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Earth Sciences homework help

Earth Sciences homework help. This is a paper that is focusing on the responding to disease outbreaks deliverable 1 assignment. The paper also provides additional information to use in the writing of the assignment paper. Below is the assessment description to follow:,Responding to disease outbreaks deliverable 1 assignment,Deliverable 1 – Responding to Disease Outbreaks,Competency,Evaluate responses of communicable diseases in healthcare today.,Scenario,You are the infection control nurse of a 100-bed inpatient healthcare facility. With the increasing potential for a communicable disease exposure in your facility, the chief clinical officer has tasked you with the creation of a hospital response plan for a communicable disease outbreak in your healthcare facility.,Instructions,Create a hospital response plan that effectively addresses a healthcare facility’s actions in response to a communicable disease outbreak of your choosing. The response plan should:,Firstly, identify a communicable disease and explain why this particular disease necessitates a response plan, Include guidance on the following:, Logistics: adequate physical resources and services required, Triage: appropriate protocols and location, Communication: timely and effective contact internal and also external of the facility regarding a suspected or confirmed outbreak, Infection control: sufficient measures to protect hospital employees, patients, and the public, Human resources: efficient management of ,human capital, in response to a suspected or confirmed outbreak, Responsibilities of various hospital departments: effective responses by primary and ancillary departments in response to a suspected or confirmed outbreak, Secondly, reflect the nurse’s ability to:, Thirdly, assess and identify the disease outbreak, Support containment and treatment of the disease, Facilitate timely communication regarding the outbreak, Lastly, be supported by current evidence,Remember, ensure that the pages are exclusive of the cover and the reference pages. Also, ensure that you include all the references you use in finding research for this assignment paper. References should be at least three for the paper. All references, citation, and writing should follow the APA formatting and styling guidelines. Finally, ensure you focus on the assignment topic in detail.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Earth Sciences homework help
The study of communication is the study of the process of one person transmits information by speech, signs, or actions to another. In addition, the information is often expressed nonverbally and verbally. The non-verbal communication is the person deliver information without speaking single words but with the act like facial gestures, body language, appearance of one person to impress others and the tone of voice. The tone of voice, for example, a same sentence with different tone of voice will reflect different feeling to the listeners, such as yelling and crying while saying okay. The verbal communication is the person speaks out with words directly (“What is the Definition of Communication?” , N/A). Experts tell us that of the total impact of a presentation, only seven percent is determined by the words we use (verbal); thirty-eight percent by the tone of our voice (vocal), and a fifty-five percent comes from nonverbal cues ( “The Definition of Communication”, Dr. Hoffmann, 2010). Furthermore, communication can be appear in variety of forms such as downward communication, upward communication, horizontal communication, intrapersonal communication, interpersonal communication, lateral communication, diagonal communication and so forth. The ideal reference of communication is the process of transmit information and mutual understanding between two or more parties. In order to successful communicate with other; the information must be design with the common words, signs, or signals, so the sent information can be understood easily and clearly. Besides, it is also very important to be careful the words that one person use to communication to others. In some situations, negotiation is one of the communications. 1.1 Background of Study The ability to communicate and interact with others is the most important skill to achieve success in both of our personal and career lives. However, some of us were not good in communicating with others and unaware that communicating had become a necessary activity in our daily life of known as human need. Nobody can survive in this world without communicating to others. Therefore, due to the level of importance it has, communication aspect had been selected as the main character of this research study. The result of interaction of involved parties can be determined by the level of effectiveness of communication, either positive or negative. If the result is negative, that mean communication between parties was ineffective, then some difficulty or side effect will be arising. Besides, the side effect bring by ineffective communication cannot be underestimate. Due to several factors that caused ineffective communication, certain skill and understanding should behave in everyone. Other than that, different level of skill and understanding were involved in different forms of communication such as downward communication. The managers and employees are in the form of downward communication in an organization. However, there are also existing interpersonal communication between managers and employees. If we want to increase the level of skill and understanding, we should focus more in interpersonal communication. Interpersonal communication is a person to person, two way verbal (written and oral) and nonverbal interaction that includes sharing information and feeling between individual or in small group that establishes trusting relationship (Hubbley, 1998). The communication is the most essential single skill in this fast changing world. John Harvey stated that the managers everywhere should have to improve their ability