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Earth Sciences homework help

Earth Sciences homework help. This is a paper that is focusing on Identify the process for decision making regarding technology. The paper also provides additional guidelines to follow in writing the assignment paper clearly.,Identify the process for decision making regarding technology,TOPIC: Identify the process for decision making regarding technology. Also, discuss nursing role in identifying appropriate technology for practice.,Your paper should include the following:,1. Firstly, one technology application used in health care to facilitate decision making., 2. Secondly, the application’s impact on quality of decision making., 3. Thirdly, the process for selecting and implementing the application., 4. Fourthly, the costs associated with the application., 5. Lastly, nurses’ role(s) in selecting and evaluating the application.,Submission Instructions:,The paper should have less than 10% of plagiarism in Turnitin,Firstly, the paper is to be clear and concise and students will lose points for improper grammar, punctuation and misspelling.,Secondly, the paper should be formatted per current APA (7th EDITION) and 4-5 pages in length, excluding the title, abstract and references page.,Thirdly, incorporate a minimum of 5 current (published within last five years) scholarly journal articles or primary legal sources (statutes, court opinions) within your work.,Required Textbook Readings,Read the Module 7: Lecture Materials & Resources early in the week to help you respond to the discussion questions and also to complete your assignment(s).,·       Nelson, R., & Staggers, N. (2014). Health informatics: An interprofessional approach. St. Louis, MO: Mosby. ISBN: 9780323402316,Chapters 31,Online Materials & Resources,o          Sensmeier, J. (2013). Technology’s future now. Nursing Management, 441(12), 6.,o        Additionally, Haux, R. (2011). Medical informatics: Past, present, future. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 79(9), 599-610.,·        Explore/View the website(s) below:,o   WISER. (2019). Is Simulation the Future of Nursing Education?. Retrieved from ,, (Links to an external site.),o       Lastly, HIMSS (2014, May 29). How has the field of nursing informatics changed? – with Ruth Slater [Video file]. Retrieved from How has the field of nursing informatics changed? – with Ruth Slater,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Earth Sciences homework help
CRJS 390 AIU Stress and Crisis Management Report.

You are the Commander of the Patrol Division of a medium-sized metropolitan city. You have 33 patrols out on the 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. shift. It is by far the busiest shift for drunk driving, burglaries, domestic calls, and ATM robberies. The esprit de corps is very high. Lately, you have notice that one of the busiest sector units is dropping off in productivity. You ask around and find out that the partners in that car are a veteran officer, a married man, and a single young female rookie.The rumor among the rest of the unit is that they are more than just professional partners. Last week, the chief called you into his office and asked about the drop in activity for the club sector of the city, where the patrol unit of concern is working. He got you to admit that there may be an unconfirmed problem. The chief told you that he wanted to know the complete situation and that you were to formulate a plan for dealing with the male/female patrol situation and then to come up with ideas to keep this pattern from emerging again in the future. The department currently has no policies about off-duty relationships of partners.In a report to the chief of police, you will cite the findings of your investigation of the patrol partners concerned. You will provide at least 2 remedies for the situation so that it is discontinued. You will consider the lack of a fraternization policy in the department and suggest the minimum requirements of items that should be in a new policy for the department. You will include and indicate the types of discipline that should be applied to persons violating the new policy in the future.Assignment GuidelinesAddress the following in 3–5 pages: How can the behavior on the part of the opposite-gender police partners affect the culture of the patrol unit? Explain. What dangers could arise in an intimate relationship between partners as it pertains to the daily operations of patrol? Explain. How can these dangers act as triggers of stress? Be specific. Articulate at least 3 appropriate policy measures that should be in effect to help alleviate this type of situation. Fully justify your policy measures with regard to the survival of a traumatic event. What possible potential stressors could become present if the affair of the two officers reached the public? Explain. Remember to use research to fully support your arguments. Be sure to reference all sources using APA style.
CRJS 390 AIU Stress and Crisis Management Report

