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E-Compensation vs P-Based Compensation Tool Case Study

Web-Based Compensation versus Stand-Alone P-Based Compensation Tool Human Resource Management is one of the most important functions in an organization, mainly because it involves handling issues related to the most important asset – people. The HR department performs various functions, one of them being compensation. Over the years, the compensation role of HR has undergone improvements and upgrades, from the paper-based system to the current digital systems. Moreover, there are two main electronic systems used – web-based system and stand-alone PC-based system – both of which have advantages and disadvantages as discussed in the subsequent section. Web-based compensation tool has various advantages, the first one being the fact that the system does not need installation in the organization; rather, it is hosted by an external service provider. This helps the organization to avoid set-up and staffing related costs. Secondly, since the system is hosted by outsiders, and the firm just needs subscription for system usage, there is no involvement of the firm in upgrading the system or database; these roles are performed by the Application Service Providers. Moreover, the company does not have to worry about storage space, as this is handled by the ASP. Thirdly, the system can be accessed from anywhere and at any time as long as there is internet connection. Fourthly, since the system is based on subscription, the firm can control its operation costs by subscribing for only the rights or user seats required at any given time. Lastly, there are minimal chances of error, as the system has a tool for automatic update and thorough-check of information (Walker and Perrin, 2001). Despite these advantages, the web-based system has various disadvantages. First, since the system is based on subscription, it tends to be expensive in the long-run, as subscription fees will have to be paid as long as the firm uses the system. Secondly, the overreliance on internet may be a challenge, especially when connections are interrupted or slow, and to some extent, the firm may lag behind as data cannot not be updated off-line; indeed, internet is never available everywhere. In addition, since computing environment is shared among many users, there are possibilities of the system being overcrowded or overloaded when traffic is heavy. Moreover, the firm loses control of the whole system, as management of the system is left exclusively to the ASP (Kavanagh, Thite, and Johnson, 2012). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the case of PC-based system, the following advantages are available. First, the firm has total control of the system and it may decide to switch from one software to another, based on updates and support. Secondly, the firm can make IT decisions at will, since it controls the whole process. Thirdly, there are minimal or no chances of the system being overloaded, and it can run faster when dedicated to a single user. The main disadvantage of PC-based system is the fact that set-up cost may be high due to the cost of software and installations. Secondly, the system can only be accessed from local areas, unless special remote applications are provided. In addition, operational costs are high, as the firm has to spend on system upgrade, while user seats have to be paid for regardless of whether they are used or not (Gueutal and Stone, 2005). From the above discussion, it is important for every firm to analyze its options carefully before making a choice on the best system to employ. However, for a small organization, the web-based tool is preferable, as it requires minimal costs outlay and it requires no system administrator. Nevertheless, all merits and demerits of each system have to be weighed in order to avoid chances of choosing the wrong system. Benefits from the Use of E-Compensation in Job-Evaluation E-compensation is a vital tool in job-evaluation and it provides benefits to all parties involved including the HR team, management and employees. Generally, the HR derives benefits from the use of e-compensation in job-evaluation, as the system helps the HR to differentiate various jobs based on their descriptions and relationship (Gueutal and Stone, 2005). In addition, the HR is able to peg salaries and benefits on the jobs based on their ratings, thus ensuring uniformity in compensation. Moreover, with e-compensation, it is easier to compare data from the industry for related jobs and then make informed decisions on compensation package that is most suitable for the job. In addition, e-compensation helps both the HR and management to use automated base salary increments, which are automatically routed for approval during review periods. Employees also benefit from the use of e-compensation in job-evaluation, as total compensation reporting is provided. In addition, e-compensation ensures equity in employee compensation, as human errors and biases are eliminated through automated and programmed job-evaluation process. Moreover, information for making decisions affecting employees is available throughout, thus making job-evaluation easy; indeed, the system allows information to be accessed at any time as long as one is connected to the system, thus saving on time and cost (Gueutal and Stone, 2005). We will write a custom Case Study on E-Compensation vs P-Based Compensation Tool specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Benefits and Drawbacks of Centralized Approach to Managing Merit Pay System Merit pay system is a compensation system where employees are paid based on their performance. Basically, there are two main approaches used to manage this system – centralized approach and decentralized approach – both of which have benefits and drawbacks. Centralized approach allows the HR specialists, the discretion to control pay increments based on various factors such as budget constraint, turnover, market pressure and so on (Gueutal and Stone, 2005). Secondly, it is easy to transfer employees from one