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Eastern Kentucky University Function of the Respiratory & Digestive Systems Responses

Eastern Kentucky University Function of the Respiratory & Digestive Systems Responses.

I’m working on a biology question and need support to help me learn.

When studying the structure and function of cells it is important know know what is normal and what is abnormal in order for us to detect diseases or any other abnormalities that could be affecting our bodies. We are able to determine what is normal structure and functions of cells by looking at multiple cells and seeing the abnormalities of a cell and seeing how these abnormalities affect the functions of the person’s body. Once we see different abnormalities in cells we are able to further determine if other cells are normal or not because once we have detected the abnormalities in other cells we can check for these in normal cells. If detected, the cell may be abnormal. If no abnormalities are detected that were previously studied then the cell may be normal.undefinedAn example of a disease cause by abnormalities in cells is cystic fibrosis. Cystsic fibrosis is an inherited disease that causes complications to the respiratoey and digestive systems. This is due to the fact that the cells fail to install cholride pumps in the plasma membrane Due to this there is an inadequate saline layer on the cell surface that causes a thick mucus. This thihcik mucus clogs the ducts of the pancreas, affecting the difgestive system. It also clogs the cilia, congesting the resporitory tract and causing chronic infection and pulmonary collapse (pg. 86)undefinedSorces used:undefinedThe book:!%2F4%2F2%5Bdata-uuid-f1fc9f4b55d64e23a2f5f5b45b4b85d4%5D%2F2%5Bdata-uuid-65d45218be794d79a9e460efee8c8aab%5D%2F2%5Bdata-uuid-95c6822bec04424597e16020e2635c81%5D)…….To set up a successful experiment scientists have dependent variables; the variables being measured in an experiment. In recording data they often have a control group that is frequently compared and contrasted with the other experimental groups. This causes a “normal” starting or maximum point that allows scientists to figure out if the dependent variables cause any abnormalities. If scientists were to only study one group, the dependent variables or the control group, they would not know if there was anything abnormal or if the experimental variable was “normal.” The same concept applies to cells. If a scientist was to look at a cell underneath a microscope how would s/he know if the cell was acting normal physiologically or if it was acting abnormal if there was nothing to compare it to. When I think about a disease that applies to this concept my mind instantly goes to a disease that is undetectable or causes very little symptoms until it doesn’t. One of those diseases is a genetic disorder Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) which is a neurodegenerative disorder. However, it manifests other detrimental symptoms. One of those symptoms is the formation of acanthocytes; deformed red blood cells. Like sickle cell anemia these cells can cause clots and specific to this disease iron buildup. Both homozygous and heterozygous carriers who do not present with neurological symptoms both present with these red blood cells or other abnormal red blood cells. To tie back to what I said previously, if a scientist was to look at the blood cells of both a homozygous and a heterozygous individual they would both show abnormalities to the red blood cells. It would be almost impossible to distinguish normal vs abnormal cells if both neurologically typical and neurologically symptomatic patients RBC was observed under a microscope. Source:
Eastern Kentucky University Function of the Respiratory & Digestive Systems Responses

