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Economic Integration And International Relations

We live in a world that throughout the years has overcome many obstacles related to the relationship between countries and their own well- being, creating as a result tighter bonds and the transition from independent nations to interdependent nations that work together for a better quality of life and for the fulfillment of their specific interests. When referring to the economic and commercial prosperity, the strengthening of international relations, the presence in the international community and the examples being set by developed countries for their level of regional economic integration, the European Union is the clearest example of the highest achievement is these matters. In the official webpage of the European Union this is quoted: “Peace, prosperity and freedom for its 498 million citizens – in a fairer, safer world.” With this brief definition of what the main objective of the EU is, where does the European Union stand on economic integration as a model? Why is economic integration so important for the world? What is the EU’s major impact on international relations and economic integration that serve as lessons for other countries? These questions will be answered or analyzed more thoroughly showing the importance of the European Union as a role model of regional economic integration and international relations for the world. The European Union is an economic and political unification between 27 democratic European member states. Its economic integration was based primarily on political objectives to prevent any confrontations or conflict after World War II, when restoration was necessary after all the bloodshed, chaos, uncertainty and economic struggle brought by the war. The EU has overcome the three initial levels of integration that are Free Trade Area, Customs Union and Common Market. It has advanced now to the level of Economic Integration and as a result has accomplished “Frontier-free travel and trade, the euro (the single European currency), safer food and a greener environment, better living standards in poorer regions, joint action on crime and terror, cheaper phone calls, millions of opportunities to study abroad … and much more” (EUROPA, 2010). It is easy to imagine how two countries, like Colombia and the United States, could have great cooperation between them in order to create mutual commercial and living standard benefits with a great level of support, because of the globalized world and diplomatic relations that have brought them together. But consider twenty- seven countries, with twenty- seven languages, cultures, geographical characteristics, governments, tendencies, histories, and diverse characteristics coming together and sharing so many things as an integrated group, how can this not be an example to be followed by other countries around the world? In an interview made to Charles A. Kupchan [1] , Senior Fellow for Europe Studies, at the Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs on April 8th, 2010, he was asked: “To what extent do you think the European Union is a model for how enemies become friends and to what extent is it so completely unique that it cannot serve as a model?” he suggests that the European Union is where it is today thanks to “Economics in the surface of geopolitics”. With this once again the EU is seen as a postwar response that after it created good political relationships with the other countries led for economic integration to “create its own logic” as stated by Kupchan in his answer. This can serve as an example of one of the lessons that the European Union leaves the rest of the world, that as Kupchan’s book is called: “How Enemies Become Friends: The Sources of Stable Peace” (Princeton University Press, 2010) with a bit more of cooperation and the use of Diplomacy, any group of countries in Latin America or the rest of the world can have greater benefits as those received by the members of the European Union, solving their differences and integrating economically. “The current European model of economic integration, through three essential components: the political commitment, the legal and institutional system, and the set of common actions and policies in favor of integration”. (Rueda-Junquera, 2006) The importance of economic integration is defined in terms of these three main components. The first, political commitment can be seen as one of the hardest conditions that have to be fulfilled in order for the economic integration theory to bring benefits to a country or a group of countries. Although it is difficult to achieve, sometimes it can even be harder to sustain this commitment over time with so many internal and external factors that can come into the international panorama. The second element mentioned by Rueda-Junquera is the legal and institutional system. This means that although the approach of integration is economic, there has to be a law system looking over its process. Rueda-Junquera defines the “Community Law” that is characterized by its primacy, meaning that it is applied before any local or regional law of the member states, and its direct applicability. Finally, the third component is the set of common actions and policies in favor of integration. This shows how integration has been shifted into the economic objectives of the countries. These three elements, along with cooperation in the international community, shape the importance of economic integration, as they link progress, economic growth, and general welfare as the motor for the fulfillment of established goals by the different communities of the world. There are some characteristics about the European Union that are well known by people around the world. For example, that its 27 members share a common currency called the Euro (€), that if you plan to travel to any of its member states and you are coming from Colombia, for example, you need a Schengen visa in order to get in, that your passport gets stamped once in the country where you enter de European Union and there is free movement of people between member states, amongst others. But