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Earth Sciences homework help

Earth Sciences homework help. You have just been hired by Yummy Juicy, a national corporation that sells organic juices at most major retail stores. You have been hired as the West Coast Distribution Manager. After about five weeks on the job, you get the following email:,You have just been hired by Yummy Juicy, a national corporation,Human Relations Week 6:,Discussion Description:,You have just been hired by Yummy Juicy, a national corporation that sells organic juices at most major retail stores. You have been hired as the West Coast Distribution Manager. After about five weeks on the job, you get the following email:,Sir/Madam,,You are hurting this company. You have continued to try to force all of us to change our ways and follow procedures that are no good. I am not sure why you got the job. You trained us on the new procedures, which wasted hours of our time. Don’t bother to reply to this email, I know nothing will change.,R/,Bob (disgruntled employee),There are FOUR parts to this week’s Discussion assignment:,PART I: Complete the following:,Develop an email response using the three-step process for being assertive (without being aggressive—aim for a WIN-WIN resolution). Bob is one of your first-line supervisors and has been with the company for 20 years. Mary, another supervisor, tells you that Bob is just trying to bully you and that most other supervisors love the new processes. (I realize many of you would call Bob into your office; but for this assignment, you must generate an email response). Lastly, post your email response to Bob in your Discussion.,PART II: Answer each of the following questions:,1. Do you find it difficult to be ,assertive, in your own life (personal and professional)? Why or why not?,2. What are the risks of being assertive with Bob? Make sure you utilize common course terminology when explaining the risks.,PART III:,Mary comes to you later in the day and says: “Boss, Bob is trying to negotiate with you. He has a target in mind, and is not flexible; so his limit is not much different than his target.” Explain what Mary is talking about. After reading the e-textbook, explain in your own words, the concepts of targets and limits during negotiations.,PART IV: Then respond to at least two other students in the following manner:,1. First Reply to a Peer: Explain what specifically won’t work in a fellow student’s email to Bob? Make a recommendation on how to re-word or use a different approach.,2. Second Reply to a Different Peer: Become Bob–negotiate with the “boss” (a different student than received your first reply), and make him/her see your point of view. Utilize course material in your reply. Reply should be formatted as an email (but don’t actually send an email).,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Earth Sciences homework help
Rutherford B. Hayes On October 04, 1822 Rutherford Birchard Hayes was born in Ohio. His father, Rutherford Hayes was a storekeeper who died just two months before the birth of his son. His mother, Sophia Birchard was left to raise him and and his siblings alone, but she gained the help of her sister as well as some other relatives. Rutherford had two older siblings, Lorenzo and Franny. His brother died when he was only two years old, so he did not get to know him too well. Birchard’s brother, Sardis became a father figure in their lives because he helped take care of them the majority of the time. Him and his sister became very close as kids because they were really the only ones each other had. Their mother did not allow them to participate in sport and other activities. As he got older, he attended school and was cut out to be a very smart man. In his younger years, Hayes attended Methodist Norwalk Seminary in Norwalk, Ohio. Then he went on to a preparatory school in Middletown, Connecticut. He then furthered his studies to Kenyon College where he graduated as the valedictorian. After graduating Kenyon College, he decided he wanted to pursue law so he went to Harvard Law School.Rutherford was the first president to receive a graduate degree. He successfully graduated and completed the bar in 1845. Furthermore, Hayes began his career as a lawyer and opened his own practice in Cincinnati, Ohio. Most of his cases repeatedly had to do with defending the slaves who escaped Kentucky and came across the border to Ohio. When moving to Cincinnati, his opposition of slavery attracted him strongly to the republican party. While living there, he met Lucy, the girl who soon became his wife when they married in 1852. She was his first lady during his presidency and she was the first first lady to graduate from college. Before Hayes became president, he fought for the Union in the Civil War. During the