department to another with a view of increasing performance. Thirdly, decision-making is easy and fast, as it does not involve many departments or personnel; rather, the HR uses merit increase grids as guidelines. One drawback of centralized approach is that, “the compensation program may suit general corporate needs, but not individual department’s needs” (Gasbarre, N.d). Secondly, line managers are excluded from merit pay administration despite their direct interaction with the employees; as such, there is a possibility of incorrect data being used in compensation. Lastly, centralized approach has limitations in motivating employees, as HR managers do not have direct contact with employees in their workstations; as such, they may not provide other incentives except money to motivate them. Types of Integrated Analytical Features in Compensation Planning With the changing HR environment, managers need to embrace the use of technology that will enhance the whole compensation process to remain competitive. One type of integrated analytical feature of an e-compensation planning is presence of a compensation planner data sheet, which helps managers to make informed decisions as well as to enhance efficiency in compensation process. This feature provides solutions based on available salary budget and allocation procedures, as well as historical reward data; in the process, it helps in minimizing costs and controlling budget. Therefore, this feature helps managers to make compensation based on performance index, and motivate employees without having to spend beyond their budget limit. Another feature is enterprise resource planning feature that enables integration of various HR data, including employee’s profiles, job title/description, grade and salary range, and performance appraisal in order to be used effectively in compensation planning. This saves valuable time for the HR; it also helps the HR to avoid hassles of collating and transferring data for decision making. Moreover, this feature allows HR to create rules and to filter employee groups through an automatically updating support tool. The third feature is the integrated manager self-service tool that enhances planning and allocation of various compensation components through enhanced decision making capability. Here, managers can easily update any aspect arising in the organization related to employee compensation including employee change in status, pay increment, bonus recommendation, and interdepartmental transfer among others. Obstacles to achieving Potential of Web-Based Internal Equity Tools Web-based internal equity tool is an important compensation tool used by organizations in the contemporary HR environment. Normally, it involves online job evaluation, pay grading and performance analysis to ensure employees are equitably compensated within the organization (Information Resources Management Association, 2011). However, there are various challenges that HR faces in the use of this tool, thus failing to gain from its potential benefits. Not sure if you can write a paper on E-Compensation vs P-Based Compensation Tool by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the barriers is the fact that most of the web-based internal equity tools “are not generally integrated across software packages” (Gueutal and Stone, 2005, p. 173). Software programs that support this tool may be available in the market, but their availability in the web may be a problem. Secondly, many organizations still believe in external equity, thus they are not motivated to embrace internal equity; as a result, they fail to invest in web-based internal equity tools. Thirdly, the organizations may lack skilled employees on the use of web-based compensation tools, while at the same time the organization may fail to invest in this tool. Strategies Used By HR to Evaluate the Quality of Market Data The quality of market data used in HR decision is very important because any compromise in quality of data will definitely lead to improper decisions. It is also important that all data received by the HR must be accurate in order to avoid incurring unnecessary costs due to inaccurate compensation. Generally, HR’s initial role is to review data received from the market to establish its credibility, completeness, and reasonableness. One of the strategies used by HR to evaluate the data is the use of Data Quality Matrix (DQM). Here, data from different sources is classified into a “set of standard, simple, useful categories of quality” (Hanson, N.d). This strategy uses data calibration records, accuracy checks, duplicate samples and split sample to assign data to quality levels, which may be bias or precision. Another strategy for evaluation of the quality of data is the use of data quality scorecard. This strategy “allows aggregated analysis and drill-downs” (Maydanchik, 2007, p.294), and provides scores to data, based on its quality rating. The other data evaluation strategy is the recurrent data quality assessment, which involves initiation of data quality improvement program to determine the credibility of data collection process. This strategy normally focuses on assessment of data trend by setting benchmarks and identifying any potential sources of data quality compromise. References Gasbarre, D. (N.d). Compensation Administration. Encyclopaedia of Business. 2nd ed. Web. Gueutal, H. and Stone, D. (2005).The Brave New World of eHR: Human Resources Management in the Digital Age. SA: Jossey-Bass. Hanson, S. (N.d). Evaluating Data for Data Quality. Web. Information Resources Management Association. (2011).Enterprise Information Systems: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications. NY: Idea Group Inc. (IGI). Kavanagh, M. J., Thite, M. and Johnson, R. D. (2012).Human Resource Information Systems. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Maydanchik, A. (2007). Data Quality Assessment.NY: Technics Publications. Walker, A. and Perrin, T. (2001).Web-Based Human Resources. NY: McGraw Hill Professional.
HI 312A MU Old Fashioned Ideas of Social Pathology & Social Disorganization Questions.

