Get help from the best in academic writing.

Economic Impact of Slavery

Sarah Hoffman How would you characterize the economies of Native American groups prior to English colonization of the US? How were the colonial economies affected by Native Americans? Variations of local resources, geography, and transportation resulted in much cultural diversity of the Native American nations. However, Native American economies were generally collectivist before colonization. The concept of private ownership of land was foreign to these societies. Natural resources were common goods shared by all. The introduction of agriculture allowed for the development of villages and small cities. Most societies were agriculturally savvy, but still relied on non-farm sources of meat. Native societies viewed the Earth through a spiritual lens and, as a result, extracted goods in a sustainable manner. According to Gary Nash (Red, White, and Black, pg. 19), Native American societies were not as stratified as European ones. The division of labor was equitable; women tended to the crops and village, while men fished and hunted for game. Far from being primitive, some Native American societies developed into large, vibrant trading centers, such Cahokia in modern day Missouri. Indeed, the pre-Columbian era of North America included many sophisticated societies with a total population between 3 and 10 million people (Nash, 21). The Native Americans impacted the early colonial economies in a few ways. First, they shared their knowledge of farming techniques and local crops, which allowed the earliest settlers to survive and adapt to the Atlantic American climate. Specifically, corn became a staple food that the English eventually learned to cultivate and trade with Europe. Another impact on the colonial economy was the fur trade. Natives were the primary producers of fur, which had huge demand globally. The French in particular entered into mutually advantageous trade arrangements with the certain Native populations. Additionally, the inability of the English to utilize Native American labor resulted in a labor shortage that would eventually spur the growth in indentured servitude and the rise of slavery (lecture notes, 4/9/14). What was the economic impact and legacy of slavery and the Civil War in the South? The institution of slavery had a powerful influence on the Southern economy both before and after its abolition. For 250 years, Southern agriculture revolved around the labor of slaves, causing a ripple effect on the level of its industrialization, its cultural norms, and the distribution of wealth amongst its citizens (Hughes and Cain, 255). The South was largely dependent on high cotton revenues and did not industrialize as swiftly as its Northern neighbors. The profitability of cotton drove land values upward, and reinforced a cycle of social stratification whereby a few wealthy citizens owned the majority of land, to be tended by a large population of poor whites and black slaves. By 1860, over 50% of the populations of South Carolina and Mississippi were slaves with similarly high numbers throughout the South (Hughes and Cain, 112). Farms were big; according to lecture, by 1860 40% of Southern acreage was devoted to plantations larger than 500 acres (4/23/14). Cotton’s expanding international market increased labor demand and, thus the demand for slaves in the sparsely populated South. Hughes and Cain point out research by Jeremy Atack demonstrating that the use of slave labor held back the South’s industrial development by incentivizing the cultivation of cotton over manufactures. The effect was amplified by the lack of a well-paid consumer base (216). After the Civil War, the South had lost billions of dollars, thousands of young men, and its economic infrastructure was decimated. 90% of its banks disappeared, a vacuum filled by commodity credit trading at country stores. The old plantation system of agriculture was replaced by sharecropping, an arrangement less liberating than indentured servitude (Hughes and Cain, 262-270). Wages in the South fell and poverty increased as cotton prices fell from antebellum peaks. Black Americans, newly freed, migrated out of the region in large numbers contributing to the shrinking labor force. The South, following slave-era traditions, failed to invest in its human capital by instituting public education and could not reap the benefits of an educated labor pool (269). The South remained largely agricultural for many years even as their Northern neighbors industrialized. But perhaps the most lasting legacy of slavery and the Civil War was the institutionalization of racism enacted by an embattled, embittered South. These policies contributed to the slowed growth of the Southern economy for generations. What grievances fueled the Populist movement, and how do economic historians assess those concerns? The Populist movement began when farmers developed organizations in response to what they felt to be economic exploitation in the late 19th century. Faced with historically high agricultural yields, they watched the price of their products spiral ever lower. They felt aggrieved by freight costs, which represented a higher share of their incomes as crop prices fell, especially since the federal government subsidized the railroads with lavish land grants. The price for capital was also rising, forcing many farmers to borrow from financiers under sub-optimal terms because the national banks would not take farmland as collateral. They watched their incomes rise at a slower rate than those in other industries. Adding insult to injury, they witnessed the federal government subsidize the “robber baron” industries of the era. The depression of the 1890s helped fuel Populist ideas beyond farming as a result of high unemployment. They wanted to change the fundamental relationship between the American worker and the federal government. They banded together to protect their own interests and gain political clout in order to reform monetary policy, the banking system, corporate subsidies, and enact protectionist agricultural policies (Hughes and Cain, 386-389). There is no argument as to whether farmers were subjected to slower income growth as productivity grew. However, economists argue that, despite their perceptions, farmers’ incomes as a whole grew throughout the late 19th century, albeit at a slower rate than workers in other industries. Freight rates remained steady, but the perception of price gauging remained as farmers commanded lower prices for their crops and thus paid a higher ratio of their incomes for shipping costs. Likewise, economic analysis has shown that there were no land monopolies at the time. Hughes and Cain note that the farmers’ terms of trade actually improved, though more farms were forced to borrow money in the face of rising land values. They argue that most of the resentment of the early Populist farmers stemmed from a loss of relative position during the era of industrialization and urbanization (Hughes and Cain, 301). The Populist movement eventually grew to encompass broader ideals such as the need for bank reformation, monetary policy, nationalization of utilities (including railroads), curbs on subsidies for corporations, and election reform. What began as a fraternity of farmers looking out for their own interests morphed into a larger movement with a lasting influence on government policy, despite evidence from economists that suggests they may not have been as exploited as they perceived (lecture notes, 5/19/14). Works Cited Hughes, Jonathan R. T., and Louis P. Cain. American Economic History. 6th ed. Boston: Addison Wesley, 2003. Print. Lecture Notes, Dr. Mary King, EC 456, Spring 2014 Nash, Gary B. Red, White,
Give Three Examples of Hyperbole from The Poetry Selection Discussion Question.