what is the EU’s major impact on international relations and economic integration that serve as lessons for other countries? We are told that “The success of the European Union (EU) in reaching a relatively high level of integration among its constituent member states over a fifty-year period has made it an attractive model for regional integration efforts elsewhere in the world.” (Kirchner, 2006) It is certain that the EU has become a model for countries that are just starting their integration processes and that stand in the first or second level of regional integration. It serves as a motivational figure for countries looking forward to having such a level of sustainability and development, showing that although many years can pass with many obstacles and crisis to face, it is possible to always move forth. Also, “Flows of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) have also been induced by the integration policies of the EU” (Mc Donald. Vertova. Garcia; 2000) This shows that having such stability thanks to the economic integration policies makes a country more attractive to foreign investors. How many countries wish they had a higher FDI in order to have economic and industrial development? Some countries have many natural resources, like the Colombian case, but no technology and knowledge to exploit them. This needs FDI to cover those needs. The EU shows how this is possible with a good level of economic integration. Another lesson relates to “economic integration leads to significant relocation of production activities”. (Mc Donald et al. 2000), this shows countries that sometimes production factors are more efficient if relocated, if you are working with another country it is easier to locate the factors of both parties according to what is best. There is another lesson related to what was just mentioned, which is that the European Union has achieved many good and positive things as one block, but as a block of countries that work as a team to increase their benefits as a whole. “Regional economic integration provides incentives for firms to adopt strategies that promote improvements in competitiveness”. (Mc Donald et al. 2000) Here is where transnational actors’ importance is reflected, as Transnational Companies (TNC’s) look for opportunities in the international market, economic integration in the EU is an example of well functioning firm relations. Some other lessons that are left by the European Union is that for example with the 2009 economic crisis born in the United States, many economies around the world where affected in terms of trade, as the income of the people and their purchasing power dropped significantly, and therefore there was no money for trade. In the case of the European Union, ” is a relatively closed economy, with extra-regional trade accounting for a small proportion of gross domestic product (GDP), which suggests that the crisis was transmitted from the US to Europe primarily through financial, not trade, channels.” (Ariff, M. 2009) Therefore, the crisis could have had worse consequences for Europe, but its economic integration level made it strong enough to not be affected by it in such a harsh way. “.. this multi- level industrial relations system reflects a history of informal and gradual development as well as deliberate institution- building”. (Marginson, P. Sisson, P. 2003) with this a lesson of patience can be considered. Some countries want and look for quick results on their economic integration processes, but as each country has its own interests and policies, economic integration escalation takes time. Just look how long it has taken Colombia and the US to sign a FTA. The European Union has grown in its integration in a step by step way, and although it takes time to be as high on the levels of economic integration, is a long term investment that brings very big and positive benefits. Finally, it can be concluded that the European Union has clearly set a model and example to be followed by developing countries that are just starting their regional economic integration with some neighboring or distant countries. It has showed the importance of economic integration as it combines many elements for the well- being of the peoples and has proven that cooperation is completely necessary to accomplish integration goals. Many lessons have been left by the European Union for other countries and although some difficulties may present themselves along the way, like the conflict between presidents in the case of Colombia and Venezuela, it is clear that a well- rooted integration system, an established presence in the international system, decision making based on honesty, legality and cooperation, and positive international relations lead to the achievement of a sustainable and fulfilling regional economic integration. “Though richly diverse, EU countries are united in their commitment to peace, democracy, the rule of law and respect for human rights. They seek to uphold these values in Europe and beyond, to build and share prosperity, and to exert their collective influence by acting together on the world stage.” (EUROPA, 2010)

The Nature Versus Nurture Debate Sociology Essay

The Nature Versus Nurture Debate Sociology Essay. Throughout the history of human existence, there have always been questions that have plagued man for centuries. Some of these questions are “what is the meaning of life” and “which came first, the chicken or the egg”. Within the past 400 years a new question has surfaced which takes our minds to much further levels. The question asked is whether nature or nurture has more of an impact on the growing development of people. It is a fact that a combination of nature and nurture play important roles in how humans behave socially. However, I believe that nature has a more domineering role in the development of how people behave in society with regards to sexual orientation, crimes and violence and mental disorders. Height, hair color, eye color and sex are just a few examples of ways our DNA has shaped us. But could it be possible that our DNA also affects the way we behave in society. It is possible that genetics affect us is more