I’m working on a history case study and need a sample draft to help me study.

HI 312Take-Home Instructions:You should answer four of the following questions in paragraph format. Each question is worth ten points.You must reference at least two readings per question (assigned readings or readings that are part of class material). You must provide citations for the sources you use (the citation style is up to you).Type your answers in a Word document and submit it to Canvas. You should write at least 250 words per question, but a complete response may be longer.Suggestions:These five questions ask you to analyze the course content. The goal is to make connections among the course concepts.You should rely on the course readings as well as class materials to answer these questions, and you are not expected to conduct outside research.These questions are intentionally very broad. You should choose a few examples from the course material that relate to the question to help you answer it.CHOOSE FOUR OF THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:How has your understanding of the concept of race changed by studying it in different historical contexts (different times and places)?How did groups in Europe and/or Europe’s colonies that were targeted by racism respond, and why?In what ways did groups in Europe and/or Europe’s colonies construct their identities when confronted with concepts of race, and why?How did other identities and concepts (such as religion, gender, science, nationalism) impact the definition of race in Europe and/or Europe’s colonies, and why?How did concepts of race contribute to violence against targeted groups in Europe and/or Europe’s colonies, and why?
HI 312A MU Old Fashioned Ideas of Social Pathology & Social Disorganization Questions

Chamberlain College of Nursing Week 5 Interpreting Normal Distributions HW.

Initial Post InstructionsWeek 5 Graded Discussion:Log onto website where you can observe your service bill for the last 12 months (electric bill, cell phone bill, water bill, etc.). If you do NOT feel comfortable sharing this data, you can make up values.In excel, list the values of your bill for the last 12 months on one column.Find the sample mean and sample standard deviation of your data.Pick three bills from the last 12 months and change the values into z-scores. What does the z-score tell you about that particular month?AnalysisBetween what two values would be considered a normal bill? Remember, being within 2 Standard Deviations is considered normal.Are any of your bills in the last 12 months unusual? Very unusual?Are there times when you would accept an “unusual” bill? Explain.
Chamberlain College of Nursing Week 5 Interpreting Normal Distributions HW

Role of the Press in Civil Rights Synthesis Essay

Two veteran journalists come together to investigate the role played by the media during the Civil Rights era. Hank Klibanoff and Gene Roberts are both seasoned award winning journalists whose familiarity with south side journalism proves valuable in “The Race Beat”. The two journalists have done a tremendous job in arranging the history of the press activities over the Civil Rights era. “The Race Beat” covers several aspects concerning the history of the black press. This history dates as far back as the nineteenth century. This paper proves that although the black press started the push for Civil Rights in the south, the integration of the nation’s press turned the tables on segregation. “The Race Beat” outlines the progress of media coverage in the South. At the beginning of the book, the authors paint a picture of a zealous black press agitating for equality. During these early times, it was customary to expect a story about racial inequality to be emphasized only by the black media. Any Civil Rights stories by the rest of the media came as a surprise to the general population. After this initial push by dedicated African American newsmen, the southern editors entered the arena. Most of these southerners were composed of liberal newspaper and magazine editors. The bravery and energy exhibited by some of these editors served as motivation for most southern reporters. According to the authors, the south was soon flocked by national news reporters and photographers. The book’s climax has the nation’s attention tuned to events surrounding the Civil Rights. For instance, the book details an event in which Robert Schakne a CBS reporter forced the crowd to give a synthetic reaction just so he could film it. This event shows that the demand for Civil Rights stories was at an all time high. The interest in Civil Rights coverage was mostly fueled by increased national demand for segregation related stories. An example of such a story includes the trial for the murder of Emmett Till. This trial was covered extensively by the national media. The turning point in the press coverage of the Civil Rights is most likely the division among southern editors. At the beginning, most southern editors were contented with observing events from far away. However, at one point in the book the southern editors started taking Civil Rights issues more personally. For instance, some editors from the south started calling for mass resistance. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the editors from the south were forming partnerships with segregationists. These behaviors were countered by the fearless acts of other southern editors who were sympathetic of the Civil Rights Movement. The push and pull between southern editors acted as the invitation to the national media. Eventually, the voice of the segregationists was becoming overwhelmed by the presence of national media. The presence of the national media proved to be a major advantage for the Civil Rights Movement. The competition factor between national media acted as the final push against Civil Rights. At one point, reporters from all parts of the country were fighting for opportunities to portray injustices. The authors give an overview of the situation in Little Rock School where reporters from all parts of the country had gathered. This fanaticism eventually turned into real compassion. The book indicates that without realizing it the reporters’ hearts were already won over by the Civil Rights Movement.

