per month. The accounts payable balance on March 31 totals $96,000, all of which will be paid in April. Prepare a schedule for each month showing budgeted cash disbursements for DK Company. .
B. Assume that all units will be sold on account for $15 each. Cash collections from sales are budgeted at 60% in the month of sale, 30% in the month following the month of sale and the remaining 10% in the second month following the month of sale. Accounts receivable on March 31 totaled $255,000 $(45,000 from February’s sales and the remainder from March.) Prepare a schedule for each month showing budgeted cash receipts for DK Company.
( 4 Marks)


Q2. K Ltd provided the following data concerning its only product: (1 Marks)
Selling Price …………..SAR 200 per Unit
Current Sales ……………..18, 800 Units
Break-even Sales………….14,288 Units Compute the margin of safety in Riyal and as a percentage of sales. Answer

Q3. KK Corporation produces and sells a product whose selling price is $110.00 per unit and whose variable expense is $29.70 per unit. The company’s monthly fixed expense is $345,290. Required: A. Break Even Point in Unit
B Break Even Point in Dollar.
Assume the company’s monthly target profit is $16,060. Determine the unit sales to attain that target profit. Show your work! D. Assume the company’s monthly target profit is $40,150. Determine the dollar sales to attain that target profit. Show your work! (3 Marks)

Q 4. What do you mean by Variable and Absorption Costing? Explain both with suitable examples. (2 Marks)