war, he served as the major for the Twenty- Third Ohio Volunteer Infantry. He was wounded four times, but he fought until it was over. He came out with a wounded knee in Pearisburg, a gunshot in his left arm, shot in the ankle and hit by a spent musket ball. Out of the seven presidents who served, he was the only one who was wounded. After the war ended, he served in the House from 1865 to 1967. In 1967, Hayes was elected as governor until 1872. Hayes’ election was said to be one of the most malicious in history. Hayes was not well known in the Republican Party, but he was the compromise candidate in 1876. Tilden, his opponent won the popular vote, but a large number of the ballots on the electoral vote were decided to be invalid. This came out in Hayes’ favor and he won the presidential election. Tilden did not challenge this because of the fact Rutherford agreed to the Compromise of 1877 which ended military occupation in the South. It also had to do with giving Democrats a position within the government. Hayes began his presidency in 1877, alongside his vice president William Wheeler. He was 54 at the time of his inauguration and he fully represented the Republican Party. Although he started his presidency while the United States was in danger of fraud, his main goal was to protect the rights of people of all races and to improve parts of the government. He spent a large portion of his time protecting the black people of the south, but there were many roadblocks in his work because the Democratic majority congress denied his actions. Hayes realized that papers would get these discussions and promote his perspectives. He likewise composed his vetoes more for the general population than for Congress, and by doing as such conquered the Democrats in the Skirmish of the Riders. Hayes was unmistakably more cunning than the Conklings and Blaines, who turned on him when he declined to select their lieutenants to his bureau and would not give them a chance to command his organization. Throughout the national railroad strikes of 1877, Hayes, in line with state governors, dispatched government troops to stifle revolting. His organization was under nonstop weight from the South and West to continue silver coinage, prohibited in 1873. Many considered this proposition inflationary, and Hayes agreed with the Eastern, hard-cash premiums. Congress, in any case, superseded his veto of the Tasteless Allison Act of 1878, which accommodated government buy of silver bullion and rebuilding of the silver dollar as legitimate delicate. In 1879 Hayes marked a demonstration allowing ladies attorneys to rehearse under the steady gaze of the Preeminent Court. While he served as president, he got rid of alcohol in the White House. He put into effect a ban on beer, wine and other liquor. It was mainly to maintain the dignity of office while he was president. There were some exceptions to this rule like when Czar Alexander II of Russia’s son visited the White House. They served alcohol, but Hayes and his wife did not drink. In 1879, the legislation of allowing women to argue in front of the supreme court was signed by Rutherford B. Hayes. During the time he was president, there were many firsts. For example, Hayes was the first president to be elected by congressional commission. He took his oath privately in the Red Room, two days before he took the oath publicly. He was the first president to have a telephone and a typewriter as well as starting the tradition of an Easter egg roll that happens on the White House lawn. It took place for the first time in 1878, and it is still continued to this day on the monday after Easter Sunday. As his term was coming to an end, Hayes was happy he was leaving the White House “strong, confident, and victorious.” Hayes rejected renomination by the Republican Party in 1880, concluding his single term as president. He confronted many issues in a successful matter. Hayes ended his presidency on a high note. Hayes kept on giving his time helping veterans to get their benefits, enhancing conditions in jails, and advancing all inclusive training. He passed on at Spiegel Woods on January 17, 1893, at seventy years old. https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/rutherford-b-hayes-4107.php https://www.biography.com/people/rutherford-b-hayes-9332440 https://www.ducksters.com/biography/uspresidents/rutherfordbhayes.php https://www.thoughtco.com/things-to-know-about-rutherford-hayes-4102358 http://mentalfloss.com/article/69848/7-presidential-facts-about-rutherford-b-hayes https://study.com/academy/lesson/rutherford-b-hayes-birthplace-early-life-education.html

Criminology Coursework Experiences and Skills Term Paper