I’m working on a literature discussion question and need an explanation to help me learn.

1) Give three examples of hyperbole from the poetry selections.undefinedO Captain! My Captain! By Walt Whitman, The Negro Speaks of River, and Daddyundefined2) Give three specific examples of metaphors from the poems selected for class. There can be no repeats, so make sure you post early. Tired Sex, Do not go gentle into that goodnight, and Fire and Iceundefined3) Give three examples of personification from the poetry selections. Fire and Ice.here can be no repeats, so make sure you post early.undefined Do not go gentle into that goodnight, Because I could not stop for death by, and Ex-Basketball Playerundefined4)List a short story and a poem which have similar themes. Show specific information that demonstrates your point. undefined5) Give two examples of either alliteration, assonance, or onomatopoeia from our poetry selections.The Raven by Edgar Allen Poe
Give Three Examples of Hyperbole from The Poetry Selection Discussion Question

El Camino College California State Spendings on Medicaid Discussion.

Word count must be 400 please and needs 3 references in APA style, needs intext citations and a reference list. 🙂 The health law will cost state taxpayers at least $118.04 billion through 2023 — more than double the Congressional Budget Office’s (CBO) recent estimate of $60 billion through 2021, according to a new report from the House Energy and Commerce Committee.The enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in March 2010 was the largest expansion of the entitlement program since its inception more than 45 years ago. Half of those obtaining health care coverage under the new law will get it through Medicaid. The committee report provides a state-by-state analysis of the financial impact the new health care law will have on states and demonstrates the unsustainable fiscal burden this new law will foist upon taxpayers.Question:How much the State of your choice are spending on Medicaid? (California)
El Camino College California State Spendings on Medicaid Discussion

The concept of supply and demand is very fundamental in economics especially in the operation of a market economy. Demand essentially entails the quantity of a product or service that will be desired by consumers at a certain time (Colander, 2008, p.132). Supply on the other hand is the quantity that producers in a market are willing to offer. The two, supply and demand are basically influenced y the market prices hence equilibrium. Other factors that affect the demand level in a market economy include; consumer expectations, incomes, availability of substitutes, prices of complements, technology and seasonal changes among others. Supply levels are influenced by government policies, seasonal changes, production changes and costs, technology, natural disasters just to mention but a few. The aforementioned factors affecting demand and supply are what cause movements and shifts of the demand and supply curves. Depending on the affecting factor at hand, preventable measures have to be put in place so as to maintain the market equilibrium where producers and consumers are comfortable with the price and services or goods. In the case of the nonprofit theater company the demand exceeds the supply as shown in the graph above. This is because the theater hall can only accommodate 120 people yet the number of people demanding for the tickets is enormous due to the fact that the set actors to perform are of national reputations. In this situation, the fixed factor is the capacity of the theatre hall which cannot e changed within the limited time. To overcome this problem in the short run I would first suggest that the ticket price is increased by a small percentage so that the demand is reduced to meet the supply. This is because an increase in price will cause the demand curve which had initially shifted to the right because of the quality of the service to now shift towards the left to its initial position where it balanced with the supply quantity. Another decision which could be made in the short-run is that of selling the tickets on a first-come-first-serve service and in this case, they will not e sold out in a month’s advance. Instead, it is advisable that the tickets are sold only a few days before the actual performance. This way, a larger representation of the consumers will be reached unlike if it is a month earlier where most likely the rich who have cash at hand throughout will benefit while the poor who live from hand to mouth with no or little savings will not have the opportunity to do so. The aim of doing is to make sure that every group in the population is represented in the small number that will get seats in the theatre. To overcome such a problem in the long-run, the company should think of expanding to hold a larger capacity of people so that there is no scramble for tickets in future. This will ensure that the supply and demand curve at equilibrium point where both the theatre company and the theatre occupants are comfortable with the price and services offered. After the expansion, it is also advisable that the company administration thinks of enrolling permanent members of the theatre company who are issued with cards. Through this they will be able to predict the possible demand hence taking early measures especially concerning ticket prices given the fact that this is a non-profit company. Reference List Colander, D. (2008). Microeconomics 7th ed. McGraw-Hill. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More

ENG 101 EGCC Everyone Should Prioritize Learning a Foreign Language Persuasive Essay

ENG 101 EGCC Everyone Should Prioritize Learning a Foreign Language Persuasive Essay.