to communicate in order to be effective in their job. Besides, the employees will feel confidence when the managers effectively communicate their vision, in the end, the communication satisfaction between managers and employees will get improve (Pavitt, 1999). Furthermore, the communication among managers and employees also can be known as managerial communication. The efficient managerial communication is to communicate, to transmit information, opinions, decisions, and receive answer at the same time by managers, also known as the new spirit of business (Stefanescu et al., 2008). By this statement, the managers have to fulfil his/her duties by sending the messages to the employees, the messages such as the company mission and goals, the cost of such, the quality and economy issues, and the task that need to be fulfilled to attain the set goals. Hence, the effectiveness of communication will influence the result of the goals directly. Furthermore, there is a relationship between managers and employees, is leadership. According to Holladay and Coombs (1993), leadership is a behavior enacted through communication. Besides, leadership has other definitions, such as the ability to guide followers toward shared goals (Bryman, 1992), as a form of influence (Hersey, 1984), and as simply something a leader does (Fleishman, 1973). If there is a problem in the leadership, the most probably reason is the communication. A manager cannot lead a group of employees without talking to them. According to Popa and Filip (1999), there are four types of managerial communication models and the first type is one-way communication model. The one-way communication model is a classical model of communication process. In one-way communication model, the managers ignore the employees; it is an ineffective downward communication from the management (Peter Drucker, 1993). The next is the circuit communication model. In this communication model, the employees respond to the received message (Stefanescu et al., 2008). The managers must follow up the task that assigned to the employees and know the problems that are faced by the employees. The third type of managerial communication model is interactive model, which the managers and employees exchange the ideas when communicating. This is an important role of managers and employees. And the last one is the behavioral model. In the process of managerial communication, the managers expect the employees to react after receiving the message (Campbell and Level, 1985). The managers must use a suitable managerial communication model to lead their employees in order to complete the jobs. 1.2 Problem Statement In this research study, the main focus is to identify the factors that cause ineffective communication between managers and employees. An organization cannot work properly without communicate with other. In order to be effective and efficient in the operation and achieve the goal of an organization, effective communication act as an important role between managers and employees. The quality communication system, communication techniques and communication strategies are the communication problem of the manufacturing business are in Nigeria and which leads to low sales volume and profit making (Lawal Abubakar, 2010). By this statement, we understand that communication between managers and employees decide the future of an organization. Besides, the communication had become a significant qualification that expecting from all of us. There are some factors that will discuss in this study. In this study, the first factor will be discussed is listening factor. When we start communicating with other, the first step is to listen. In order to have a better communication, the first step is to improve listening skill (Finkle, 2010). Besides, the receiver always influence by the environment, or by the message itself. Hence, once the managers sending the complicated message, the employees have to listen carefully. The second factor is language factor. The language is the basic element that people use to communicate with other. Furthermore, the language factors include the existing of different language, the use of vocabulary and the attitude of speaking. Most of the managers and employees are not in the same race, the only language they can use is English. The third factor is individual factor. The individual is the sender and receiver, in this study, is the manager and employee. The individual factor includes gender, race, perception, skill and ability to communicate, and so on. Moreover, everyone have their own personality and style while communicating with other. The forth factor is technology factor. Nowadays, most of the people are using technology to communicate with other, either local or international. In the organization, some managers conduct virtual meeting with the employee, for example like sending information. However, the explanation of the information in face-to-face meeting is better than virtual meeting. The other factor such as stereotyping, disabilities to communicate, and the feedback of the message also will caused ineffective communication between managers and employees. When someone is already knows the message since the beginning of the communication, it is an act called stereotyping. The disabilities to communicate such as mute, deaf, and blind. Besides, the feedback of the message is important for both managers and employees in order to improve their communication skill. The main problem focused in this study: What factors cause ineffective communication between managers and employees? How these factors are affecting the effectiveness of communication between managers and employees? How important the factors will affect the effectiveness of communication between managers and employees? 1.3 Research Objectives The objectives of the study are: Main Objective To provide useful information and statistics to the organizations in order to build up an intellectual community by resolving the ineffective communication among the managers and employees. Sub Objective To study the factors that lead to ineffective interpersonal communication between managers and employees. To understand the communication aspects among employees. To discuss the empirical results, solutions and implication s in constructing an effective communication network among managers and employees. 