The Minnesota Alliance for Patient Safety Essay

Form selected Informed consent refers to the process of interaction between a patient and a surgeon before a surgery or an invasive procedure (MAPS, 2016). More than 30% of Americans do not understand general medical information. An Informed consent form helps patients to understand critical health information before surgeries or invasive procedures. Not only does it help patients, it is the right of every patient to be provided with information before any procedure. As such, the Minnesota Alliance for Patient Safety (MAPS) has developed an informed consent form to help improve patient understanding. The specified improvement is crucial since it allows making informed decisions and respecting patients’ right to accept or refuse the suggested care. Therefore, it is important that there should be understanding between a patient and a healthcare practitioner concerning the management of the relevant information. Comparing MAPS Form with Pogzar’s Text Pozgar’s (2016) text requires the practitioner to refer the patient to other specialists for specialist treatment in case complications arise during the main procedure. (Pozgar, 2016) This section of the text also requires the surgeon or doctor to explain the reason for the procedure, the expected outcome, and risk facing the patient undergoing the procedure. The Minnesota Alliance for Patient Safety (MAPS) informed consent form complies with these requirements as stated in Pogzar’s text. According to Pozgar’s (2016) description of the requirements for the informed consent, it is crucial to include the essential information about the disorder from which the patient suffers. The identified element is present in the MAPS consent form since it requires to fill in the information about the reasons for being admitted to the hospital. Furthermore, the form compels the patient to confirm that they have got themselves familiar with the details of the procedure and, therefore, accept it (Pozgar, 2016). However, the form does not allow indicating the details of the treatment, which seems to be a major omission. The form, however, includes the details such as the reason for the procedure, i.e., it sheds light on the purpose of the treatment in accordance with the template provided by Pozgar (2016). The statement concerning the patient’s awareness of the associated risks, as well as the alternative treatment methods, is included into the MAPS template, although it does not allow for a detailed description of the identified issues. The form also allows the patient to indicate whether they are aware of the prognosis of refusing from the treatment (Pozgar, 2016). Likewise, the form can be used to show that the patient is fully aware of the nature of the suggested intervention. The form requires providing not only the signature of the patient and the physician but also the witness and, if possible, the interpreter. The identified elements allow not only meeting the requirements and standards set by Pozgar (2016, p. 327), i.e., providing the patient’s signature and date, but also point to the fact that the process of verifying and confirming the necessary information is carried out according to the existing legal standards. The signatures of witnesses, therefore, make the consent form designed by MAPS a perfect example of receiving an informed consent from a patient before an invasive procedure or surgery (Pozgar, 2016). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the MAPS informed consent form can be viewed as an important tool for receiving confirmation from a patient regarding their agreement to undergo an invasive procedure or surgery. While some of the elements could use more elaboration, the current consent form is rather adequate. It could be suggested, though, that the opportunities for describing the procedures and treatments, as well as their alternatives, to patients could be provided (Pozgar, 2016). Thus, with minor adjustments, the selected form can be utilized to receive an informed consent from patients before carrying out invasive interventions or surgeries. References MAPS. (2016). Informed consent. Web. Pozgar, G. D. (2016). Pharmacy (12th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones

Effect of Currency Exchange Rate on Aggregate Demand Shocks

essay writer The exchange rate helps insulate the economy from aggregate demand shocks but it may need unsettlingly large changes to do so. This paper will examine the extent to which the exchange rate of a currency can be used to insulate an economy from aggregate demand shocks. First, it will define aggregate demand. Second, it will look at the monetary implications of the aggregate demand curve. Thirdly it will look define aggregate demand shocks and their effect on the aggregate demand curve. Fourthly, it will examine the ways in which the exchange rate can be used to reduce the impact of an aggregate demand shock. Finally, the question of whether using the exchange rate as a means of reducing the impact of an aggregate demand shock will be examined to determine whether it is a feasible strategy and whether the amounts required would be unsettling or not. Aggregate Demand (AD) refers to the total demand (d) in the economy (Y) for goods and services at a certain price level and at a certain time. AD in an economy is the sum of all consumption (C), investment (I), government spending (G) and net exports (NX), where NX is equal to total exports (X) minus total imports (M). This can be represented mathematically as: [1] Aggregate demand is represented by the AD curve, which will show the relationship between price levels and the quantity that producers are willing to provide at that price. The relationship between AD and price is normally negative, showing that the less people are willing to pay, the less firms will produce or, from the other point of view, the less firms charge, the more people will buy. Below is a simple AD ‘curve’: In the chart above, the AD ‘curve’ is represented by a negatively sloped line. If prices (P) are lower, demand (Y) is greater. This negative relationship between price and demand has a number of important monetary consequences. It is necessary to briefly examine these prior to examining the relationship between exchange rates and aggregate demand.[2] Firstly, price levels (P) have a direct relationship to the real value of money. This is because as price levels (P) decrease, the purchasing power of consumers increases, meaning that the real value of the money they hold increases. Likewise, if P increases, consumers get less for the same money, or the real value of their money has decreased. Therefore, P and the real value of money are inversely related to each other.[3] Secondly, decreases in P cause an increase in the real interest rate. Interest rates, the price a borrower pays to borrow, or the return a lender receives for lending, can be expressed as a nominal or real rate. The nominal rate is the amount that must be paid for borrowing, expressed solely in money terms. The real interest rate is the nominal rate adjusted to take account of inflation (p). Thus real interest rates are expressed by the following formula: Thus, the higher p, the lower the real interest rate. Therefore, any increase in inflation will generally lead to pressure on the nominal interest rate to increase, to offset the deduction that will result from inflation. However, as we have seen above, price level decreases add to the real value of money, this is the same as saying that they decrease inflation. A decrease in inflation will mean that real interest rates are now higher than they were before the decrease in inflation. Therefore, price level decreases raise real interest rates and cause pressure for interest rates to be reduced.[4] Thirdly, lower prices increase the international competitiveness of the economy, and this should be reflected in increased international demand for the economy’s exports, causing a rise in net exports and thus in the aggregate demand. Now we will look at aggregate demand shocks. A demand shock is an event that is sudden and unexpected, and has the effect of measurably affecting the demand for goods and services in the economy, either positively or negatively, for a temporary period of time.[5] That is to say, the event shifts the AD curve, either to the right or to the left. A positive demand shock increases demand and shifts the curve to the right, resulting in higher prices. A negative demand shock decreases demand, shifts the curve to the left, and thus leads to a decrease in prices. Any number of events could constitute a demand shock, from an unexpected tax cut that increases consumer spending, to a dip in consumer confidence that decreases consumer spending. Likewise, an economic boom in for example China could result in higher exports to China, increasing demand. The danger of an aggregate demand shock is that they are a cause of uncertainty in the economy. Uncertainty makes it difficult for firms, government and consumers to budget properly and make the most effective investment and saving decisions. Both positive and negative demand shocks can be harmful, however, negative shocks are generally more feared. A negative demand shock, such as a drop in consumer spending, will lead to price decreases and the 2008 global financial crisis has been traced to such a demand shock in the US, which led to a fall in house prices, causing problems in the US subprime mortgage sector that then extended to the rest of the financial sector and wider economy. However, positive demand shocks, such as China’s increased demand for raw materials to fuel its economic growth have led to price increases in a number of important commodities that have also caused economic difficulties around the globe. Therefore, the consensus is that demand shocks of either type are dangerous and any means of dampening them available to governments are desirable.[6] So could exchange rates be used to dampen a demand shock? A brief look at the relationship between monetary factors and the demand curve will demonstrate that exchange rates can be used to affect the demand curve. Therefore, in a positive demand shock, exchange rates could be used to decrease demand and in a negative demand shock, exchange rates could be used to increase demand. The relationship between two currencies may be nominal (e), or it may be real (RER). The real exchange rate takes into account variances in price levels in the two economies. P represents price in the domestic economy and P* the price in the foreign economy. [7] The exchange rate can be used to increase or decrease the price of goods in the economy relative to other economies. This will in turn impact on the international demand for a country’s products. This will impact on the net export figure (NX). A higher exchange rate will decrease international demand and thus will pressure a demand curve towards the left. This could be used to temper a positive demand shock that had increased demand for goods and pressured the curve towards the right. Likewise, a lower exchange rate will increase international demand, increasing exports and shifting the demand curve to the left. This could be used in the event of a negative demand shock to reduce the impact of the shock.[8] Basically, if any sector of demand changes rapidly, the government can seek to push exports in the opposite direction by making them more or less expensive. It is a simple idea and manipulating exports may be more desirable than manipulating other elements of demand, such as government spending, and may be easier to manipulate than, for example, consumer spending. Finally, the question must be asked, is the approach feasible? A central bank can quite easily impact on exchange rates by trading in its own currency. Buying will increase the exchange rate and selling will decrease the exchange rate. However, in order to move a currency value significantly, a central bank would be required to buy or sell a ‘significant’ amount of a currency. So what constitutes a ‘significant amount’ in the foreign exchange market? The global currency market is the largest and most liquid asset class in the world. The accepted size of this market in 2007 was generally put at about two trillion dollars a day. That would make it ten to fifteen times the size of the bond market and fifty times the size of the equities market. That means on a normal trading day, two trillion dollars passes hands. It would take an enormous amount of selling or buying by a central bank to make a dent in this market. A central bank that stepped in to buy or sell a couple of billion dollars worth of their currency would barely be noticed on the market, especially for the major currencies. And the question arises, how would a government fund such an intervention? It is also estimated that about 85 to 90 percent of the forex market is made up of speculators, meaning that attempts to manipulate exchange rates would be vulnerable to massive speculator bets which would have the power to undo any effect a government had on price movements.[9] Also, given the side effects of exchange rate changes, such as the relationship of the exchange rate to inflation, it is likely that the cost of moving the exchange rate, just to get the indirect benefit of altering net exports, would outweigh the benefit.[10] Therefore, it is concluded here that while exchange rates could be manipulated to insulate the economy from aggregate demand shocks, it amount of intervention required would be too large to justify the measure. Bibliography Dutt