Table of Contents Introduction Crime causation Reasons for committing crimes Criminological theories Conclusion Works Cited Introduction What makes an individual commit a crime? How best can one understand crime happening in society? Well, the study of criminology enables an individual to evaluate and, in the process, understand the criminal activities while putting into consideration the process of committing those crimes and how to control them within the constraints of the society. Moreover, the study of criminology helps one understand the ways to react to these crimes. Crime causation Having completed the majority of my course work in criminology, my perspective on crime causation has evolved greatly. Prior to the completion of my course, I based my arguments and understanding of the early theories drafted by the ancient criminologists, who maintained that there are people who were born criminals while others were not. Currently, I believe that those ancient beliefs are incorrect and baseless. Furthermore, I have been enlightened in the fact that individuals are not born criminals; thus, one cannot judge a criminal by merely looking at them. Most importantly, the criminologists of today have produced more advanced and detailed theories depicting why people commit crimes. It is evident that presently, there are different types of criminals who indulge in diverse criminal activities; as a result, it is impossible to describe them under one theory. Hence, they are explained under the multiple theories that have been formulated. Theories such as classical, positivist, individual trait, social disorganization, and many more permit the criminal justice system to classify criminals accordingly. When formulating these theories, I have noticed that the criminologists had the intention of bringing out a better understanding of why certain crimes happen and modes of preventing them. As a matter of fact, my course work has positively and intellectually changed my perspective on crime causation (Kroneberg, Heintze,

EE 453 Penn State University IQ Demodulation and Barker Sequence Coding

term paper help EE 453 Penn State University IQ Demodulation and Barker Sequence Coding.

EE 453: Homework 2 (MATLAB)Due in PDF on Canvas: 5 March 2021Include ALL MATLAB code and plots1IQ Demodulation and Barker Sequence(15 pts)As seen in previous assignments, analytic signals do not have negative frequency components. Therefore allthe energy in the signal is concentrated over a certain bandwidth in the positive frequency range. From amodulation point of view, this makes upconverting a signal with a carrier wave for transmission, and thefollowing downconverting for reception particularly simple. As a reminder, the Hilbert transform of cosineisH{cos(ωt)}= sin(ωt), and an analytic version of a real signalx(t) can be writtena(t) =x(t) +jH{x(t)}.Therefore when transmitting a signal, the complex waveforma(t) =x(t)ejωtis sent.1. Suppose that the transmit signalx(t) is a chirp signal, which increases frequency quadratically from 0 to20 kHz. Suppose this is upconverted to a carrier frequency of 3.5 MHz. What is the largestsamplingperiodfor accurate reconstruction of this signal?2. Now we will perform IQ demodulation. The basic principle is to take the received signala(t), and identifythe real componentI= LPF{a(t) cos(ωct)}and the imaginary componentQ= LPF{a(t) sin(ωct)}.Recall that the I and Q signals have been converted to baseband. For this problem use the data inIQdemodulation.mat(a) Based on the time vectort, what is the highest frequencyrealvalued signal which can be representedby this signal? (Reminder:t(2)−t(1) will give the sample periodTs)(b) If we again consider an ionospheric measurement application, using a speed of light of 3e8 [m/s],what is the smallest height difference we can detect using this receiver?(c) If the carrier frequency is 3.5 MHz, what center frequencyωc(in terms ofπ) should be used forthe local oscillator, which will downconvert theanalyticsignal? What frequency (in Hz) shouldbe used for the lowpass filter during the IQ demodulation for thisanalyticsignal?(d) Calculate and plot the real part of theIandQcomponents of the signal RXChirp inIQde-modulation.mat(You may use the MATLAB functionlowpassto perform the necessary lowpassfiltering)(e) Form the demodulated signal ˆx(t) =Re{I(t)}+jRe{Q(t)}, and perform matched filtering withthe signal TXchirp inIQdemodulation.mat. Plot the response of the matched filter. Based onthe time-shift, what is the measured height of the ionosphere? (The actual height was 160 km).3. The Barker sequence is one of the most popular digital communication schemes, which nevertheless canstill be used in analog applications such as ionospheric height measurement. The basic idea would bethat instead of the signala(t) being the chirp signal, instead we senda(t) = analytic{b(t) cos(Ωct)}, thebinary signalb(t) modulated on the carrier wave cos(Ωct). The Barker sequence is carefully selected forits auto-correlation properties, which means when it is used with a matched filter it has a known shape.Page 2This shape has a well-defined peak, and the secondary peaks (known as side lobe levels) have a knownheight that is much smaller than the peak. These characteristics improve the accuracy of measurementsusing matched filters. There are actually seven known Barker codes, of length 2,3,4,5,7,11 and 13. Forthis problem we will be using the length 13 signal, which as a binary signal is:b[n] = [1,1,1,1,1,−1,−1,1,1,−1,1,−1,1]Assume the same carrier wave (3.5 MHz) was used to modulate the signal, and apply the same lowpassfilter which was used for the chirp signal.