This is a persuasive essay assignment. Do Not submit assignment.The purpose of the Persuasive Essay assignment is to choose a topic that has some debatable issue. You will then take a position on that issue and write a 2 full-page Persuasive Essay trying to influence you to accept or agree with your position on this issue.Here are the details:1. Read the Lecture Notes in Unit 5 on persuasive writing. Also, especially read Chapter 10.9 in the online text for ideas on how to construct an approach persuasive writing. Here is the link to that chapter:https://open.lib.umn.edu/writingforsuccess/chapter/10-9-persuasion/ (Links to an external site.)While all the information in this chapter can be helpful, what is especially helpful is the information under the heading “Writing a Persuasive Essay.”2. Choose a topic. Your topic will be on some issue of debate where you are able to take a side on that issue. The instructor of your class will let you know if you may write on any topic or if there will be limitations on what you may choose to write on.3. Unlike the previous two-unit essays, there is no required outline or pattern that you have to use for organizing this essay. However, you will want to plan your organization so your ideas connect and make sense to the reader. You may use either of the patterns from the previous two units. Also, you may look at the different patterns presented in Chapter 10 for ideas. As a bit of advice, the structure is shown in Chapter 10.9 under the heading “Structure of a Persuasive Essay” is a helpful model to look at.4. Since this essay is more persuasive instead of argumentative, you do not have to do any formal research, but you should have explanations and support for any positions you offer.5. The essay will be at least two full pages long but no more than four pages (unless you have your instructor’s permission to go over 4 pages). You will use the MLA formatting guidelines that you used in the previous essays.6. Include a title for your essay.7. After writing the essay, be sure to take the time to read it several times for revision and editing. It would be helpful to have at least one other person proofread it as well before submitting the assignment.
ENG 101 EGCC Everyone Should Prioritize Learning a Foreign Language Persuasive Essay

Arctic Sovereignty Disputes in North America Essay (Book Review)