“Point Blank: Guns and Violence in America” by Gary Kleck Essay (Critical Writing)

i need help writing an essay Table of Contents Introduction Authors’ Use of Language Evaluation of Evidence Influence on the Authors Authors’ Perception on the Topic Works Cited Introduction Controversy surrounding gun control has been existence in America for over a century. While possession of guns has been widely associated with injury and death of innocent people, guns have also been known to save lives and prevent crimes when used appropriately (Valdez 7). According to the federal government’s national vital statistic report of 2001, 11001 people were murdered by use of a fire arm, 924 died as a result of accidental shootings, while 16455 people used guns to commit suicide (Gold 11). Thousands of Americans are dying each year from gun inflicted injuries. However, the same guns are used by police and other law enforcing agents to protect people against crime. Opponents of gun control such as Kleck Gary oppose gun control citing that such regulations have no significant effect on the overall crime reduction in America. On the other hand, proponents of gun control argue that ownership of more guns often results in increased deaths emanating from use of fire arms. Authors’ Use of Language In his book, Point blank: guns and violence in America, Gary Kleck is contemptuous of gun control proponents. According to Kleck, the central rationale for gun control as a means of controlling violence is ‘eminently commonsensical’ (Kleck 429). He argues that the effects of disarming violent people are limited in scope and would not necessarily produce any net violence reducing impact. The writer is critical of the proponents’ views which he refers to as ‘unduly simplified conception of the role of weaponry in human violence’ (Kleck 429). Susan Dudley Gold accommodates the views of gun control opponents and incorporates them in her discussion. The writer presents the views of proponents and supports them with relevant evidence. She assesses both sides of the discussion and acknowledges that the ongoing debate continues to be complicated by lack of consensus between the two sides (Gold 17). The writer is not cynical of the opposing side; rather, she considers the arguments from both sides in order to make an informed decision. Evaluation of Evidence According to Gary Kleck, general gun ownership appears to have an insignificant net effect on the rates of crime although they affect the fraction of crimes committed with guns (Kleck, 430). Kleck claims that gun ownership levels have no net effect on suicide rates especially due to the wide range of alternative suicide methods. In addition, gun ownership levels appear to have no relationship with the rates of fatal gun accidents since such accidents are rare and confined to a small portion of the population. This makes it difficult to detect any statistical relationship existing between gun levels and accident rates (Kleck 430). However, the writer fails to adequately support his evidence with research findings and statistical data. Susan Gold clearly outlines the views of gun control advocates and supports them with statistical evidence. The proponents argue that possession of a gun does not guarantee family and property safety. Indeed, such possession endangers lives of family members through accidental shootings and gun related suicides (Gold, 17). This argument is backed by Arthur Kellermann, a medical school professor, who in his research found that death from such incidences occur twice as much as death resulting from killings by armed criminals. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, proponents of gun control argue that the more guns there are, the more the deaths resulting from guns. In support of this argument, the writer cites the report issued by the federal by Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Fire arms which indicated that the highest rates of violent crimes was in 1990 when the sale of small fire arms was at the peak (Gold 17). Influence on the Authors Susan Daudley Gold was heavily influenced by the escalating violence rates across regions of the world. In her book, she gives a statistical outline of the crime rates in various countries as well as gun murder rates. The writer looks at the debate on guns control from both perspectives in order to establish the reasons why criminal rates remain high in most parts of the world. Gary Kleck was highly influenced by the irony prevalent in the gun control struggle. When it comes to the issue of gun control, the traditional political positions often become reversed. The debate has forced liberals and conservatives to switch places whereby liberalists support gun laws whereas conservatives oppose them. The writer out rightly rejects the proponents view by criticizing the arguments that they place in support of gun laws. Authors’ Perception on the Topic According to Susan Gold, the century old argument revolves around the issues of the second amendment, the relationship between gun ownership and crime and the effectiveness of gun control regulations. She is accommodates views from both sides and suggests that the only reason for persistence of the highly controversial debate is the complication arising from the fact that guns are used for both protection and harm. Gary Kleck on the other hand disagrees with the proponents of gun control citing that there exists no valid relationship between levels of guns and rates of violent crimes. However, the writer acknowledges the need for a workable gun control strategy due to the dangerous nature of gun as a weapon. Works Cited Gold D. Susan. Gun Control. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 2004. Print. Kleck, Gary. Point Blank: Guns and Violence in America. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 2005. Print. We will write a custom Critical Writing on “Point Blank: Guns and Violence in America” by Gary Kleck specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Valdez, Angela. Gun Control. New York: InfoBase Publishing, 2003, Print.