The advent of technology has brought tremendous technological advancements and growth to the entire world. However, technology has also been a source of conflict as some governments seek to control the extremely pervasive and fluid medium. China is the home for the most notable controversy of this kind as it has an advanced system of internet censorship (Tai 186). This system has seen the government levy harsh punishment to those who violate the strict censorship rules that are in place to ensure the state’s capacity to maintain control of information on the internet. This system takes China back in the days of the dark ages of isolationism that characterized the Qing dynasty. However, the positive aspect of the story is that the Qing dynasty did not succeed, as time was ripe for change. Lyons (1) argues that just like Silicon Valley, the people of the world are divided into two, those who get, and those who do not. In the current globalized world, internet censorship is more of a modern way of isolationism that characterized the Qing dynasty, and in its every sense, it is bound to fail. The Qing dynasty lasted from 1644-1912, and it was the last prodigious imperial kingdom to rule the region. The early and middle years of influential and enduring rulers characterized Qing dynasty, and this marked a period of prosperity. However, when there began manifestations of natural disasters and invasions from foreigners towards the closing years of the dynastic period, everything was not as usual, and this signified the ending of the empire. China seemed not to have learned from the ineffectiveness of Qing dynasty’s resistance to foreigners that led to the failure of the dynasty. Today China has the largest documented number of journalists and cyber-dissidents in the world, serving a jail term (Bauml 704). Communist Party of China has governed China for more than 60 years, and it still reigns supreme as the country’s sole political party. The party has large grassroots penetration in China with over 70 million members, and this makes it the largest political party the world over (Bauml 705). As a result, the party’s presence in every aspect of China’s governance is evident, and because of this, it has been capable of imposing decisions without going through any representative deliberations and consultations. In the late 1990s, ever since the internet in China became commercially successful, the authorities have sought to restrict its ability to provide alternative sources of information to the public (Lagerkvist 171). The Chinese government has achieved this without much resistance from the authorities as internet executives easily attend summons by the central propaganda department of China’s ruling party. Given this, most internet firms pledge in government media to do their part in accomplishing the above objectives (Lagerkvist 172). Even though from a business perspective, attending such meetings is an unwise duty, failing to attend prints of the internet company as a weak party on the issue of social stability. China’s domestic entrepreneurs have come to adhere to this practice of a dictatorial development code and ultimately adopt it as a commitment to social and social stability, which stands as the collective benefit of all actors in the society as it reinforces sustained economic growth (Tai 191). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the Qing dynasty, the same happened as the dynasty sought to separate itself from the rest of the world by not allowing foreigners into the dynasty or forcefully evicting them. The Qing Empire emerged after a 270-year reign of the Ming Empire. In the early 17th century after the passing on of Monarch Qianlong, the Qing Empire began to fall. Just like the previous empires, Tang, and Ming, the Yuan Empire, the emergence of uprisings, natural calamities, and economic hitches signaled the fall of the empire. It started, in the 1800s, with an inept court system, which instead of dealing a rapidly changing world was involved in its own intrigues and pursuit of luxurious life (San 377). Moreover, before the death of Qianlong, he had set an isolationist policy towards foreigners and this was inadequate in the 19th and the early 20th century. The advancement of foreigners and foreign attacks that struck the Qing dynasty felt a major blow to the court system that was not designed to settle conflicts with foreigners, Europeans and Japanese. The natural disasters that plagued the dynasty after the wars with foreigners and rebellions, among themselves, left the survivors impoverished. These happenings led to the limited survival of the remaining Chinese. The stiff economic competition that came from the outside with Chinese limited knowledge of the external world complicated the situation even further. Literate people in the empire had their children study primordial philosophical and spiritual texts (San 392). The isolationist empire traded on the belief that if people gained modern education and learned the outside world, the emperor would lose control of them and he would not be capable of protecting them. Although there were late reforms in the Qing dynasty that started between 1900 and 1901, after they lost in the Sino-Japanese war, they only acted to weaken the empire further and help overthrow the dynasty. The setback in the war served to influence the young Chinese population and reformists towards making formal changes. Moreover, it convinced Empress Dowager that instead of resisting foreigners, the empire should imitate the foreigners through reform rather than evicting them from their land (San 398). The reforms culminated in the production of intellects with modern education and resident scholars, but the empire did not live to benefit from the positive outcome. By the fall of 1911, all these products had grown untrustworthy of the dynasty. The result was a dynasty separated from all support. The desire to institute a democratic government saw Sun Yatsen consolidate an uprising against the Qing Empire, which he succeeded to form the Republic of China. Even though the Republic of China started as an effort to institute democratic government, the present day practices go against this call. China seems to go back to the isolationist policies of the past empires that cost them a great deal. Today, internet censorship in China has separated the country from the rest of the world in the name of championing economic development. However, these practices stand to fail, as globalization that comes with technological developments is an inevitable agent of change. We will write a custom Essay on Isolationism in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Apart from