ways that we may have imagined. Dr. Peter B. Neubaur believes that shyness, eating disorders, obsessive behavior and psychological illness can all be traced back to our genetics. Sexual orientation is also believed to be derived from genes in our body which determine what sexual preference we prefer. Violence and other types of crimes can be linked back throughout a person’s lineage to witness that other family members have been committed similar crimes without ever meeting one and other. Throughout our lives we have all been influenced by our environment and other outside forces. Our environment may change the way we think, act and behave in life. Since we are all products of our environment, it comes to no surprise that we, as humans, tend to behave in a society the same way others around us behave but at the same time we strive to find who we really are (Schaefer 73). Since birth, humans have always analyzed the world around them. With each day that passes, humans take in more and more information from the outside world. The information which humans obtain through their environment subconsciously influences the decisions people make throughout their daily life (Neubauer 16). On the other hand, our genetics also play a vital role in determining what type of person we are and what will we become. The sexual orientation of a person has been a critical debate over the past several centuries. For several decades many people believed that nurture had a more profound impact on the sexuality of humans than did nature. Even the famous psychologist Sigmund Freud believed that sexual orientation was derived from nurture. Freud developed a theory which explains that at birth till the age of four every child is bisexual. When the child reaches the age of around four, he/she begins to learn to withhold their feeling for members of the same sex and start expressing those sexual feeling to members of the opposite sex. Freud proposed the idea that male homosexuality originates when this crucial developmental stage is hindered by some outside force also known as nurture. According to Freud, this can occur when either a chided is raised in a fatherless household or with an overbearing mother figure. However, when this idea was actually tested, it did not fall through as many would expect it would (Steen 185). Since many years after Freud’s passing, it has become apparent that nature holds a strong role in the development of sexual orientation of humans. If nurture isn’t the cause for sexual orientation then nature must be. According to Grant Steen, a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, a large study was recently conducted which gathered gay males who have either identical or fraternal twins or adopted brothers. The goal of the study would be to see if genetics played a role in twins. At the end of the survey more than half of the identical twins of gay men were also found to be homosexuals. At the same time only about 22% of the fraternal twins were found to be gay and only 11% of the adopted brothers were gay. What these statistics show is that DNA plays a very important role in determining sexual orientation. Nature seems to have such a large impact on the sexual orientation of individuals that I feel that nurture has almost little or no effect on whether a person is homosexual or not. If homosexuality is genetic then there should be a dramatic occurrence of homosexuality with families who have many homosexual relatives than to families in the general public who do not have homosexual relatives. Another survey was conducted in which 114 openly homosexual men were asked questions about the sexual orientation of their relatives. The study showed that “homosexuality is indeed strongly clustered in some families; among the brothers of men in this study, the incidence of homosexuality was nearly seven-fold higher than in the population at large” (Steen 197). Homosexuality can be considered hereditary because families with one gay relative are more likely to have others somewhere in their family lineage. Some skeptics may begin to raise the question that if homosexuality is genetic then there should be a “gay gene” in our DNA. After many studies, scientists have found that there is at least one gene which is responsible for homosexuality. Though this is not conclusive evidence because scientists still haven’t unlocked all of the DNA strands, scientists figure that with time and the advancement of technology we one day might be able to actually pin point this “gay gene” in DNA (Plomin 337). Reporter Jeff McMullen of ABC interviewed David Reimer in May of 2000 who fell victim of a botched circumcision when he was only eight months old. The doctors at the time felt that David would be better off living the rest of his life as a girl. The doctors believed that the nurturing of a child and not nature would determine their psychological make-up. David explained to McMullen that throughout his entire childhood he felt out of place. It seemed that even though David grew up as a woman, inside he felt something was wrong. This interview strongly supports the idea that nature plays a vital role in determining sex. No matter how much of an effort was put in to surround David’s environment with feminine characteristics, it would not be strong enough to over come the resilient power of nature. From the time of conception, nature has already planed out many important factors which will effect our lives in so many ways. If nature does control our sexual preferences then it is possible that it could control many other facets of human existence. In the United States about twenty million crimes occur each year and most of the time the criminals are repeat offenders. One may begin to speculate whether society in the United States promotes crimes or are criminals born with the desire to commit these heinous crimes. According to Steen there is “evidence from a large study of adopted children which shows that there is a tendency for children to reenact the criminal behavior of their biological parents”. So even if a child was adopted and was raised in a house which had no criminal activities, the child would be more