Challenges of Brexit for Ireland’s Gross Domestic Product

“Brexit, however, poses a unique and unprecedented challenge for Ireland. We will be more affected than any other EU Member State by the UK’s departure, given the depth and strength of our historic, human, political, economic and cultural ties. Ireland and the UK both joined the European Union in 1973 and the UK has been a trusted partner and close ally at the negotiating table ever since. So, while we respect the UK’s decision to leave the European Union, we profoundly regret it.” (Coveney 2018) Discuss the above statement with reference to the components of Irish Gross Domestic Product Brexit Background and Investment In this article we will discuss the above statement using topics such as Brexit Background / History, consumption, government expenditure, investments such as housing markets, interest rates and finally net exports. All of the outlined aspects will be impacted by Brexit in the forthcoming years, most of which will have a negative effect to Ireland’s economy, but opportunities will also arise. On Thursday 23rd June 2016 a referendum was held in The UK to give the public the choice whether to stay or leave the EU. This meant that anyone of voting age in England, Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland had a say. The Vote leave Campaign won by a margin of 51.9% in favor of leave to 48.1% in favour to remain. A quick breakdown of statistics showed that both England and Wales voted to leave the EU by 53.4% to 46.6% and 52.5% to 47.5% respectively while Scotland and Northern Ireland voted to stay by 62% to 38% and 55.8% to 44.2%. The ‘Brexit’ campaigners won the referendum by using well known and respected public figures such Nigel Farage, Boris Johnson and Michael Gove with each of them portraying a different role in the campaign. Farage was the vice chairman of the campaign and a prominent figure in UK politics. He highlighted immigration as the main issue of the vote leave campaign for a multitude of reasons. Firstly, annual legal immigration into the U.K. is now ten times what it was in 1993 and experts believe this vast cultural diversity led to fears of job losses which the vote leave campaign used to drive the vote to exit the EU. One third of those who voted in favor of Britain leaving the EU said immigration concerns were the main reason. 53% said they were motivated by the fact that the U.K. were unable to make their own laws without approval from EU bureaucrats in Brussels. Whilst Farage focused on the issue of immigration to sway the UK’s decision both Boris Johnson and Michael Gove played pivotal roles. Boris Johnson travelled the country meeting with the public and winning the hearts of many voters. Michael Gove was hugely involved in the Vote leave campaigns manifest also. Another factor of the vote leave campaign that appealed to many of the voters was the assertion that leaving the EU would free up £350m a week extra to spend on the NHS. A political slogan such as this true or not is the kind that all parties dream of as it is easy to understand and attractive to voters of all ages and ethnic groups. (“No surprise then that Vote Leave chose to splash it across the side of their battle bus.” – BBC News 24th June 2016) Once Vote leave won the referendum article fifty of the Lisbon Treaty was invoked that allows the UK and EU two years to agree terms of the split. As highlighted above, many factors led to Vote Leave winning the referendum, meaning Irelands economy will face several challenges due to fact that Ireland has such strong political, economic and cultural ties with the UK. The investment sector is one area of the economy that will be hugely affected by the UK’s decision to leave the EU. Housing markets will see negative and positive outcomes in the coming years. The fall in the British pound will mean the number of British buyers will decrease as the pound dropped to the lowest it has been since 1981. (“As The Irish Times reported in February, 60 percent of buyers of plus €1 million homes are international, 40 percent of which are from the UK. The uncertainty alone is going