nursing essay writing service Table of Contents Introduction How the different books compare Conclusion Works Cited Introduction This paper will review and analyze five books by identifying their main themes and generalizations. In addition, the paper will conduct a comparative review of the main themes in a bid to generate new arguments through assessing the impact of each book. Ultimately, the paper will show that the books established consistency in their findings. The first book is Northern exposure: powers, peoples, and prospects for Canada’s North by Frances Abele, Tom Courchene, France St. Hilaire, and Leslie Seidle. The contributors of this book focus on identifying the key sections of the public policy that can be improved in a bid to maximize the economy by realizing human capability in the Canada’s North. In the quest to further this objective, the book examines the themes of environmental preservation, public governance, sustainable growth, and community empowerment through education and developing Northern policy based on the future (Abel et al. 43). The book talks of the ability of the Northern population and particularly the aboriginal society and Inuit to negotiate land ownership and self-governance, which offers the chance to greater sufficiency. The enhancing political maturity encourages production firms to explore the available resources and grow the region’s economy. However, the contributors identify that the impact of climate change on environment is holding back the efforts to achieve sustainable economy and improve the lifestyles of the community. The uncertain conditions of climate change in the Canada’s Arctic region are perceived to slow the development and growth in the Northern region. The authors underscore the impacts of governance across the region that is occupied by the aboriginal communities. The authors analyze the expected challenges that the Northern Quebec and Labrador regions must face in a bid to enhance economic growth and better life styles for the Northern residents (Ebinger and Zambetakis 37). This book challenges the Inuit people, leaders of first nations, and aboriginal activists to step up and strengthen their support to safeguarding the environment as well as sovereignty in the Arctic region. The second book is After the Ice: life death and geopolitics in the new Arctic by Alun Anderson. The author provides a revelation to the world by identifying how the consequences of global warming are influencing Arctic transformation. Focusing on nations, local residents, animals, and the green environment, the author states that the activities of man contributing to global heating pose danger to sustainability of life in the near future. The author talks of the experiences of the Inuit living in the North and shares their troubled adventures through forced displacement and efforts to administer self-governance coupled with protecting the exploitation of the north by the international community, hence succeeding in regulating the effects of climate change. The author gives insights into the troubled life of the indigenous communities, the effects of Arctic exploitation, and the neglect of the Inuit people (Alun 56). The region is only targeted for its gas and oil, but there are no policies to protect or recover the degrading environments for the sake of the local communities. With the evidence of the fast declining Arctic ice, the author expresses his concerns to minimize carbon emissions in a bid to slow greenhouse gas effects. The author describes the Arctic region as a region of diverse beauty of the ice parked scenery, but his worry is about the drastic effects on climate change affecting life in the northernmost region. After exploring and interviewing people, the author gives an account of the damage to the indigenous scenery, suffering, and possible extinction of the polar bears, displacement, compelled change in culture, and lifestyle (Holmes 59). The author helps the readers to examine and understand the effects of climate change and factor out what can be done to slow the consequences of global warming. The author claims that the agenda to save the vast and crucial Northern region should be everyone’s priority. In addition, the author claims that conserving the degrading situation of the North region can be facilitated by empowering the indigenous communities by ensuring self-governance and establishing sustainable scientific policies (Ebinger and Zambetakis 44). This book comes out as insightful as well as educative since the author delves deeper to different perspectives that have been overlooked for a long time such as the role of the indigenous communities in the North region. In addition, the author shows the hopeful possibilities in slowing Arctic transformation, hence avoiding fast environmental degradation. The third review is on Michael Byers’ work, Who owns the Arctic? Understanding sovereignty disputes in the North. The author has done research programs in the Arctic and he provides elaborate report and advice concerning the implications on the usage of the Northwest Passage. The main theme by this author focuses on determining the sovereignty in the North, which he claims to influence the climate change in many ways (Holmes 56). For instance, Byers talks of the Exxon Valdez tanker of Alaska that hit a reef and spilled large volumes of crude oil into the water, thus terminating huge numbers of aquatic life. This event also altered the lifestyles of the people living around, particularly those that depend on fishing for food sustenance (Charron 89). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author argues that the new navigability will promote frequent passage of oil tankers since it saves time and transit fees. The author claims that the Northwest Passage cannot be taken as an international strait as it is claimed by many states seeking passage (Byers 46). The author challenges Canada to take charge and address the sovereignty issue by controlling shipping via the Northwest Passage by determining who sails where and what goods are transited. The author claims that controlling the passage protects the Northern environment, hence promoting the welfare of citizens residing in the north. The author argues that the Canadian policymakers should embark on empowering the Inuit who occupy the North as a way of giving them the mandate to preserve the environments and better their everyday lives. Byers identifies that the historical existence of the Inuit on the Northwest Passage provides Canada with substantial claim of sovereignty for the Arctic region (Arnold 92). However, it is the mandate of the Canadian government to protect the Inuit by ensuring that their ancient practices such as hunting and fishing are not threatened by environmental degradation in the region. Despite the significance of the Inuit to the Canadian government claiming the sovereignty of the Arctic region, the author argues that the government of Harper decided to construct port in the arctic and did not consider Inuit views on the location. Inuit interests of locating the port at Iqaluit were meant to ensure that the port served the intended purpose and at the same time uplifting the local economy. After a concise analysis by Byers, it becomes clear that the heating international competition for possession of important resources such as oil and gas can easily overwhelm the need to counter or slow the effects of climate change emerging from burning carbon. The author insists that governments of the Arctic countries can mandate individual nations to exercise sovereignty for the benefit of all. This well-articulated and