1.4 Significance of Study The study is to understand the factors that caused ineffective communication between managers and employees. Furthermore, the ineffective communication will bring troublesome for the organization. Due to the listening, language, individual and others factors, it will become the barriers to effective communicate with others. The listening is the most important factor as one listening, who is the information receiver. In the communication process, the major character is the sender and receiver. Most of the time, the employee always misunderstood the meaning of information that the employer sent, vice versa. Next, is the thing that used to communicate, the language. Different race use different language, but the English is the international language. Some people may be poor in speaking English, but they are good in speaking the mother tongue. The language is the element of information, once the employee cannot understand the meaning of information, it caused ineffective communication. On the other hand, the individual factor is the basic factor that will influence the communication, such as gender, ability to communicate, perception to others, and so forth. The others factors such as technology, disabilities, the message itself, and so on. In the organization, the managers have the right to lead the employees well in order to achieve the goals, also known as leadership. According to Holladay and Coombs (1993), leadership is a behavior enacted through communication. In addition, leading is one of the important parts in organization management. A good leading skill requires a good communication skill. Besides, it also link to downward communication. Once the downward communication occurred, the upward communication must appear. In the previous part of this study had mentioned that one of the managerial communications is interactive communication model. Once the employees receive the message sent by the managers, they must give the feedback. Sometimes, some employees will keep silent when they receive a complicated message. Hence, employee voice or upward feedback is generally helpful to organizations because it allows managers to quickly learn about problems and gather specific information to address these problems effectively (Frese et al., 1999). Generally, the employees will get the positive job outcomes when they are experience positive communication relationship (Paul E. Madlock, 2008). By this statement, communication between managers and employees is a critical element to get the job done successfully. Furthermore, not only the communication in the organization is important, but also the communication in social perspective. As we know, every single individual have to communicate in the daily life, even a mute also will use the sign language to communicate with others. Moreover, due to the globalization are growing rapidly, the communication is a very important skill to survive in present day society (Sriramesh
Why should all public schools wear uniforms, English homework help.

Locating Scholarly Articles This week, you’ll continue working on your annotated bibliography by Using your research question to develop search terms.Using those search terms to find two scholarly journal articles.Writing APA references and annotations for those articles. Before you get started, be sure to read Module 2 of your textbook, complete the APA skill activity on formatting references and watch Keywords are Critical. If you have not yet done so, take a few minutes to watch the Strategic Ways to Read Scholarly Articles video (written transcript).Also, check your instructor’s feedback on your research question for last week’s assignment. If you’re not sure how to view the comments on your papers, you can learn how by watching this HelpNow! video. Consider the advice that your instructor gave you and your experiences researching your topic. Then, make any necessary revisions to your research question. To start this assignment, complete the “Generating Search Terms” worksheet. The “Generating Search Terms” worksheet will help you select the major concepts in your research question. Think of synonyms, and then develop keywords that you can use to search for your topic. For example, if you are researching “acid rain,” write down “carbon dioxide,” “air pollution” and/or “smoke.” Save the keywords that you develop so that you can use them as you search for sources in weeks Four and week Five. Note: You do not need to submit this worksheet. It is for your use only.After you have developed your keywords, you are ready to search for scholarly journal articles. Review the steps for using [email protected] for searching for scholarly journal articles by going over the Introduction to the Ashford Library. Now, use [email protected] to locate two scholarly journal articles that are related to your research question. Be sure to download and save the articles that you choose so that you can refer back to them later if you need to. Tip: click the “Full Text” box to make sure you find articles that include the full text and not just a brief description or an abstract.Now you are ready to create the APA references and annotations for your sources in the Locating Scholarly Articles template. When writing your APA references for your sources, you can refer to the Ashford Writing Center’s Common APA Reference and Citation Models. You can also view the sample Annotated Bibliography.As you build your annotated bibliography in weeks Three, Four, and Five, you are encouraged to submit your work to the Ashford Writing Center for feedback. The Writing Center staff can help you identify formatting, grammar, and other common writing issues in your work and give you ideas for ways to fix them. The Writing Center staff is available by email or by chat.