likely to commit the same crimes as their biological parents which they have never met. This obviously disproves the notion that people are taught and raised to commit crimes. The East Coast sniper John Lee Malvo would hide in remote places all along the east coast and would shoot and kill people when the opportunity arose. Doctor Patricia Haensly believes that the DNA of John Lee Malvo differed from most peoples DNA. She came to the conclusion that most criminals are born with the genes that allow them to not think about the actions that they are coming are immoral. This is a very true statement because most people commit some type of crime, granted not murder but more along the lines of littering, but we tell ourselves that it’s not a problem and forget about it moments later. Murderers may feel the same way about killing as some people feel about littering. Nature also has a strong impact on domestic violence. In the United States over 18% of all homicides involved family members killing each other (Steen 228). This can lead to the deduction that just as the households which have one gay member are more likely to have other homosexually oriented family members; households which have one member who commits violent acts are more likely to have other family members who commit similar acts of violence. Sometimes nature cannot explain all the crimes committed in the United States. Some may feel that “simply living in such an environment places young people at special risk of falling victim to aggressive behavior” (Ferguson 81). For example, if a person is constantly surrounded by crimes and violence, then that person is more likely to commit the same crimes. However it may just be that people who live in bad areas would still commit those same crimes even if they resided in a low crime environment. Never-the-less your environment should not allow you’re to commit the same crimes no matter how much crime is going on. If a person keeps committing crimes in a bad neighborhood then it is most likely that the DNA of that person convinces them that it is all right to commit murders. This explains why many people in jails in the United States are repeat offenders. One may begin to wonder if there is more to these criminals than what is on the surface Many mental disorders have been scientifically proven to be heritable. Manic-depression is a trait which is inheritable through family lineage. Many separate studies have arrived at the conclusion that identical twins are more likely to acquire manic-depression than do fraternal twins. In fact four out of every five twins tend to share the same types of mental disorders (Steen 141). One study found that risks of clinical depression are much higher in certain families than in others. Close relatives of those who are depressed are three times more likely to suffer from depression than people who don’t have depression in their family history (Steen 147). This further secures the fact that nature plays such a crucial role over nurture in our lives and within our own families. There are some mental diseases such as schizophrenia which adults may suffer from which some people believed is cause from various problems in a person’s childhood. This leads many so speculate that the roots of schizophrenia extend far back into childhood. Within the past ten years a discovery was made which scientists were able to link a gene on our chromosome to schizophrenia. This “schizophrenic gene” would be a dominant gene which means that if any person had this gene in their DNA then it is likely that he/she would suffer from schizophrenia. Even though more research needs to be done on the “schizophrenic gene”, it still provides us information which could one day lead to the solving of schizophrenia and many other devastating diseases (Steen 151). It has become clear that nature and nurture both play very important roles in how humans behave in a society. I feel that nature plays the more domineering role in the foundation of human existence. All though every day we are bombarded with outside forces, it is our internal make up that determines how we would react to our environment. Our environment only adds to what nature has given to us. If we use it in the correct ways then it will be beneficial to society and our selves. However, once the environment starts to turn to the ways of violence and crimes we can only assume that it will only have negative effects from any point you look at it. The Nature Versus Nurture Debate Sociology Essay

How registered nurses might develop appropriate leadership skills

essay order Throughout this discussion I will talk about NHS leadership frameworks, give a definition of leadership, discuss styles, and theories such as transactional and transformational models. Mention the Knowledge Skills Framework, explaining how good clinical supervision and perceptership during orientation can have a positive influence on a good patient care outcome. Giving an overview of the skills and attributes that enable nurses to become leaders, NHS Scotland (2004), proposed a Leadership Framework, the paper talked about improving the health of Scotland and reforming how healthcare is delivered. Its aim, to develop new leaders on all levels of the NHS, as this will be crucial for the ambitious goals set out for the health service. Department of health 2004 (DOH) is hoping to create visionary leaders who can empower individuals; they are looking for effective leaders with a complex mix of attributes, behaviours and skills, who must also be able to reflect upon and evaluate themselves (Oliver 2006). Nurses demonstrating an effective leadership style will be in a powerful position to influence the successful development of other staff, this in turn will lead to the ultimate goal of any healthcare organisation which is influencing the quality of patient care through good nursing leadership. (Frankel 2008) When we think of leaders we think of great people such as Churchill, Kennedy, Florence Nightingale and many more, these people are regarded as leaders because they had a vision to change things for the better, they inspired their fellow men with words of wisdom, they challenged authority and seized on opportunities. These challenges are carried out every day in all kinds of clinical and non- clinical settings in the NHS, not many nurses will make the history books, but a good nurse leader will be respected, and become a role model for others. However, there are some theorists who believe that leadership is in-born and that some traits of a leader’s personality such as intelligence, initiative and confidence are what creates leaders. (Goffee and Jones, 2000). There are also those who disagree, Kouzes and Posner (2002) for example, argue that the skills of a leader are observable and learnable. Ellis and Abbott (2009), agree with, Faugier