concise work by Byers helps one to understand that all involved Arctic countries can benefit if a peaceful agreement is attained. The fourth review focus on the Arctic front by Ken Coates, Whitney Lanckenbauer, William Morrison, and Greg Poelzer. The authors bring forth a timely analysis about Canadian sovereignty in the Arctic region. The authors insist that the concerns on the Arctic region are all behind global warming and the wellbeing of the occupants of the Northern region. The authors argue that states around the Arctic region such as Russia, the United States, and Denmark are not likely to recognize the Northwest Passage as within the Canadian waterways. The authors help readers to understand the potential threats that Russia pose to Ottawa in the near future if it continue to explore over and under the polar ice sheets (Coates et al. 65). The authors argue that the reluctance of Canada to take control of the Northern region is because the arctic does not have significant political risks to the Canadian politics. The relatively inaccessible nature of the region has given less pressure to Canada. The authors predict that this aspect is ought to change since Canada has done less to integrate the North to the rest of the Canadian community in the south. The authors identify that the Canadian government has done little to better the economy of the North as opposed to the other regions. This book criticizes the role played by the Canadian government for the benefit of the Inuit. The authors show that the interests by Canada government are less on humanitarian basis for the benefit of locals of the Northern region. The authors mention some events that show less the commitment of the Canadian government to engage in cooperative agreement with other Arctic countries in a bid to control the Arctic region and involve the locals in environmental conservation (Charron 88). For instance, the authors talk of the reactive mentality of the Canadian forces to threats concerning the North region. The Yukon Field Force, which was sent to the North during the Klondike Gold Rush and later withdrawn, shows what might be the trend in the future. However, the authors argue that this trend is ought to change since many countries seek free access to the region that they claim as an international strait. The last review examined in this paper is Polar imperative: A history of Arctic sovereignty in North America by Shelagh Grant. The author’s main theme is based on the claims of sovereignty over the Northern polar region. The author talks of the effects of global heating and the consequences of resource exploitation on the native communities. Grant examines the activities and events that allegedly gave the greenlight to claim authority over the lands and waters in the Arctic of North America. The author gives an objective account of the Arctic experience, which allows the readers to have a deep view of the sovereign responsibilities that Canada has to assume concerning the northernmost region (Borgerson 77). We will write a custom Book Review on Arctic Sovereignty Disputes in North America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Grant argues that the Canadian government efforts to prevent pollution can be viewed as the right move towards claiming sovereignty over the northernmost region. The author is keen to communicate to the readers about the effects of pollution to climate change coupled with condemning the slow response overwhelmed by commercial interests by the Arctic countries. The historical researcher, Shelagh Grant, provides the reader with insights about the 1968 US bomber that crashed near the Northern Greenland, as it remains unclear if all of the hydrogen bombs aboard were recovered. The inhabitants of the Greenland were denied the details of this event. According to the author, the damage of resources makes the indigenous people vulnerable to effects of causes, which they do not understand. This book provides a deep review of the native inhabitants and predicts fast progress if they can achieve self-governance, but the author holds that this goal might not be achieved soon due to the conflicting debates and interests of resource acquisition by the Arctic countries (Shelagh 20). How the different books compare It is very clear that the authors of the five books share most themes and they express almost similar sentiments. The theme of sovereignty is highly retaliated, as the authors agree that even though Canada might seem to have partial control over the Northernmost region, some states like the US do not recognize that the Northwest Passage lies under internal waterways of Canada. The authors also agree that the consequences of climate change are real (Shelagh 32). Failure to control human activities in the exploration and exploitation of resources in the Arctic region pose dangers of global warming. The five books insist on the importance of involving the native inhabitants in all matters concerning the Arctic region in a bid to ensure that their grievances are addressed and the activities taking place contribute to the growth of the native economy. In addition, the books share a common purpose of enlightening the readers by telling them about the history of the lives of Inuit coupled with what the future holds for the international community if the effects of global warming are not regulated (Borgerson 65). However, these books differ slightly on some aspects about the events that enhance the Canadian sovereign claim over the Arctic region. For instance, Byers suggests that cooperation and agreement could help to solve the matter by mandating individual nations to control the Arctic region for the benefit of all. On the other hand, Grant claims that the Canadian efforts to put measures against pollution can be seen as a move to declare sovereignty over the Arctic region. The first review on Northern exposure indicates that the Northern region should be empowered to exercise self-governance and prevent exploitation from other regions. Conclusion The five books provide groundbreaking information on the events that surround the Northern Arctic region and their implications to the lives of its inhabitants. The themes of sovereignty, climate change, and self-governance are given priority since they are the major concerns for the Arctic countries and their citizens. This paper has established that the different authors have consistent findings, which gives the readers the belief to adopt and advance this knowledge. However, it is evident that most countries in the region are interested in acquiring the resources and dominating the northernmost region. Therefore, the Arctic countries should cooperate and agree on the best criteria to handle the issue of sovereignty and counter the effects of global warming. Works Cited Abel, Frances, Thomas Courchene, Leslie Seidle, and, France St-Hilaire. Northern Exposure: Peoples, Powers, and Prospects for Canada’s North, Ottawa: IRPP, 2009. Print. Alun, Anderson. After the Ice: Life, Death, and Geopolitics in the New Arctic, New York: Smithsonian Books, 2009. Print. Arnold, Samantha. “Nelvana of North, Traditional Knowledge, and the Northern Not sure if you can write a paper on Arctic Sovereignty Disputes in North America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Dimension of Canadian Foreign Policy.” Canadian Foreign Policy Journal14.2 (2008): 95-107. Print Borgerson, Scott. “Arctic Meltdown: The Economic and Security Implications of Global Warming.” Foreign Affairs 87.2 (2008): 63-77. Print Byers, Michael. Who Owns the Arctic? Understanding Sovereignty Disputes in the North, Vancouver: Douglas