Why should all public schools wear uniforms, English homework help

Please contact me if you need any clarification! Thanks in Advance! Skip … Head Towards Final Paper – Preliminary

Please contact me if you need any clarification! Thanks in Advance! Skip … Head Towards Final Paper – Preliminary. Please contact me if you need any clarification! Thanks in Advance! Skip … Head Towards Final Paper – Preliminary draft. For this course, the preliminary draft should have all the necessary resources and be 15 pages of writing (Introduction through Conclusion). There is not enough time at the end of the semester to find more resources or add a lot more content and get the grades turned in on time so you can graduate. And we all want everybody to graduate, right? Your paper should contain the following sections: Title page (page 1, separate page) Abstract (200-word summary on page 2, a separate page) – This is usually written last because you should include something about your conclusion in it. Introduction – Most APA formatted papers do not really have a heading called “Introduction.” Instead, the introduction just starts right under the centered title of the paper on page 3. However, your readers should easily be able to identify where your introduction starts and ends. Body of the paper- This is the body of the paper written in paragraph form. You should use the three main points or arguments that you identified in your proposal and to frame the paper and the organization you used in your outline. You can use descriptive headings to break up the paper. See the sample papers on the library website for examples of this. You can start off by using the main points or arguments from your outline or proposal as the headings for your body. This will help you organize your paper. You can change them later if you like. Aren’t word processors wonderful things? Conclusion and Recommendations (if making any) – The conclusion does usually have its own heading. It does not go on a separate page but starts right under the last paragraph of the body. References (begin on a new page) – Use APA formatting for your references. Remember to use APA formatting in the paper. You can check the library website, the Purdue OWL, or the Center for Writing and Communication in the library for help with APA formatting. Please read the sample papers available on the library website if you have not already done so. They are not all perfect, but all received an “A.” They will give you an idea of what your paper should look like and what kind of writing is expected. Your completed preliminary draft is due this Sunday. Please note that this is not a traditional “rough” draft, despite the name in the some of the course content. The paper must be complete, all 15 pages, contain the sections reviewed earlier, and have a complete reference page. Please review the Purdue OWL resources for this module for help with completing your preliminary draft. As always, please contact me if you need any help. Writing the Outline For this assignment, you are to prepare an outline of the major topics that you want to include in your project paper. 1. Gather your preliminary research. Look at your sources and categorize information according to topics related to your thesis. 2. Organize the topics into the most logical order for presenting information and make each category I,II,III, etc., in the outline. 3. Write at least 50 words under each category, summarizing the major findings from the literature. 4. Come up with at least three major arguments and/or points for your major headings. Label those A,B,C, etc. 5. Write at least 50 words describing the basis for each of your points and the sources that will support this. Your outline should look like this: I. Introduction – write 50 words II. Main Argument 1 – write 50 words A. Topic 1.1 – write 50 words B. Topic 1.2 – write 50 words C. Topic 1.3 – write 50 words III. Main Argument 2 – write 50 words A. Topic 2.1 – write 50 words B. Topic 2.2 – write 50 words C. Topic 2.3 – write 50 words IV. Main Argument 3 – write 50 words A. Topic 3.1 – write 50 words B. Topic 3.2 – write 50 words C. Topic 3.3 – write 50 words V. Conclusion – Write 50 words The Research Proposal The purpose of the research proposal is to explain the significance of your research project and your ability to carry it out. As with previous assignments, there’s a sample. The sample should help you understand the genre of the proposal–what information is expected and how to organize it. The proposal will help you and me see what parts of the project you have completed and what remains to be done. You can use the following outline for your proposal. Please double space your paper, use first line indent on all your paragraphs, and a 12-point standard font. 1) Introduction Your introduction should be 1-3 paragraphs long and introduce your topic in a clear and engaging way. Your proposal introduction should help the reader understand the problem at the center of your research and why it is significant. It should include your topic and problem statements and be the beginning of the introduction to your paper. 2) Research Questions – List 3-5 questions you plan to answer with this research paper. 3) Background and Discussion You may be writing your paper for an audience who is not expert in your field. You may use this section to provide your reader with definitions of key terms, a historical context for your research, the gap in the literature you trying to fill, or how you plan to refute opposing viewpoints. 