(a) Calculate and plot the real part of theIandQcomponents of the signal RXBarker inIQdemod-ulation.mat(You may find the MATLAB functionlowpasshelpful).(b) Form the demodulated signal ˆx(t) =R{I(t)}+jR{Q(t)}, and perform matched filtering with thesignal TXBarker inIQdemodulation.mat. Plot the response of the matched filter. Based on thetime-shift, what is the measured height of the ionosphere (The actual height was 160 km).Page 3Square-Law Detector (10 pts)Amplitude modulation (AM) is one way of encoding information onto a carrier wave. Assume youhave a messagem(t), the information you are trying to communicate. Then the AM signal will bes(t) = [1 +m(t)] cos(Ωct) for some carrier frequency Ωc. One benefit of this modulation scheme is thatit is particularly easy to demodulate the signal and recover the informationm(t) using a square-lawdetector.4. For this question, we will use a sampling rateFs= 16 kHz, a total length of 1 second, and a carrierfrequency offc= 3 kHz.(a) First we will need a messagem(t). A gaussian function is a particularly nice function to use, sinceF{exp(−t22σ2)}=√2πσ2exp(−2π2σ2ω2)Use a standard deviationσ= 0.1•Plot the message signalm(t)•Plot the Fourier transform of the signalM(ω)(b) Now we will form the transmitted signals(t) = [1 +m(t)] cos(Ωct).•Plot the transmitted signals(t)•Plot the Fourier transform of the signalS(ω)(c) Finally we get to the demodulation part. If we square the transmitted signal, we get:s2(t) = [1 +m(t)]2cos2(ωct)= 0.5[1 +m(t)]2+ 0.5[1 +m(t)] cos(2ωct)Therefore we can recover ourdemodulatedsignal by performing the following steps:•Square the transmitted signalr(t) =s2(t)•Apply a lowpass filter atωc(using MATLABlowpassfilter)•Take the square root of two times the signal, and subtract 1, so that ˆm(t) =√2r(t)−1•Plot the demodulated signal ˆm(t)•Plot the Fourier transform of the demodulated signalˆM(ω)Page 4Sample Reconstruction (15 pts)From the theory of sampling, we know that if we have a sampled signalxs(t), then the ideal interpolationwill be the sinc interpolator, and the corresponding continuous expression given by:xr(t) =xs(t)?sinc(Ωct)or incorporating the sampling period and explicitly writing out the convolution we have:xr(t) =∞∑m=−∞x(mTs)sin(Ωc(t−mTs))π(t−mTs)5. Now for an actual signal, we cannot actually perform an infinite sum. This expression will explore whathappens when we cut the sum off at a certain interval.(a) Plot the discrete signalx[n] =nαnforα= 0.9 andn= 0,…,63(b) Now we assume we want to know the signal at 512 points, still lying between 0 and 63. Performthesinc interpolationusing the formula:ˆx[m] =63∑n=0x[n]sinc(n−m)So here,m∈(0,63) and length(m) = 512.•Plot the resulting signal ˆx[m]•Find the norm of the error between ˆx[m] and the true valuet[m] =mαm,||ˆx[m]−t[m]||(TheMATAB functionnormwill be helpful)(c) Let us compare this result to linear interpolation. Use linear interpolation to find the sequencey[m](The MATLAB functioninterp1will be helpful)•Plot the resulting signaly[m]•Find the norm of the error||y[m]−t[m]||(d) Lastly let us compare the previous two interpolation methods to spline interpolation. Splines usepiecewise polynomials which aim to provide fairly smooth (Common cubic splines offering thirdorder smoothness) approximations to the signal. Use spline interpolation to find the sequencez[m](The MATLAB functioninterp1will be helpful)•Plot the resulting signalz[m]•Find the norm of the error||z[m]−t[m]|
EE 453 Penn State University IQ Demodulation and Barker Sequence Coding

Romantics literature Tutorial 6

Romantics literature Tutorial 6. Paper details   read Keats’s ‘Eve of St Agnes’ – if possible, also ‘Lamia’ and ‘La Belle Dame’; 1. Look at the different interpretation that I will upload and evaluate ‘Notes on Different Interpretations’ 2. Put these interpretations in order, from the one you value most, to the one you value least. What is your rankings and rationale?Romantics literature Tutorial 6

Posting Journal Entries To Ledger Accounts Accounting Essay