the fervent disagreement that exists between China and the US on internet censorship, internal discontent of to the ruling political party’s power abuses has fueled more government’s determination to fight any form of internet-generated opposition (San 451). Even though this silencing has worked to a certain extent, swelling of microblogs is a rising challenge for the government in its efforts to control the flow of information. Weibo, a microblog in China has continued to register a considerable number of users as the figure swelled from just fifty million in October 2010 to 140 million in April 2011 (173). This rise of microblogs has enabled the Chinese people to get around the great firewall, whereby users can use anonymizers such as Tor, to create virtual channels that can sidestep filters (Lyons 1). This is an indication of how internet censorship can never reign in the globalized world. The change that comes with internet technology is inevitable, and rather than China fighting with it, it should learn from the mistakes of empires and embrace modern life for the development of its society. The effects are evident, as an increasing number of Chinese graduates leave the country to perform research in affluent countries due to the isolationist policies that come with an authoritative government (Marketline 30). Internet censorship in the current globalized world is like creating an island of compatriots, separated from the rest of the world and soon China will have to yield to the desire of freedom of the people and the globalization wave. Annotated bibliography San, Tan. “Dynastic China: An elementary history.” Canada: The Other Press, 2014. The book provides the history of China through detailed coverage of its dynasties from the fairy-tale period of Pangu to the end of Qing dynasty, the last dynasty ever to exist in China that paved the way for the current Republic of China. The book intertwines through the vicious political maneuvers and schemes of the royal way of life of China. Some of the things that form a large portion of the narrative include the determined bequeathing of child emperors with thrones for the benefits of tyrannical eunuchs, dowagers, royal clan members, generals, and warlords. The author incorporates this weaving with outstanding elements of Chinese rational principles, society values, and political principles. In the process, he goes to extra lengths to explain the core concepts that mold the idea of “All under heaven” and “Mandate of Heaven,” two beliefs that guided Chinese perception of the world. Not sure if you can write a paper on Isolationism in China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The chapter of interest in my paper covers the Qing dynasty because it has a sample of information I need to use in order to strike a relationship between the isolationist principles of the time to the current policies on China’s internet censorship. Isolationist policies of ancient China were meant to stop foreigners from entering the country and eliminate the possibility for the Chinese people to learn from the outside world as an effort to protect them and have them under control. However, these isolationist policies had to be done away with and the result was a revolution that bore the resent day China. I intend to use this information in order to highlight how internet censorship in China borrows from the imperial past of ancient China. As a result, this builds on my argument that it is only time before the Chinese government realizes the effectiveness of their efforts in continuing an authoritative government under the disguise of fighting dissent among its people or the sake of continued economic development. Tai, Qiuqing. “China’s media censorship: A dynamic and diversified regime.” Journal of East Asian Studies. 14.2 (2014): 185-209. The article explores the internet censorship in China and the schemes that have allowed the country to remain in power amidst the wake of the Arab spring. The article explores the argument, that even though internet censorship characterizes most authoritarian regimes, increasing flows of information as the world globalizes and ushers in new technologies, such governments become overpowered and act to seal themselves or wait for their demise. The article finds that the situation is not real with China, because of the fragmented regulation of the media, internet included. China is adapting to these issues by changing the way in which it applies its censorship practices. Other than restricting unfavorable reports, China is resorting to a strategy that guides conditioning of public opinion. It is evident, even though the government has banned fewer reports; it has guided even more reports. This is a softer approach of censorship, and while censorship authorities ban unfavorable reports on the internet, the party bans any information that tends to threaten the legitimacy of the regime directly. As a result, the government has proved to be an expert in controlling information for the benefit of the ruling party. The information, herein, is extremely important in arguing out my case against internet censorship. This is because, the government is not likely to be an expert all through, in the end, it will have to oblige, and this is because the internet wave that characterizes the globalization to explode and it is soon. This is because apart from the internet wave that is boundless, the internet censorship has increased people’s attention to the censored information out of curiosity, and people continue learning more and more as they invent novel ways to go around the great firewall. I intend to use the information to reconcile internet censorship to isolationism, which is a ticking bomb. As people innovate ways to go around the censorship, the government expertise will soon grow weary of its concerted efforts of controlling information and is more likely to yield to the pressure, and this will be the beginning of democratic China. Works cited Bauml, Jessica. “It’s a mad, mad internet: Globalization and the challenges presented by internet censorship.” Federal Communications Law Journal. 63. 3 (2011) : 697-730. Print. Lagerkvist, Johan. “New media entrepreneurs in China: Allies of the party-state or civil society?” Journal of International Affairs. 65. 1(2011) : 169-182. Print. Lyons, Daniel. “You can’t fight the future.” Newsweek. 155.1 (2010): 1. Print China in-depth PESTLE insights: Marketline, 2014, 1-74. Print. San, Tan. “Dynastic China: An elementary history.” Canada: The Other Press. 2014. Print. Tai, Qiuqing. “China’s media censorship: A dynamic and diversified regime.” Journal of East Asian Studies. 14. 2 (2014) : 185-209. Print.