4) Annotated bibliography You should have 10 relevant reliable sources for your paper and at least 5 of them should be from scholarly or academic sources. Please review the material in the “Library Resources” module in the Content area of the course for help with this section. Each reference should have a 50–100-word annotation. The annotation should describe the type of reference (book, journal, website, etc.), the research findings, and how you plan to use the reference in your paper. Remember to use APA formatting for your sources. Some of your references may change before your project is completed. You may decide not to use one or two of those listed or find an additional one or two, but this list should be most of your references. 5) Major Arguments – Develop at least 3 arguments for your thesis and write at least 100 words describing the basis for each of these points and the sources that support your argument. They should be related to the Research Questions above. See the Sample Proposal for a good example of how to do this. 6) Conclusion Write a brief one paragraph summary of your topic and proposal. Grade Breakdown – Proposal Comprehensive Information: _____/40 Relevant, reliable sources: _____/50 Writing, grammar, and mechanics: _____/40 APA formatting: _____/20 Problem Statement Instructions Upload your Problem Statement here in .docx format. Your problem statement should be 1-2 paragraphs long and explain the problems you are trying to solve and/or the questions you are trying to answer with your research. Problem: Global Business Preparedness – Pivot or Else Pandemic (no need for global as PANdemic is global EPIdemic is local) Corona / COVID-19 has highlighted areas that global businesses need to be fixed / shored up / tweaked in some cases to exceed expectations, in others, to retain the ability to survive. Improving communication relying on remotely accessible meetings via the world wide web. Attracting new foreign nationals to join global businesses and bring their talents to improve our global solutions. Younger foreign workers are increasingly relying almost completely on the internet and its tools to answer new questions, address new problems and implement new solutions. Head of East Asian Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery cost center. responsibilities: identify and fix weaknesses of our policies, processes and procedures thus making our firm a healthy option for both existing and new investors. As real-life conditions arose, we quickly identified what worked and what did not work. The Asia wide threat was always epidemic i.e., Bird / Swine flu and other such localized threats to businesses in each theater. New Notes Reflecting Doc’s Feedback: Problem / Solution This is the first time in modern history that businesses in foreign countries had the access to shared scientific data used to combat a global pandemic. Armed with this data, many businesses were able to pivot and thrive, modify, and survive. Unfortunately, those who were unable to adjust – failed. Before the COVID pandemic, we had created physical backup systems to reduce outages to our customers. Each continuity plan was specific to each country. Now that the entire globe has become accustomed to remote work, and the necessity of personal safety measures (masks), there are several customs that will need to be understood and implemented to maintain their reputations as a global leader. The Topic The topic is the general area in which you’re researching. Topic: “Business Continuity During the Covid-19 Pandemic” The Question How does your research plan/inquiry translate into the structure of a question? Your thesis statement will answer this question, so it’s critical to shape it well. Question: How have businesses been able to pivot and remain successful during the Covid-19 pandemic? – Name 3 business types / Industries o Financial Institutions (banks) o Food and Drink o Entertainment (movies, plays, concerts, church) – Methods / Adjustments o Finance (remote access / zoom/ conferencing) o Food and Drink (modified in house dining and delivery) o Entertainment (live shows, movies, sporting events) Did some business trends / consumer needs work better than others? If so, which ones worked? How (examples). Which ones did not work? (examples). What were their impacts? (Each good and bad) Do certain business trends lend themselves to being nimble enough to pivot and learn how to adjust and remain / become relevant? If so, which ones? What are their impacts? Note that the question is three related questions. The reason, in this case, is that to perform thorough research and flesh it out into a 15-page inquiry, I would need to answer more than a yes/no question. The Problem By conducting research and taking a position based on your findings, you’re entering discourse. In academic writing, this is often referred to as an intervention. That is, your research is an intervention in a discourse; it’s your two cents or your contribution to a conversation. The problem statement identifies what was missing from discourse that you’re adding to it. Following my previous example, here’s my statement of what’s missing from the discourse I’m entering. Problem: There are accounts of the ways businesses adjusted to remain relevant by providing solutions that were within social legal guidelines. There are also cases where businesses did not survive the pandemic for whatever reason. Please contact me if you need any clarification! Thanks in Advance! Skip … Head Towards Final Paper – Preliminary

HIST 400 DeVry University Week 8 The Growth of Feminism in The United States PPT

assignment writer HIST 400 DeVry University Week 8 The Growth of Feminism in The United States PPT.