Study Of Darley And Batson

Darley and Batson (1973) conducted a study of situational and dispositional variables in helping behaviour. Based on the study, we rejected two hypotheses and accepted one of the hypotheses. The subsequent sections cover the result, explanation on why the particular hypotheses is rejected or accepted, limitation of the study, extraneous variables and conclusion. Result The dependent variable is helping behaviour and the independent variables are time (hurry and not hurry) and religiosity (religious or not religious). The study conducted on 68 students which they were divided into four groups with 17 participants per group. A two-way ANOVA was conducted to examine if there were differences in helping behaviour by time and religiosity. The first main effect, hurry was statistically significant, F (1, 64) = 53.76; p < .001. Participants who were not in hurry were showing more helping behaviour (M = 2.74, SD = 1.73) than participants who were in hurry (M = .76, SD = .82). The second main effect, religiosity showed a significant difference, F (1, 64) = 24.25; p < .001. Participants who were religious are more helpful (M = 2.41, SD = 1.73) than participants who were non-religious (M = 1.09, SD = 1.33). There was a significant interaction between the effects of hurry and religious on helping behaviour, F (1, 64) = 10.07, p < .01. Figure 1. The interaction effect between religious thought and time for helping behaviour. Discussion The result of the study supported partially the pre-experimental hypotheses. There are a numbers of possible explanations for this finding. The main factors appear are social, situational and dispositional. Hypothesis one stated people who encounter a helping situation while thinking religious thoughts will be no more likely to offer aid than persons thinking about something else. Hypothesis one was not supported. In fact, the opposite occurred. From the data, the mean of helping behaviour is higher for religious thought people than non-religious thought. Based on one analysis where 117,077 people responded to the World Values Surveys in 53 countries, religious people are more than five times more likely to volunteer compare to the non-religious attenders (Myer, 2010). Religious faiths predict long-term altruism that reflected in volunteerism. According to Myer (2010), in a Gallup survey, highly religious people are more likely to report having given away donations, volunteered and helped stranger. High religious people are those mentioned religious is important in their daily life. Study shows that people with God in their mind are more generous in donations (Pichon