ENG 191 The Importance of The Criminal Justice System Essay

ENG 191 The Importance of The Criminal Justice System Essay.

Hello, So you have to do the following things… 1. I have already written an essay but I get feedback from my professor that I have to make some corrections. So, I will send you my essay draft and my final essay, and my professor’s feedback. And based on that you just have to make some corrections. I have attached my professor’s feedback and my paper too. so you have to work on my paper. 2. And next question is that You have to write an essay topic “Criminal justice reform”. But before you start writing a final essay you have to make an essay draft and Causes and consequences. These need to be indifferent pages. Because I have to submit the Causes and consequences and essay draft separately and final essay separately so. And I have attached the example also that my professor sends me. So based on that you have to write it…I WAS NOT BEING ABLE TO UPLOAD OTHER FILES. BUT I WILL UPLOAD THAT TO SO THAT IT WILL MAKE YOU EASIER TO UNDERSTAND.
ENG 191 The Importance of The Criminal Justice System Essay

Tasks and Materials – CAGE Assessment

term paper help Tasks and Materials – CAGE Assessment. I’m studying and need help with a Management question to help me learn.

CAGE Analysis

The purpose of this assignment is to conduct a cultural, administrative, geographical and economic analysis comparing the USA to two other countries.

Select any two countries of your choice except China or India as are discussed in class as an example. Perform a CAGE analysis of the USA and the two countries.
Write an essay discussing your analysis and including a recommendation as to which country you would recommend to a U.S. based company wanting to expand in the future.
Each student will make a 5-minute Oral presentation that includes your Executive Recommendation explaining which country you would recommend to a U.S.-based company wanting to expand internationally, considering your findings in your written essay.
Must use Fortune 500 to choose company.