Strategies to Counteract Prejudice Against Ginger People

Strategies to Counteract Prejudice Against Ginger People. An investigation into whether a Zine can promote a positive message counteracting ginger prejudice For my EPQ, I have created a Zine to promote a positive message about redheaded people, as I believe that abusing people for their hair colour is not and should not be an acceptable form of prejudice. The majority of my project contains primary research, this has been formed from my own and others’ personal experiences. Moreover, I used a variety of websites to gather information, however there were not many scholarly articles or books written for my topic, therefore I needed to consider the level of bias in publications that I researched. Furthermore, all the work I researched argued in favour of not accepting ginger prejudice, and there was no website that provided a counter argument arguing that gingerism should be accepted. I was able to show that prejudice against redheads was a real issue in today’s society through my anecdotes in the articles for my publication. I also highlighted gingerism in the media which influences the younger generation, my target audience’s, minds, again, showing how many people still believe in this negative stigma which surrounds ginger people. What drove me to write about gingerism was an article that I read from the online newspaper, The Mirror, about a young girl who was playing outside her house when a male in a car driving past shouted obscenities at the child because of her hair colour. What I found shocking was that this event didn’t surprise me. Last summer I was walking home and a similar event occured; a teenage boy leant out of his window, whilst his friend was driving, and shouted something at me. The only part of the comment I heard was “ginge”. I stopped listening as soon as he said this, because as a redhead, you become numb to this sort of language. You shouldn’t have to though. This idea of carrying on and ignoring the abuse ignited in me the idea of my Zine, as ginger prejudice should not be an acceptable form of prejudice. Jake Wood, an actor, said in an interview on ‘Good Morning Britain’, that “bullying people because of the way they look shouldn’t be socially acceptable”. Kate Garraway then went on to likening abusing people for their hair colour to racism, and how if we shouldn’t be racist, we should not be gingerist as the hatred is towards a characteristic that the victim cannot change, “If jokes about the subject are made as adults it somehow gives a sanction to kids to take the mickey out of red-headed people at school, in a way they wouldn’t about the colour of someone’s skin”. Ginger prejudice is the only acceptable form of prejudice in the United Kingdom. If people are physically or verbally attacked in the UK because of their hair colour, a hate crime will not be filed by the police. With my publication, I will not be able to make national change. I may be able to change some people’s opinions, which is what I hope to do. I wrote six articles for my Zine; my main feature highlighted the positives of having red hair, as my whole project is meant to embrace the mutation of the MC1R gene, and therefore not dwell on the negative aspects of being ginger. From my research I discovered the myths about redheaded people, and the real medical deficits of having the ‘ginger gene’. The articles I wrote were directed by my research. When I first started my project I knew that I wanted the main feature to be on the positive aspects of having red hair as the aim of my project is for the public to look at those with red hair in a positive light, not only that but to raise awareness of ginger prejudice. I also wanted to acknowledge the counter argument of the negative side of having ginger hair, not just the verbal abuse, but physical abuse people have faced. In this article {the one at the beginning of my publication, ‘Gingerism’} I really honed in on specific cases of ginger prejudice and their outcomes. Following on from this, my other articles were prompted from my research into my topic. The medical deficits article, came from the first website I visited, where it presented the fact that “gingers also feel pain and respond to painkilling agents differently than their blonde and brunette counterparts’ ‘. I thought this was fiction rather than fact, however after further research I discovered that redheads do have a lower tolerance for pain than people with other hair colours. These facts then led me on to research further unknown medical deficits that ginger people face. Initially, I did not set out to write about redheads in the media, because I did not believe that some celebrities would promote, as such, gingerism. Through my research I discovered that many media stars and people in the public eye have openly made negative and stereotypical comments about people having ginger hair, like Katie Hopkins and Robbie Williams. Thus, to counteract this negativity, I created my Zine to promote a positive image of redheads. Although only on a small scale, compared to the large media coverage these stars get, I believe that my Zine will be able to change a minority opinion, which could then, hopefully, lead to a majority reform. Moreover, one of my aims was to raise awareness of ginger prejudice in society, and this article highlighted gingerism in the media, promoted by celebrities. My tone of writing was similar to that of an ‘agony aunt’ column in a magazine. My target