Personal Reflection on Race in America

Personal Reflection on Race in America. My Past, My Present, OUR Future! “Dad, why are black’s so different from us?” The sounds no man ever wants to hear. About two years ago, I failed as a father, a mentor, and a coach. Not to just anyone in this world, I neglected my eight-year-old sons cry for help. I was outraged by such a question, for I hadn’t raised him to think in such a manner. Twenty to thirty seconds passed us by, I remember my finger pointing at him, raising my voice, and telling him he had no right to look down on someone else. I led him into the bathroom and turned on the light, and I said, “take a good look in that mirror because that’s the only man you have the right to judge, and only God can judge another man.” My son put his head between his feet and walked back to his room, saying nothing at all. While this story has haunted me for the past two years, it’s the focal point on my journey to becoming a better father, mentor, and coach. The perfect dad does not exist; we must strive to learn from our mistakes in hopes of becoming something better than we were before. In my reflection of this course some of the essential discussions that impacted my life will be emphasized. I will also cover my thoughts and feelings before the class and how a thorough understanding has changed me personally over the past seven weeks. While I might be a small piece of the puzzle, I believe this is a start to a society working towards racial democracy, possibly without racial categories, in hopes of making a more desirable and ideal American dream for all. My Learnings through the Course Abraham Lincoln once said, “achievement has no color.” Over 155 years have passed, and society still fights the same adversity today. Racism can impact our communities, both directly and indirectly. In life, we are born with ascribed characteristics that can’t be changed, such as ethnicity, gender, and even our region of starting point or social status. Through the process of socialization, we build invisible barriers between other groups and us by the differences we are taught. Recognizing social inequalities do exist and that racism must be exposed allows all individuals equal opportunities. Through identifying system constraints that limit one’s success, we have made significant gains as a society for continued efforts to better multicultural and racial competency. America is fully invested in the white culture, but yet we have little understanding of white privilege and how we have used our power to rule other races and ethnicities. As we benefit from these actions, it’s lost in our subconscious thought process how others are limited for our uneven success. Even more so, we never take the time to understand other races or ethnicities. Each of us plays a substantial part in tackling issues that make minority groups feel inferior to whites today. Our society is now in the second stages of structural assimilation, and other social groups are continuing to acquire better jobs, higher incomes, and more education. Residential patterns, club memberships, friendships cliques, and intermarriage remains very low outside of formal social settings such as work and school. While white people today have a lot more involvement with other races and ethnicities than previous eras in our history, it still is very minimal and casual comparatively speaking. What each of us can do on the micro-level to stop the social boundaries that block our relationships with other races is seek to treat no individual differently. We must stop baseing our relationships as neighbors, church members, close friends, or marital partners on the color of our skin or the hate in our hearts. Today, it’s impossible to drive from one town to the next without witnessing the invisible barriers that keep us segregated. Neighborhoods are still predominantly white or black, churches are the same, which follows in our friendships and family. Through the process of assimilation, other races and ethnicities evolved into our society, but we never have conquered our fear and opened our hearts to their community. To overcome these hurdles, we need to understand the social boundaries that limit one’s success even though our formal relations have grown, such as work and school settings. By allowing ourselves to see the patterns of our behaviors, we can make changes that reduce our subconscious actions today. While our country has made significant gains in tightening the gaps that promote and reinforce black inferiority, we still suffer from disparities within employment, housing, and economic wealth. These issues are due to top-down aversive racism, where our society and government avoids and ignores these issues at all costs because they benefit from white privilege and power. To continue attacking these issues, we must put more control on these disparities. There is still minimal legal oversight on employers and their hiring process, which discriminates one’s access to employment and the wages in which they receive. Discrimination in the housing market remains the silent but pervasive barrier that creates the most significant gaps between minorities and whites today. In the rental and housing market, whites receive different treatment and services in housing searches, which separates individuals still by the color of their skin. Government-funded loans could assist with integration that supports us with more opportunities for becoming neighbors, friends, and family. If our governmental processes overcome the adversity, we see today through job discrimination and our housing markets, I think the economic gaps will fix themselves over time. While we still have a long road ahead of us, the most protruding portion is continuing our journey. Thoughts and Feelings before the course and how they changed through the course A few weeks after my son asked me that question, a letter was sent home in his backpack, discussing a series of events that had occurred over the past month. Jaylin, an African-American in my son’s class, had been a victim of hate violence and racial bullying. I could hardly read the letter as the tears poured from my face knowing I failed again as a father, mentor, and coach. As I sat my son down at the table, and we discussed the letter, the only thing I still remember is him saying, “but dad, you didn’t let me talk?” He wanted to know why two of his friends were beating Jaylin up and what he should do, but because of my actions, he did what everyone else in his class did and turned away. I could have stopped this, I could have changed this, but my failure to listen pushed my son further away. While the last ten years of being called dad have brought me life’s greatest happiness, it was learning from my mistakes that gave me hope I could be better than I once was. This can be applied to the same principles of human society, as striving for perfection can only be defined by accepting our past, through our present understanding, in hopes of reshaping the future. Today, we seek to remember the past better than it was, the present worse than it is, which leaves no room for growth. As I heard my son’s bedroom door close after having him look at himself in the mirror, I was hurt that he felt this way inside. I was mad at myself for my leadership in his life let him down. Upon reading that letter, I was shattered that I let my ego talk instead of listening. My son did exactly what I asked, by avoiding the situation and not judging anyone involved. I let an eight-year-old boy be punished because of the color of his skin, and I made my son watch. While this story has haunted me for two years, I felt like I could hide it deep inside me forever, but that’s what racism is, and how our society tells us to handle our problems by burying them. The past seven weeks have driven me to a higher understanding of the human race, and I won’t be confined by my wrongful doings. By accepting my past, through my present experiences, only I have the power to change my future. Throughout the course of history, America, much similar to my dealings with my son, suffered from two distinct stages but yet led us on a journey of intense inner hatred and inhumane practices for particular races and ethnicities. The first stage was our self-ignorance, which later transitioned to our inner fear. By our ignorance, we have determined our pre-judgments of other individuals through cultural and biological differences. Skin color, hair, physical features, along with cultural differences such as language, religion, ethnicity, all developed the negative values that built the fundamentals of hate and racism. At an early age, we developed traits to allow us to associate certain groups and characteristics together. Anytime someone is different from us, it’s by our human instinct that we judge them off our lack of knowledge and their ascribed characteristics. Ascribed characteristics we can’t be changed, such as ethnicity, gender, and even our region of starting point or social status. By separation and segregation of different racial and ethnic groups, we have prevented the vision of interacting positively. By our ignorance of other races and ethnicities, we create hate and racism on the pre-determined notion based on limited knowledge. Fear is a much deeper issue than ignorance and what we suffer from today. Fear attacks the problems of privilege and power. This is our post-judgments and how we view issues even after evidence presents itself that disproves our pre-judgments. Fear is what allows us to overlook evidence and carry out the same post-judgments when they are knowingly wrong. Today, the superior race is defending their privileges culturally, socially, politically, and economically by limiting the opportunities of inferior races. When the powers we achieved through ignorance are threatened by newfound evidence, we become fearful of others taking our power and privilege. It is the fear-based society in which we live today that lays the framework for the second stage of hate and racism towards minority groups. While it starts with our ignorance from pre-judgments