Posting Journal Entries To Ledger Accounts Accounting Essay. Analysing the transactions and recording them as journal entries is the first step in all the accounting cycle. It is begins at the starting of an accounting period , continues during the whole period. Some common data included in journal entries such as : Journal entry number; batch number; type amount of money; accounting period; and description; name, auto-reversing; date Journal entries are enter in chronological order and debits are enter before credits Transaction analysis is a process whereby its determine for a particular business event has an economic effect on the Assets, Liabilities or Equity of the business. It involves ascertaining the magnitude of the transaction , its base on the currency value. Once after analysis the transactions, accountants classify and to record the events have economic effect via journal entries according to Debit-Credit rules. Frequently journal entries are usually record in specialized journals, for Example like sales journal and purchases journal. Journal entries are assigned for specific accounts by using a Chart of Accounts, and also the journal entry is then recorded in a ledger account Posting Journal Entries to Ledger Accounts For The second step of accounting cycle is post to the journal entries to the ledger accounts. Definition: Ledger are contains summarized of the financial information that classified by assignment to a specific account number where by using a Chart of Accounts. Ledger is a permanent book of record, It contains all accounts relating to the financial transactions of a business. Therefore, it also called as the book of accounts. The journal entries are recorded during the first step provide those information about where accounts are to be debited and where to be credited and also the magnitude of the debit or credit (Refer to the debit-credit-rules). For A ledger account is a statement shaped like an English alphabet ‘T’ that systematically contains all the financial transactions relating to either a thing for a certain period of time . The debit and credit values of journal entries are transferred to ledger accounts one by one in such a way that debit amount of a journal entry is transferred to the debit side of the relevant ledger account and the credit amount is transferred to the credit side of the relevant ledger account. After posting all the journal entries, the balance of each account is calculated. The balance of an asset, expense, contra-liability and contra-equity account is calculated by subtracting the sum of its credit side from the sum of its debit side. The balance of a liability, equity and contra-asset account is calculated the opposite way i.e. by subtracting the sum of its debit side from the sum of its credit side. Unadjusted Trial Balance An unadjusted trial balance is the one which is created before any adjustments are made in the ledger accounts A trial balance is a list of the balances of ledger accounts of a business at a specific point of time usually at the end of a period such as month, quarter or year. An unadjusted trial balance is the one which is created before any adjustments are made in the ledger accounts. The unadjusted trial balance is the listing of general ledger account balances at the end of a reporting period, before any adjusting entries are made to the balances to arrive at financial statements. You use the unadjusted trial balance as the starting point for analyzing account balances and making adjusting entries The preparation of a trial balance is very simple. All we have to do is to list down the balances of the ledger accounts of a business Unadjusted Trial Balance In accounting, a record of the assets and liabilities of a company made during an accounting period before any mistakes are corrected or any other adjustments (such as unearned revenue or prepaid expenses) are calculated Adjusting Entries In accounting/accountancy, adjusting entries are journal entries usually made at the end of an accounting period to allocate income and expenditure to the period in which they actually occurred Adjusting entries are journal entries recorded at the end of an accounting period to adjust income and expense accounts so that they comply with the accrual concept of accounting. Their main purpose is to match incomes and expenses to appropriate accounting periods. The transactions which are recorded using adjusting entries are not spontaneous but are spread over a period of time. Not all journal entries recorded at the end of an accounting period are adjusting entries. For example, an entry to record a purchase on the last day of a period is not consider as an adjusting entry. An adjusting entry always involves either income or expense account Each adjusting entry usually affects one income statement account (a revenue or expense account) and one balance sheet account (an asset or liability account). For