audience was sixteen to eighteen year olds, so I believed, being a similar age, that my readers would benefit more from a conversational tone as they would not like to feel as if they were being lectured and made to feel guilty if they have made gingerist comments. Additionally, my target audience, when I gave them the first draft of my project, said that they liked my style of writing as it was “engaging” and “worked well with the purpose of my project”. I took inspiration for my tone of writing from the websites and articles that I read, as I found their conversational tone was extremely engaging. In addition, I read magazines like “Hello!” and “OK” as their tone is similar to an agony aunt style, which is amusing and interesting for people aged sixteen to eighteen. Whereas, publications like “Vogue” and articles that use complex language are not enticing for people of my age group. I researched two different photographers and artists, and used their work as a stimulus for my own photographs, which I took myself. The first artist I researched was Gilean Wearing and her work entitled “Signs that say what you want them to say and not Signs that say what someone else wants you to say”, which she created in 1992-93. Her work, similar to Ruddy Roye’s, is extremely thought provoking. For my project I intend to, or at least hope to change the minds of the readers of my publication, on people with red hair. Furthermore, I want my Zine to provide a new positive light for the public to view redheads in. Wearing’s intentions were similar to this, she aimed for her work to allow strangers to express their inner emotions; Wearing’s “series examines the relationship between public image and private identity”, this is what I found particularly interesting about Wearing’s work. This is because in our society people make assumptions on others due to their appearance, for example ‘ginger people are hot-headed’, but no one takes into consideration, the type of person they truly are. Therefore I used Gilean Wearing’s work as inspiration for my own; I asked the models to write down their favourite name they have ever been called for being ginger and then to write “is it really such a bad thing” on a piece of cardboard, like Wearing did. I used this quotation because I want to promote the idea that having red hair isn’t ‘such a bad thing’! I also used Ruddy Roye’s work as inspiration for my own images. When I clicked on Roye’s website, I was met with single images, that were on rotation, of black people in many different situations. The images made me question the backstory of all of these people that I was seeing. The one that particularly caught my eye was an image of a child whose face was pushed up against glass that had been broken, as the image invoked so many thoughts and emotions; I could not help but feel great empathy for the child. I also loved Roye’s use of colour in his photos, and the pigmentation of the yellow suit against the dull background, inspired me to think of the location of my photos, as I aim to have the main focus of my images as the models hair colour, not the surroundings, which Roye captured as with most of his images, your eyes do not wander, you are completely captured by the person/people in the picture. Roye wished “that every image I photograph reexamines and redefines the image of the black man, the black woman, and the black child. My photography is first and foremost a catalyst or reason to motive human action. Every picture I take asks the questions, “Who am I and what is my role here on this earth?” It is my way of seeing. It is my way of saying this is another way of seeing me.”. I thought that this idea of provoking human action, and that the pictures are “another way of seeing me”, were incredible motives. Thus, I used Roye’s work as inspiration for my own project as I would like my readers to go away with a more positive view of red headed people, and view ginger people in a more positive light, instead of as hot heads! The most important question I believe is whether my project has been and will be successful. I hope that my publication will go on to inspire others to embrace their natural hair colour, or those with red hair. If I can fulfil my aim, even with only one person, I would have been successful with my project. My feedback from those within my target audience suggests that my project had a positive effect on them and the publication was thoroughly engaging. Therefore, I hope that my Zine creates change within people, and personally, I would have been successful with my project if even one person changes their mind on redheads. Bibliography Ailes, E. (2013). Seeing red: Does ‘gingerism’ really exist?. [online] BBC News. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-edinburgh-east-fife-23648041 [Accessed 10 Sep. 2019]. Chearúil, E. (2017). 8 Historical Facts about Redheads and Witchcraft – Redhead Halloween. [online] How to be a Redhead. Available at: https://howtobearedhead.com/8-historical-facts-about-redheads-and-witchcr [Accessed 4 Oct. 2019]. Grant, R. (2015). ‘Gingerism’ hate crime incidents revealed by police. [online] mirror. Available at: https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/gingerism-hate-crime-incidents-revealed-6200149 [Accessed 15 Sep. 2019]. Lafuente, C. (2018). The truth about redheads. [online] TheList.com. Available at: https://www.thelist.com/129859/the-truth-about-redheads/ [Accessed 10 Sep. 2019]. Milton, N. (2016). I too have ginger hair. Abusing us is not acceptable prejudice | Nicholas Milton. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/may/10/ginger-hair-edward-watson-gingerism [Accessed 17 Sep. 2019]. Quinn, A. (2019). Eastenders’ Max Branning actor appears on Good Morning Britain to defend bullying of people with ginger hair. [online] MyLondon. Available at: https://www.mylondon.news/whats-on/whats-on-news/eastenders-max-branning-jake-wood-16666670 [Accessed 30 Oct. 2019]. Strategies to Counteract Prejudice Against Ginger People

LAMC Benefits & Drawbacks of Using Psychotropic Medication for Children Research Paper

LAMC Benefits & Drawbacks of Using Psychotropic Medication for Children Research Paper.