Pecha Kucha (peh-chuk-chuh) comes from the Japanese word for “chit chat.” The history behind the Pecha Kucha is to go beyond the typical PowerPoint presentation and to move to a more engaging storytelling method of presentation.The format for a Pecha Kucha is 20X20—20 slides with 20 seconds of narration each. This mathematically computes to 6 minutes, 40 seconds of speaking time. Pecha Kucha presentations have no text on the slides. It is up to you to fluidly tell the story of the images you choose. Please practice your timing.Your Pecha Kucha should be based on the story you want to tell about America. Please cover whatever you think is most critical to your American story and include images that represent as many of the time periods we’ve covered as possible (1600–present). Periods should receive equal representation. (Pecha Kuchas that only reference the 20th and 21st centuries, for example, will not receive a passing grade.)The point of a Pecha Kucha is to create a cohesive narrative that the student is able to speak freely about because he or she is well acquainted with the subject matter. Please create your Pecha Kucha in Kaltura Media Gallery and submit a Word document with your name and the link to your Pecha Kucha in Kaltura.*Instructions on how to set a Power Point presentation so that the slides advance every 20 seconds. Open PowerPoint. In slide view, right-click on the first slide on the left and select Layout and Blank. This creates a blank canvas.Right-click again on the slide and select Duplicate. This creates another slide just like it.Because the Duplicate command is already in PowerPoint’s memory, use the shortcut Ctrl-Y to repeat the duplicate (or just right-click duplicate again) 18 more times, for a total of 20 blank slides.Use Ctrl-A to Select all slides in the left, and then go to Animation, advance slide, and set it to 20 seconds.You can also select transition styles and speed here. Just don’t choose Dissolve—the simplest is the best. Maybe nothing more than a simple fade.For more information, check out
HIST 400 DeVry University Week 8 The Growth of Feminism in The United States PPT

Moral Issues Facing Ethics In Africa Politics Essay

Ethics is one of the hottest and interesting disciplines in academic jargon. Ethical concerns exist in almost all fields of study and daily life practice; be it in medicine, environment, politics, governance, law, business, aviation or even in religion. Why is this concept so significant in almost all arenas of life? Its simply because, ethics is not only philosophical, theoretical or abstract, it relates to real life practice; what we do, why do we do it and how we do it. Ethics defines us and our actions. Ethics-often referred to as moral philosophy entails developing systems, preserving them and suggesting concepts of right and wrong behavior. Morality often denotes believes and compliance of deeds of right or wrong (for instance “lying is wrong”). These concepts are often used interchangeably. Discussions and debates on ethics often revolve around controversial issues; abortion, rape, war on terror, among other issues. Affluent information on this concept is found in the works of Aristotle (Nichomachean Ethics), Plato, Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill among other ancient writers. We are highly indebted to them. Feeding the World Poor; Ethical Challenge of the 21ST Century After a critical analysis of the theories and issues pertaining ethics and moral conduct, it is almost-impossible to determine what is right and wrong. Human beings often face numerous challenges in their pursuit of their “good” deeds. One of the biggest challenges of the 21st century is alleviating global poverty, malnutrition and hunger-one of the Millennium Development Targets. Populations most affected by poverty, hunger and malnutrition are in the developing countries, especially Sub-Saharan Africa. In the midst of this is the debate on feeding the world poor through foreign assistance. What initially started as a Marshal Plan to reconstruct Europe has been replicated in the underdeveloped parts of the world. With the end of colonialism, colonial powers created ideological ties with their colonies, and as a show of “goodwill” foreign aid (of different forms) was created to assist the latter in “development”. During the cold war, the two major powers (USA and Soviet Union) “poured gifts” to friends and allies. As the donors review their aid-giving strategies, developing countries and some other scholars argue that it is an obligation for the rich countries to assist and feed the world poor. Singer gives an example of a child dying of measles in Ghana, because the parents cannot afford money to take her for medication (4). He argues that more die in developing countries, a situation that either doesn’t exist or is not fatal as such in developed nations. He supports the role parlayed by humanitarian organizations like UNICEF and Oxfam and calls for more fund to support them (5). In this paper, I discuss the moral and ethical underpinnings regarding aid; are donors morally justified and obliged to continue feeding the mouths of the world poor? Background Foreign Aid (often referred to as Official Development Assistance (ODA) often refers to all the Official Development Flows from the developed countries to developing-poor countries. This doesn’t include other un-official “flows’ like military aid. However, in my discussion, I will focus on all forms of aid expended to poor countries; whether bilateral or multilateral, Economic, military or ideological. Why do governments and other charities give foreign aid? Is it a divine command? Let us look at some insights. Tony Blair’s “big push” and plan for Africa was meant to, help the poor escape the basket of poverty; hunger, illiteracy and HIV/AIDS (Easterly 1203- 1250). This “Marshall Plan for Africa” therefore seems morally ordained and justifiable. Is it? Many people, especially children die in Africa daily because of hunger and disease. Compared to other parts of the world Sub-Saharan Africa leads. Figure 1: Official Aid Trend from 1999-2009 (Source: OECD, April 2010) In her article, Foreign Aid: Diplomacy, Development, Domestic, 2007, Carol Lancaster observes that, there is no clear reason as to why governments give foreign aid. He cites bilateral aid that often serves divergent interests to suite the aid giver. She reiterates that foreign aid has been given as a tool for realpolitik diplomacy. During the cold war for instance the US and its European allies modeled it aid to counter the spread of communism. The Soviet Union also gave massive monetary and military aid to communist friends like Cuba, Vietnam, and North Korea. To Carol this aid is morally wrong-not meant to help the poor but to suite ideological goals of the giver. In a classic low-income country, foreign aid accounts for a substantial source of external funding, almost adding up to 7-8% of GNP (World Bank, 1998) (figure 1). The dilemma is what has this massive transfer of aid yielded in reducing poverty in developing countries? Empirical research has shown that there exists no correlation between aid and economic development (Boone 289-329.) Other studies show that aid can support economic growth positively under certain conditions; in countries with viable and sound macroeconomic policies (Burnside and Dollar 847-868, Svensson 275- 297). This reminds us of aid-conditionality; that aid should, but is not always channeled to where it is needed; where it can spur growth and address policy changes. So does it mean that the more than 60 year period of aid giving has been unethical? Dambisa Moyo argued that aid is not working in Africa and proposes a better way forward. She observes that aid has increased over time, but laments that Africa’s growth has decreased with increasing poverty-more than 1 trillion US dollars expended to Africa in the last 60 years but not much to show about it. To her aid is harmful; it supports corruption and undermines local accountability (29-48). Moyo then proposes alternatives to foreign aid; attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), raising money for capital markets, minimizing trade restrictions and improving financial services for the poor (98-148) Myopically, Moyo doesn’t see any utility in aid giving. With this entire pessimistic story on aid-giving, what is the way forward, what approach are aid-givers turning to. Recent Approaches in Aid Giving; Devising a New Strategy Pessimists argue that aid enhances corruption, encourages laziness and dependency, it serves ideological interests of the donor and it should be abolished; in short, there is no utility in aid giving. Dismal performance of aid in aiding the economic growth of poor countries over the last 60 years has elicited sharp reactions and attention. Agreeable is the need to re-evaluate the strategies and motives for aid giving. During the cold war, much aid was bilateral and ideological. It was readily available to friends and foes that were ready to shift allegiance and loyalty, to either support communism or democratic capitalism; rather than assist the poor (Lancaster Carol, Alesina and Dollar). Much aid was tied-to suit specific needs of the donor, for instant much of US aid was tied to its security and geopolitical considerations. After colonialism most colonial powers gave foreign aid to maintain cultural ideological ties with their former colonies; for instance, the French development aid to Francophone countries and Britain’s commonwealth development aid. After the cold war, focus is on development and poverty alleviation, although some donors still “tie” some forms of bilateral aid to serve commercial or diplomatic interests. Most donors especially the Scandinavian countries have focused their aid on addressing the “Basic Needs” of the poor. This rhymes with Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the Basic Needs Approach to development. Another approach that has been adopted by donors is “aid conditionality”, a view supported by Burnside and Dollar. The multilateral aid agencies, such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) give aid with conditionality, they demand political accountability and sound economic policies The Structural Adjustment Policies are good evidence. Some bilateral aid givers also demand that they be involved in project selection, monitoring and evaluation. The applicability of aid conditionality in enhancing aid efficiency is however another story all-together. Lancaster observes that much aid giving since the cold war has shifted from Bilateral to Multilateral. This has been accompanied by more demand for accountability in its use. It is also observable that certain forms of aid have considerably reduced since the end of the cold war; for instance military aid. The debate on aid giving continues and new approaches, theories and paradigms arise every new day with ethical and moral considerations being watered by human rights crusaders occasionally. Moral Obligation: Are We Commanded To Give? Is there moral obligation in aid giving? Are the “rich” morally obligated to help the poor? According to UNICEF, in 2007 alone, close to 9.2 million children less than five years of age died from mostly preventable diseases. These are caused by sicknesses such as diarhoea and malaria or HIV/AIDS, malnutrition, conflicts and poor hygiene. Women also die during delivery or few days afterwards. UNICEF adds that, low technology and high impact interventions such as vaccines can prevent avoidable deaths. It is possible that the world can afford this. But the question is why has it been impossible to abate poverty, reduce hunger