example, suppose a company has a $100 debit balance in its supplies account at the end of a month, but a count of supplies on hand finds only $30 of them remaining. Since supplies worth $70 have been used up, the supplies account requires a $70 adjustment so assets are not overstated, and the supplies expense account requires a $70 adjustment so expenses are not understated Adjustments fall into one of five categories: accrued revenues, accrued expenses, unearned revenues, prepaid expenses, and depreciation These are following types of adjusting entries: â- Non-cash: These adjusting entries record non-cash items such as allowance for doubtful debts or depreciation expenses â- Accruals: These include revenues not yet received nor recorded and expenses not yet paid nor recorded. Accrued revenues are revenues that have been recognized (that is, services have been performed or goods have been delivered), but their cash payment have not yet been recorded or received. When the revenue is recognized, it is recorded as a receivable. Accrued expenses have not yet been paid for, so they are recorded in a payable account. Expenses for interest, taxes, rent, and salaries are commonly accrued for reporting purposes For example, on loan accrued or interest expense in the current period but not yet paid. â- Prepayments: Adjusting entries for prepayments are necessary to account for cash that has been received prior to delivery of goods or completion of services. When this cash is paid, it is first recorded in a prepaid expense asset account; the account is to be expensed either with the passage of time (e.g. rent, insurance) or through use and consumption These are expenses paid in advance and recorded as assets, to be recorded as expense. And revenues received in advance and recorded as liabilities, to be recorded as revenue . For example, adjustments to unearned revenue, prepaid rent , prepaid telephone bill prepaid insurance, office supplies and so on ., Adjusting entries are journal entries recorded at the end of an accounting period to adjust income and expense accounts so that they comply with the accrual concept of accounting. Their main purpose is to match incomes and expenses to appropriate accounting periods. The transactions which are recorded using adjusting entries are not spontaneous but are spread over a period of time. Not all journal entries recorded at the end of an accounting period are adjusting entries. For example, an entry to record a purchase on the last day of a period is not an adjusting entry. An adjusting entry always involves either income or expense account. Adjusted Trial Balance An adjusted trial balance is a listing of all the account titles and balances contained in the general ledger after the adjusting entries for an accounting period have been posted to the accounts. Adjusted trial balance can be used directly in the preparation of the statement of changes in stockholders’ equity, income statement and the balance sheet. However it does not provide enough information for the preparation of the statement of cash flows. An Adjusted Trial Balance is a list of the balances of ledger accounts which is to be created after the preparation of adjusting entries. Adjusted trial balance contains balances of revenues and expenses along with those of assets, liabilities and equities The format of an adjusted trial balance is same as that of unadjusted trial balance. The adjusted trial balance is an internal document and is not a financial statement. The purpose of the adjusted trial balance is to be certain that the total amount of debit balances in the general ledger equals the total amount of credit balances Financial Statements A set of financial statements is a structured representation of the financial performance and financial position of a business and how its financial position changed over time. A financial statement (or financial report) is a formal record of the financial activities of a business, person, or other entity It is the ultimate output of an accounting information system and has following 5 components: 1.Income Statement 2.Balance Sheet 3.Statement of Cash Flows 4.Statement of Changes in Equity 5.Notes and Other Disclosures Financial statements are better understood in context of all other components of the financial statements. For example a balance sheet will communicate more information if we have the related income statement and the statement of cash flows too. The income statement can be prepared in one of two methods.The Single Step income statement takes a simpler approach, total revenues and subtracting expenses to find the bottom line. The more Multi-Step income statement (as the name implies) takes several steps to find the bottom line, starting with the gross profit. It calculates operating expenses and, when