Benefits and drawbacks of using psychotropic medication for childrenResearch Paper GuidelinesYou are required to complete a 4-5 page research paper on a psychological issue that we have reviewed in the course of this semester. A list of approved topics has been provided. Your paper should be typed, double-spaced, with one-inch margins and 12 font size in Times New Roman. There should be NO bullets throughout the paper. Pictures, tables or graphs are allowed as appendix at the end of the paper. Pictures and images should not be included in the body of your work. Depending on your topic, different guidelines will apply. There are four general areas for the research paper: 1) Psychological/Neurological Disorders; 2) Debatable topic; 3) Sexually Transmitted Infection; and 4) Exploratory Topics. Please use one of the following outlines for your paper. The outline will depend on your chosen topic.Psychological/Neurological DisordersIf you are given a psychological or neurological disorder, you should follow the first guideline. In order to help you organize your paper, you should have the following headings for your research paper:Introduction:This area should introduce the reader briefly to you topic. You may include a brief history of how the disorder was discovered or how it has evolved over the years.Symptoms:For psychological disorders, you need to use the DSM-V for this section. You need to detail what behaviors/deficits the person has to be exhibit and for how long before a diagnosis can be made.For neurological disorder, list the symptoms.You may also want to include other disorders that are similar to your topic and thus the individual may be misdiagnosed with. Origin:Is there a cause to the disorder?You will find for most of the disorders, there may not be a definitive single cause but a number of theories that explain the cause of the disorders. Discuss in detail the most prominent theories.For most of the disorders, there is a neurological component to the condition. You want to discuss how the brain of theindividual with your topic is different than someone who does not have the disorder.Who does it afflict?Gender; Age; Ethnicity; etc.Treatment:Discuss the most prominent treatment for your topic. You will find again for most of the disorders, there is a pharmacological treatment. Make sure to discuss the medication and the side effects associated with the meds.Sexually Transmitted InfectionYou may choose an STI for your topic. The areas to cover for this topic are similar to psychological/neurological disorders. You should begin with Introduction; Cause for the infection; Symptoms; Treatment; and what happens if the infection is not treated.Debatable TopicYou may choose a debatable topic. For this type of paper, it is imperative that you present both sides of the argument fairly. You should conclude your paper with your stance on the topic and discuss why you have chosen that side of the argument. Exploratory TopicThis type of paper will require researching your overall topic and answering the question posed to you. There is no specific format as you are simply exploring a general topic. Use your creativity for this type of paper. Just make sure you are answering the question posed.ReferencesYou will minimum of three references for your paper. One of your references has to be DSM-V (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition) again if you a psychological disorder. You will find this book at your school’s library under the reference section. You may use the Internet for your other two references. However, you need to review and evaluate these sources accurately in terms of their authorship. Wikipedia is not an accurate source. Two great resources are National Institute of Mental Health or the Mayo Clinic. You may also wish to read the following website to get an idea about how to evaluate online sources:http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Int…Your reference page should cite all sources used. This is the correct citation format
LAMC Benefits & Drawbacks of Using Psychotropic Medication for Children Research Paper