towards others based on cultural and biological differences. It never ends because of the fear of losing the privileges and power that were created off our pre-determined ignorance. My thoughts before this course and how they changed throughout this course to me is no different from the stages of American society. Life before this class was centered on the path of least resistance and the road I always strived to follow. I always believed that if the issue didn’t involve me, I should not stick my nose where it doesn’t belong, but that is a primary reason why racism is unchanging today. As you can see from my son, I passed my failing words of wisdom on to him. When you witness acts of racism, big or small, turning away is never the solution. It was through my ignorance that I failed to listen over being heard. Upon reading the letter, my life quickly transitioned into a constant uproar. I was in fear for what I had done, what I had taught, and a fear my son would follow the same suit by what he had witnessed. When I took my son’s voice away, I held all the power in my hand. Even though I won the battle that night, I know now that I lost the war. America is structured in the same manner by the dominant whites holding majority stock in all powers still to this day, we have stripped the voice of other racial groups from there vary hands and still control them to this day. In reflection of my coursework, I found this story brought on more heartbreak. I was angered in myself for never letting my son speak, and how I answered him that day. In part, I lived in fear that I failed through my leadership, but I never attempted to make right on my wrongful doings. I buried this story, never to revisit it, nor try to coach my son again on racial barriers, before this class. I feared my failures as an outcome of my teachings. Instead, I avoided it. I learned from this class that as individuals, if we don’t support those in need, they quickly feel as if they are, in fact, the outcast. Just as if we don’t step in, the people partaking in these acts of racism feel untouchable. To fight racism, it takes a stand, all races, all minority groups, fighting together to overcome these struggles. Prejudice is a learned behavior and can only be broken through positivity. We watched some compelling videos that showed me who I have been for thirty-two years of my life. The What Would You Do videos showed us firsthand how, as a society, we are surrounded by these situations. When we hold beliefs regarding the character of a group, these are expressed through prejudice ideas. Just like me, some of the witnesses did not speak up in the store as they did not feel it was their place because people are followers, not leaders; they feared retaliation from the store and worker. They worried it would create more problems for the victim and themselves. Typically, when we witness bias acts based on fixed mental images as expressed in the store, we don’t act out until someone else does because most people are natural followers. Followers don’t feel it is their place because we are taught at an early age how to avoid conflict rather than overcome conflict. Other customers in the store could be regular customers or needing a specific item; this could minimize their efforts as they don’t want any ill-natured repercussions for standing up for someone else. I also think people believe that this can cause more problems for themselves and the victim as they could have to testify in court, missing work, and adding to the issue. I believe this resistance will counteract modern racism and erode the very discrimination we face today. To move forward, I think teaching our children and youth of correct behaviors and understanding of race before they begin to act out is the next step. Being proactive instead of reactive is always the best way to change the outlook of a generation on widespread racial issues. When we work to educate ourselves more on the real-world situations that arise, we can be prepared to counter-attack these. Understanding what racism is, whom it impacts, and not letting these actions happen around us puts us one step closer to an anti-racism environment where everyone can live equally and feel safe. What Racial Democracy Entails for the U.S., Racial Categories or not, is this Ideal today? Over the course of history, the U.S. has been the chomping grounds for some of the worst crimes ever witnessed. War, violence, and hate, yet, we seek a world of peace and racial democracy. To date, our blood has been spilled on the belief of racism. Racism is a focus on dividing humans into different social groups based on their culture, biological, or mental capacities. The differences of other social groups are composed by their genetic composition and cannot be changed, which makes them inferior to the dominant race. By defining the superior race, it’s a justification to unequally distributing society’s most considerable resources such as wealth, power, and social standing. These concepts are ingrained in our minds, woven in our society, and eroding the very principles of a world in harmony. America today is nothing more than an amusement park named “Racism.” There is only one way in and no way out. We have multiple rides if you like thrills, some of the people’s favorites are slavery, immigration, Civil War, Jim Crow era, civil rights movement, discrimination, and stereotypes. If you get hungry, we have all different types of stuff to pick from, but some of the best are African-Americans, Native-Americans, Asian-Americans, and Hispanics. If you are thirsty, some of the crowd-pleasers are Jewish, Muslim, Italian, Irish, and back by popular demand is illegal immigrants. We hope you enjoy your stay, and I know we promised you a melting pot composed of a diverse background of ethnic groups that overtime evolves as one cultural group. However, in reality, once you walk through those gates, you are never getting out, and based on your racial category, you may be stuck riding the same roller coaster forever. Just like every roller coaster, there will be some ups and downs along the way, sometimes it might even try and break down mid-ride, but don’t you worry we will get it back up and running in no time. So, buckle up and enjoy the ride. America doesn’t have to end this way; our past doesn’t have to define us, as we never envisioned this type of social disparity. When we find the ability deep within our hearts to listen over being heard, learn to recognize weakness before power, we can start to respect and appreciate all individuals as equals. The road to unity is a path very few have successfully followed because it’s not through tolerance. Tolerance has no power to heal in our society today. Tolerance is leaving one another alone, living segregated through invisible barriers. It leads to the differences we believe today, that encourage our hated and racism. Nowhere in this concept of tolerance is there power to pull us away from racial categories. To live in a racial democracy, we have to erode the racial barriers that are woven into our society that give privileges and power to the dominant race and separate us from equality. If America wants to live in peace in a world without hate and racism, we have to remove the fear-based society we live for today and work towards a love-based society. We all are in search for love and acceptance, but our egos our misguiding us down a road of emptiness. Racial democracy can only be found through our self-love and acceptance, but its most significant characteristics would be seen through sharing and supporting one another. Instead of competition, society would be more focused on learning and individual growth to bring out the very best in every one of us. Trust and hope have been sacrificed at the expense of wealth and greed. To achieve a world of racial democracy without racial categories, you must learn to love yourself for who you are. Fear no longer can drive our wants and expectations on the basis that someone might not like us or because we did not live up to their assumptions. Racial democracy means we eradicate the preconceived notion of self-criticism and start believing in a higher power of self-love. The reward is ultimate freedom, independence, and yet part of a more significant community. As a society, we would find prevailing success by our inner peace and happiness, not from fear of rejection or loneliness. Racial categories are degrading our nation through the concept of self-fulfilling prophecy and should be eliminated from our way of thinking. When we falsely define a situation, we produce a form of behavior that makes the wrongly identified transition into reality. By saying blacks are not as brilliant as whites, we transition into a systematic way of thinking that believes the false accusations. Employers chose whites over blacks for highly ranked positions, teachers will focus less on supporting a black student in need and discourage him from taking further challenging classes, and white parents will not want their kids going to the same schools for fear they will teach downward. There is an old philosophical saying, “I am what I am because of what we all are.” It is a more in-depth understanding that we are all connected through higher consciousness, but as we grow up with separation and individuality, we forget our inner connection. Racial democracy is ideal for not only America but the world population and the greater good of humanity. Once you love yourself, this love cannot be contained. It will pour into society, filling those around you, and the benefits will be seen by how the world shines back on you. Jaylin didn’t choose to be black, nor did he what to be the victim of racism. My son saw no colors until he was eight years old. Now he has witnessed two boy’s happiness from another one’s pain. The fear of my son’s race and dominance being engrained in his mind will haunt me forever. Jaylin and my son don’t deserve to see one another as different; the idea of racial democracy is what America owes them. References Marger, M. N. (2012). RacePersonal Reflection on Race in America