The Nhs Quality Standards Health And Social Care Essay

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp The Quality Standards for Health and Social Care set out the standards that people can expect from Health and Personal Social Services (HPSS). In developing these standards, this report aim’s to discuss the quality of services and to improve the health and social wellbeing of the people of UK. (Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety, March 2006). At the heart of these standards are key service user and carer values including dignity, respect, independence, rights, choice and safety. The recent NHS Next Stage Review (England, 2008) outlined a number of initiatives designed to improve the measurement and monitoring of quality within the NHS. In the other UK countries, despite a reduced focus on market mechanisms to incentivise quality, data which helps others understand the patient experience and the quality of care delivered by the multidisciplinary team still remains an important theme. (RCN position statement, Publication no: 003 535, 2010). The measurement and communication of health and social care quality therefore requires assessment of key and consensual variables that reflect the breadth and complexity of health care. Engaging with multiple stakeholders to identify core elements of health and social care quality is essential to this process (See Figure 1) (Soane DM and Silber JH 2003). Figure-1 Health Care Environment Setting System Regulation. What is Quality? The quality of technical care consists in the application of medical science and technology in a way that maximizes its benefits to health without correspondingly increasing its risks. The degree of quality is, therefore, the extent to which the care provided is expected to achieve the most favourable balance of risks and benefits (Avedis Donabedian, M.D., 1980). As matter of fact, one cannot assure of guarantee quality only increase the probability that care ‘good, or ‘better’ because quality can’t be guaranteed, many my-self included have criticized the term assurance. (A.Donabedian

Grossmont College Mod 3 Dietary Practices of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Discussion

Grossmont College Mod 3 Dietary Practices of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Discussion.

I’m working on a english question and need guidance to help me study.

Watch two (2) other students’ Final Videos (you can and should watch more, but you are only using TWO for this assignment). First Student Video… Second Studnet Video Analyze these students’ ethos in their videos. Watch the videos and try to identify places in these talks where the students establish credibility with their audience. Ethos pertains to the ethical argument, so when we say “credibility” we mean that the audience sees or hears the speaker say or do something that seems ethical, and encourages us to trust him or her. The “ethical” part of this appeal pertains quite specifically to a sense of goodwill or moral character, an encouraging tone — ethos is often called the character argument. What this means is you are not only looking for “good research” or “knowledge” as a means to think the speaker has ethos or credibility. Instead, look for the values that he or she conveys, the tone that clarifies that the speaker cares about something important, shows a moral character, a sense of goodwill, etc. In a 3 page paper, in MLA format, including a very short introduction paragraph, analyze these two students’ ethical arguments that help to make their Presentation Videos successful. If you identify some flaws in their ethos, you can clarify that, as well. If you have quotes from the videos, that’s great, but you can also simply refer to specific examples from their speeches that establish ethos (or undermine ethos). Again, how does one establish credibility with an audience? Here is the insight you need: rather than talking just about research, which actually overlaps with logos, you need to address the elements of the speaker’s character argument, which is really what ethos is all about. This amounts to his or her passion, his or her interest in this important topic (which he/she has made interesting), which speaks to the speaker’s values. I explained this above. I really want you to explore that part of your peers’ Lecture or Ted Talk in this 3-page paper. For you to receive full points on this rhetorical analysis, you need to develop your understanding of ethos. This is an important insight. Your developed understanding of ethos will also play into Module 4, help you better execute that analysis: so this paper is a head-start on our final Module. Can you mention logos or pathos in this paper? Sure, but make sure you connect this to the speaker’s ethos. For example, if the student does have a really well-researched speech, you can explain how this depth of understanding or knowledge adds to their passion to investigate and add clarity to some of the confusion, or the research illustrates the speaker’s advocacy, which translates to concern/passion/reinforced values. Again, you have to touch on the ethical, or moral character development in their speech. With pathos, if you sense that the speaker touches on an emotional subject, this very well might be pathos as this makes the audience emotional and more receptive to the argument. But you can say that this ability to touch the reader emotionally also connects to the speaker’s values, how he or she probably feels the same way, thus illustrating his or her values ( = character). Pathos = audience’s emotion and Ethos = speaker’s or author’s emotions. But you can see how these relate. I hope that helps. Please note in this sample attached below the writer’s focus on the character arguments of her peers’ speeches, how she identifies these speakers’ use of values and tone. Even though she does discuss much of their research, statistics, etc., note what she says about this evidence, how this is used to build trust with the audience, and evidence the speakers’ concern for these issues and these people. This sample shows you what I mean by “focus on ethos, the deeper and more interesting discussion of the ethical arguments.”
Grossmont College Mod 3 Dietary Practices of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Discussion