and provide cheap and adequate treated mosquito-nets to the worlds poor? Are the rich giving enough to assist the poor? And are they morally obliged to do so? Singer posits that we spend money on things that we may not really need; they may be movies, concerts, new cars or houses. He challenges us to donate a small amount to save a child-by not contributing we are living a child to, a life we could have saved. Singer proposes that we should give (5). Are we morally obliged to help the poor if we are rich? Is it a divine command from God as the theory of divine command holds? Or is it a practice of natural law, as pioneered by Aquinas? Is helping the world poor “natural” and failing to help “unnatural’ or vise versa? Or could helping the world’s poor be driven by the psychological theory of Thomas Hobbes, who observed that human beings are selfish and helping others is driven by self interest. All these theories find a place in the myth of feeding and helping the world poor, Christians can argue that “giving” is a divine command “the hand that gives is more blessed that the hand that takes”. Critics of aid claim that it serves the interests of the rich (Hobbesian), while others can prove that we give or fail to, because it is “natural” Talking about affluence today, singer observes that equivalent to the 1.4 billion poor, are 1 billion people living in affluence, spending their wealth on palatial homes, luxurious boats and planes. To meet the needs of such people singer argues that Lufthansa Technik, unveiled plans to configure Boeing’s new 787 dreamliner, with the private version carrying 30 while in commercial service it carries 330 passengers (9-10). Singer gives us a seven-point plan on how we can be part of the global efforts against poverty. He proposes that we give to aid agencies-monthly, yearly, and quarterly or otherwise, tell others about it and make sure that we are part of this-no showing of though, and petitioning corporations to give part of their incomes to charities (Ch, 5). In his categorical imperative, and “standing” at the right opposite end of utilitarianism, Kant gives us a framework of determining the absolute moral principles that we should follow. Kant observes that consequences do not guarantee moral authority to what we do, because we cannot predict the consequences. He identifies and differentiates hypothetical and categorical imperative, the former being conditional while the latter is absolute and functional. Kant argues that we should “Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of another, always at the same time as an end and never simply as a means.” He also proposes that we should always act as if our actions are models of universal law (Kant 402-437). In the light of Kantian meta-ethics, moral principles are affirmed and not dictated by circumstances. Is giving to the poor a sign of good will or a duty to do so, irregardless of circumstances? If I give a million US dollars to help the victims of cholera in Haiti, only for it to enter into the pockets of powerful politicians, I’m I obliged irregardless of the outcome to give more? Nevertheless Kantian ideas emphasize universalism; they are democratic and values humanity. We can learn much from his ideas to be responsible. Resting the Case: Recommended Approach We can never be peaceful, so long as our neighbors are suffering and miserable. North Africans poverty and unemployment has become mayhem, not only for the region but also for bordering European states. Cases of illegal immigrations to France from North Africa abound. Walter Rodney often argued that Europe is the cause of African’s problems; colonialism delayed development. Whether this is true or not, poverty in poor countries often bothers the developed nations. It appears morally unethical for the likes of Bill Gates, Abramovich and others to board a private jet to meet a friend in a nearby restaurant while at the same time a child dies of cholera in the Central African Republic, a life that could have been saved by less than Five US dollars. A hierarchy of issues however arises in the efforts made towards eradicating poverty in poor societies. We should continue giving-for those who can give, but at the end of the day the giver and the receiver should ask themselves whether it a worthy cause. Ethical issues in aid giving are associated to aid conditionality, “tied aid” and motives of the donor. Critics argue that aid is not free money as it sounds, and poor countries often pay much than they borrowed leading to the debt crisis and an unending obligation of poor countries to always beg and rely on the rich for “debt forgiveness”

questions for international economics, writing homework help

questions for international economics, writing homework help.

The questions are attached below. Can you give me the answers in detail? Thank you!For example,1.This question concerns purchasing power parity and Figure 1.Define the real exchange rate. What is the equilibrium value?It appears that the Japanese nominal exchange rate experienced a significant shock between 1984 and 1986. Was there a similar shock to the Real Exchange Rate? Explain.Consider Japan between the years 1986 and 2000. Is the Japanese currency overvalued or undervalued in those years? Explain.Above, you chose over or undervalued. Using the IS curve and the Expectations Augmented Phillips curve explain how a country would move from that state (either over or undervalued) to an equilibrium. Given your answer to 1d, are the data consistent with your discussion? Explain.Now consider the overall graph, that is all years 1980 to 2012. Are the trends depicted in the graph consistent with the empirical findings of the Taylor and Taylor article we discussed in class?More questions are in the attached files.
questions for international economics, writing homework help