Your written essay must include

Four tables, one for each of the four dimensions of the CAGE analysis (Cultural, Administrative, Geographic and Economic).
Two or three paragraphs about cultural distance/commonality between USA and each country.
Two or three paragraphs about administrative distances/commonality between USA and each country.
Two or three paragraphs about geographic distance/commonality between USA and each country.
Two or three paragraphs about economic distance/commonality between USA and each country.
Executive Recommendation 2-3 paragraphs explaining which country you would recommend to a U.S.-based company wanting to expand internationally, considering your findings above.

APA style formatting (Links to an external site.), between 1500-2000 words. Make sure you use proper headings/subheadings to differentiate the four dimensions.
Tasks and Materials – CAGE Assessment

Module 2 balance scorecard

Module 2 balance scorecard.

The Balanced Scorecard is commonly used to help organizations track their performance and identify areas of weakness. It helps organizations to align their performance measures with their goals and strategic plans. The Balanced scorecard allows companies to move away from relying solely on financial measures, which effectively improves managerial decision making.The Balanced Scorecard framework consists of four perspectives:Financial: measures that address profitability growth and revenue, cost reduction, product mix, asset utilization, productivity, and investment strategies.Customer: measures that address customer satisfaction and requirements including customer satisfaction ratings, customer retention, responsiveness and reliability, new customer acquisition, customer profitability, and customer-valued attributes.Internal Business Process: focuses on the most important internal business processes of the company including new product development, quality, flexibility, time-based measures, and innovative elements of processes.Learning and Growth: focuses on the organization’s systems, people, and external environment; this includes enhancing information technology, training and retaining employees, employee safety, and environmental and health sustainability issues.This week for your design strategy project, you will be defining your organization’s strategy and completing a Balanced Scorecard.In a minimum of 3 pages, you will need to do the following:Describe how your organization should appear to your stakeholders in order to succeed financially.Describe how your organization should appear to customers in order to achieve your vision.Describe what business processes that your organization must excel at in order to satisfy both your shareholders and customers.Describe how your organization will sustain your ability to change and improve.How does ethics and ethical issues impact stakeholders and customers? What measures will you employ as CEO to ensure that your organization maintains good ethical practices?Now that you’ve outlined your strategy, click on the following link and use the Excel template to translate your strategy to a balanced scorecardMake sure to write your paper utilizing proper APA formatting guidelines, and to include an APA formatted title page.*Note: You will need to submit both your essay and Balanced Scorecard Excel spreadsheet to the drop box as separate attachments.
Module 2 balance scorecard