deducted from the gross profit, yields income from operations. Adding to income from operations is the difference of other revenues and other expenses. When combined with income from operations, this yields income before taxes. The final step is to deduct taxes, which finally produces the net income for the period measured In financial accounting, a balance sheet or statement of financial position is a summary of the financial balances of a sole proprietorship, a business partnership, or a corporation . Assets, liabilities and ownership equity are listed as of a specific date, such as the end of its financial year Income Statement — revenue statement, statement of financial performance, earnings statement, operating statement, or statement of operations) is one of the financial statements of a company and shows the company’s revenues and expenses during a particular period Balance sheet Balance sheet lists current assets such as cash in checking accounts and savings accounts, long-term assets such as common stock and real estate, current liabilities such as loan debt and mortgage debt due, or overdue, long-term liabilities such as mortgage and other loan debt. Securities and real estate values are listed at market value rather than at historical cost or cost basis. Personal net worth is the difference between an individual’s total assets and total liabilities Annual Financial Statements Financial statements prepared for a period of one year are called annual financial statements and are required to be audited by an auditor (a chartered accountant or a certified public accountant). Annual financial statements are normally published in an annual report which also includes a directors’ report (also called management discussion and analysis) and an overview of the company, its operations and past performance. Income statement communicates the company’s financial performance over the period while a balance sheet communicates the company’s financial position at a point of time. The statement of cash flows and the statement of changes in equity tells us about how the financial position changed over the period. Disclosure notes to financial statements cover such material information which is not appropriate to be communicated on the face of the main financial statements. Closing Entries Closing entries are journal entries made at the end of an accounting period to transfer temporary accounts to permanent accounts. An “income summary” account may be used to show the balance between revenue and expenses, or they could be directly closed against retained earnings where dividend payments will be deducted from. This process is used to reset the balance of these temporary accounts to zero for the next accounting period Closing entries are journal entries made at the end of an accounting period which transfer the balances of temporary accounts to permanent accounts. Closing entries are based on the account balances in an adjusted trial balance. Definition of ‘Closing Entry’ A journal entry made at the end of the accounting period. The closing entry is used to transfer data in the temporary accounts to the permanent balance sheet or income statement accounts. The purpose of the closing entry is to bring the temporary journal account balances to zero for the next accounting period, which aids in keeping the accounts reconciled Temporary accounts include: 1.Revenue, Income and Gain Accounts 2.Expense and Loss Accounts 3.Dividend, Drawings or Withdrawals Accounts 4.Income Summary Account Investopedia explains ‘Closing Entry’ As with all other journal entries, the closing entries are posted in the general ledger. After all closing entries have been finished, only the permanent balance sheet and income statement accounts will have balances that are not zeroed. For example, revenue, dividend, or expense accounts are temporary accounts that need to be zeroed off and the balance transfered to permanent accounts. The sequence of the closing process and the associated closing entries is: 1. Close revenue accounts to income summary, by debiting revenue and crediting income summary. 2. Close expense accounts to income summary, by debiting income summary and crediting expense. 3. Close income summary to retained earnings, by debiting income summary and crediting retained earnings. 4. Close dividends to retained earnings, by debiting retained earnings and crediting dividends. Income summary account consider is a temporary account which facilitates the closing process. The permanent account to which balances are transferred depend upon the type of business. In case of a company, retained earnings account, and in case of a firm or a sole proprietorship, owner’s capital account receives the balances of temporary accounts. Posting Journal Entries To Ledger Accounts Accounting Essay