Application of Entropy to International Relations

In the wake of World War I, International Relations emerged as an academic area focused on studying and understanding the interconnectedness of politics, economics, and power to help navigate an increasingly globalized system. While the field has naturally developed with evolving political landscapes and societal norms, academics such as Randall Schweller find the global landscape becoming more convoluted and complex with each change of world order. The constant increase in randomness and unpredictability in International Relations replicates a process of increasing chaos observed in Entropy. This essay will seek to apply Entropy to International Relations to explain the progression of disorder in global politics from a scientific perspective. It will do so by analyzing the stability that each world power order has achieved and how it deteriorates over time. Before continuing, a few key terms must be defined. In his book “Knowledge Power”, Alan Wilson used the word ‘superconcept’ to describe a concept that derives from one discipline but can ‘cut across’ others to have ‘fruitful applications’ (Wilson 2010, p. 4). Entropy is one such superconcept that arises in physics and engineering and can be applied in an interdisciplinary way to music, biology, (Grombrich 2018) and, as will be demonstrated in this essay, International Relations. The original definition of Entropy is a measurement of the available energy in a thermodynamic system. However, it is often interpreted as the degree of disorder where all closed systems tend towards chaos (Drake 2018). While Entropy has a scientific definition in physics and engineering, in International Relations it can be applied as the ‘social uncertainty about what will happen for event sets in the social system’, which can also be reflected in the system’s stability (Stephan 1975, p. 37). In order to determine whether Entropy can be applied to International Relations, this paper will examine how world order, which is ‘the distribution of power and authority among the political actors on the global stage’ (Falk 1999), transformed over time. Subsequently, it will analyze the coinciding change in stability and uncertainty in the social system. In the discussion of world orders, power distribution is primarily discussed as one of three types: unipolarity where one state actor possesses the majority of power in the system, bipolarity for two, and multipolarity for four or more centers of power where actors are entities able to influence the field of International Relations (Jiang 2013). Even though International Relations emerged after World War I, the scope of this essay is limited to time periods following World War II. It was around the start of the Cold War (1945) that countries possessed the capacity to become superpowers, with Russia and the United States being the first states to achieve “enormous capabilities under their control, a reach that was truly global, and allies who were entirely dependent on their protection” (Baylis, et al. 2017, p. 547). With the birth of superpowers came the first polar world order – bipolarity. As the analysis of global systems requires the existence of polarity and superpowers, it is restricted to after World War II. Additionally, the Cold War ushered in a new method of restoring order. Previously, militant conflicts were used to determine dominance over other states and establish hierarchies. However, after 1945, physical warfare became less frequent mainly due to their increasingly dangerous nature (Gaddis 1992). The invention of nuclear weapons dissuaded countries from physically engaging with one another as there were far more dire consequences and repercussions for both sides. Thus, post-World War II nations are unable to exploit warfare as a methodology to establish dominance amongst themselves. This makes those state actors incomparable with their predecessors as the nuclear technology and weaponry make them ‘significantly different from those of past multipolar systems’ (Schweller 2010, p. 158). With these developments in mind, the argument of Entropy being applied to International Relations is limited to the era after World War II. Despite high tensions between the United States and Russia throughout the Cold War (1947-1991), the bipolar world order created from the clash of the two superpowers was quite stable and easily predictable (Cox 1990, p. 25). Leading scholar Kenneth Waltz argued that by reducing the number of international actors to only two, the Cold War had formed its own organized structure. Cold War historian John Lewis Gaddis largely agreed and added that the world became separated into two blocs that reduced the sporadic nature of Post-War Europe (Baylis, et al. 2017, p. 69). There was a fear that the European countries would continue to compete and consequently, war conflicts would appear anew at the end of World War II. Bipolarity served as an anchor that reduced rival alliances amongst inferior powers, as smaller countries were forced to choose between either the United States or Russia (rather than other smaller states like themselves) (Baylis, et al. 2017, p. 69). International Relations academic John Mearsheimer even postulated that after the Cold War and the fall of the bipolar order, the ‘long peace’ and stability the world had been enjoying would fall apart due to the rebirth of old aggressions and numerous alliances (Mearsheimer 1990, p. 36). Bipolarity is a demonstration of low Entropy. The world order established a significant amount of stability and predictability for academics and actors alike. Yet the low Entropy state would not last for long, as after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the United States ascended as the singular world superpower and bipolar gave way to unipolar. Unipolarity increased the overall instability and randomness in the world system. While one might expect having only a single actor to analyze would make everything more predictable, ‘its apparent lack of general properties’ frustrated academics and ‘it does not behave in predictable ways like […] bipolar systems’ (Schweller 2010, p. 145). Bipolarity separates the world into two blocs which regulate themselves through a balancing act with strong constraints where actors are either on one superpowers’ side or the other. Thus, allies are limited, and the two competing superpowers are restrained as they must be weary how their actions affect their competitors’ actions. In contrast, Unipolarity has weak structural constraints. As there are no rivals or competing ideologies, the singular power can choose their allies and how close they are at will. On the opposite side, the potential allies have ‘less need for a polar-power patron’ than they would in a bipolar system (Schweller 2010, p. 146). Not only are allies ambiguous, the ‘boundless freedom’ in unipolarity ‘breeds randomness’. The structure ‘neither constrains the choices of the unipole nor solely determines the degree of constraints on anyone else’ as there is no other superpower to be mindful of (Schweller 2010, p. 150). The shift from bipolarity to unipolarity indicates an increased level of Entropy as there is more social uncertainty and instability in the power distribution. Yet perhaps the most unstable part of unipolarity is that it is difficult to predict when it will end. Having a single actor in power is not durable whatsoever. Waltz predicts that ‘other great powers’ will soon ‘challenge the United States and reestablish the systemic balance of power’ (Waltz 1993). In International Relations, the Balance of Power Theory postulates that if one state is stronger than others, then it will take advantage of its strength and exploit weaker nations. This provides an incentive for the threatened to create alliances and increase their competitive abilities. In other words, other nations will seek to accrue power due to the outrageous power discrepancy between themselves and the United States. Such overreach by the United States has already been witnessed in their invasion of the Middle East and interference in the governmental systems in foreign countries. Already academics such as Monetiro postulate the ending of unipolarity, but no one actually knows when the United States’ reign will collapse in totality (Monteiro 2011, p. 3). The difficulty to predict the collapse, adding a large level of social uncertainty and indicating increasing Entropy. If we truly do end up transitioning from unipolarity to multipolarity, there will still be an instability. Richard Haass claimed that ‘Entropy dictates that systems consisting of a large number of actors tend toward greater randomness and disorder in the absence of external intervention’ where the actors denote superpowers (Haass 2008). It is now more than ever that International Relations is witnessing the competition between the United States and other state actors. Presently, China has the second largest economy with other nations such as Japan and Russia close behind, and all three are already considered superpowers (Mead 2017). With more countries on the rise in economic, political, and influential strength, there is evidence of a shift in power from the United States to a larger group of states. The emerging world order of the twenty-first century is one of multipolarity where the power in the international system is distributed amongst several countries (Wade 2011). Unlike bipolarity, once there are more than two superpowers vying for world dominance, there is a tendency towards large levels of uncertainty, randomness, and Entropy (Haass 2008). One discrepancy in the application of Entropy to International Relations is the constant addition of new state and non-state actors to the system. Throughout time, countries have been recognized (e.g. Hungary in 1989 and Kosovo in 2008), and in the days of the digital revolution, more non-state actors (e.g. Terrorists, celebrities, and the media) are also joining the global stage (Stratton 2008, p. 3). With more actors in International Relations, there is a larger power distribution among themselves. For example, each member of the UN security council gets one vote. As more states become recognized by the UN, a vote loses value and you need more of them to achieve a majority. Entropy can solely exist in a closed system, as in, one where there is no exchange of energy or material with an external environment (Prigogine 1950). The addition of new actors that share power implies that there is an increase of material, insinuating that Entropy cannot be applied to International Relations because it does not possess a closed system. Even though the addition of actors implies that there is an increase of material in the International Relations system, they are not significant enough to affect the polarity and power dynamics of superpowers. There is an oligarchic rule over the International system ‘rooted in the notion that international politics are shaped by vast inequalities among states; that only a few powerful actors matter’ (Schweller 2010, p. 149). It is near impossible to become part of the polar membership as ‘there is a finite amount of ‘useful’ or ‘free’ energy in the system’ (Schweller 2010, p. 149) that has mostly been snatched up by preexisting states. Additionally, an actor must be considered a superpower to affect polarity. To become a superpower requires enormous economic capabilities, a global reach, and political influence such that allies are ‘entirely reliant on their protection’ (Baylis, et al. 2017, p. 69). Only a few states have the capability to overcome those high barriers of entry, thus making the addition of non-state and state actors obsolete. They do not indicate an increase of material as they are not part of the polarity International Relations system. Therefore, Entropy can again be applicable to International Relations. To conclude, International Relations is a closed system where you can apply Entropy to describe the increasing chaos and randomness in the system. The world order since the Cold War has shifted from bipolar, to unipolar, and now to multipolar. With each change in polarity, there has been an increase in randomness and instability that matches the definition of Entropy when applied to International Relations. While some might consider International Relations as an open system due to the creation of new actors, only a select few can participate in polar system, with none of the newcomers having the capability of infiltrating that group. Therefore, International Relations remains a closed system where the superconcept Entropy is applicable and will presumably continue to increase as time progresses. Bibliography Baylis, J., Smith, S.