to severely affect their willingness to buy and the weakening pound their ability to be competitive. – Ben Thompson – Irish Home Magazine) Although Brexit will create challenges for housing markets it will also create new opportunities. It will create inward investment as multinational companies will flock to Ireland as we along with the UK are the two-leading base of operations for many companies. Ireland attracts these transnationals through their low corporation tax rate of 12.5% along with our highly skilled workforce. Most of the Irish citizens living in the UK were pro-remain, some of these people will now return home which will be a huge boost to the economy as we need skilled workers such as doctors, nurses, IT professionals etc. Contractors in the construction industry will also need skilled laborers to build the number of houses that will be needed to accommodate these people. FDI, or Foreign Direct Investment is another area of Irelands economy that will see some positive opportunities during this time. With the UK’s decision to leave the EU its share of new FDI is now in decline. This in turn creates an opportunity for Ireland that cannot be overlooked. The UK has been the favourite investment base for foreign investors in the EU but in the wake of Brexit, Ireland is looking more and more attractive due to its low corporate tax rate of 12.5% and the fact that is the only EU country where English is the primary language. Also the Irish tax regime is open and transparent and complies fully with OECD guidelines and EU competition law. Despite the UK’s intention to cut their corporate tax rate to 15%, it will be possible to secure a greater share of foreign direct investment as Ireland is about to become the only native English-speaking country in the EU. Financial services headquarter operations may be moved from the UK to another it may be possible to strengthen our trade with the UK as new trading terms will require to be negotiated with the strength of being a member of the EU. Whilst it is difficult to take a benefit from a friend’s loss, Ireland must have no issues about taking every opportunity arising in the wake of the Brexit fallout. In our opinion change brings with it opportunity. Consumption and Government Expenditure Brexit imposes a lot of impact on Irelands consumption. There are many potential scenarios for Ireland post-Brexit. The four main scenarios are A European Economic Area (EEA), A Customs Union (CU), A Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and A World Trade Organisation (WTO) scenario. The most ideal scenario for Ireland and most of Europe, is EEA. This is similar to Norway’s agreement. In this situation, trade costs would remain at a similar level and GDP would decrease by 2.8% versus 7% in the WTO situation. The GDP impact in the CU and FTA scenarios would decrease at the same level of 4.3% (Thelle and Sunesen 2018). Two components of Ireland’s GDP that will be affected post- Brexit are, consumption and government expenditure. Consumption, in economics, is the spending of goods and services by households (Devitt 2018). Consumption is one of the components of Irelands gross domestic product (GDP) that will be gravely affected by Brexit. Inflation affects consumption in many ways. In 2016, Ireland had a low inflation rate. This was due to a fall in value of the sterling that year, after Britains vote to leave the EU. The spending of consumers that year, rose due to the price of imports decreasing which of course, in turn, lowered the prices of the goods imported (Central Bank of Ireland 2017). With Ireland and the United Kingdom (UK) being so close in proximity, it is true to say that, depending on which type of Brexit takes place, the effect on imports and exports from Ireland to the UK could be major. The main sector for UK imports and exports is the agricultural sector. This area of the economy is one that will face many problems post-Brexit. Approximately 40% of Ireland exports to the UK are that of food (Mangan 2018). The UK may not maintain the current EU tariffs on food products after Brexit which could cause severe impact on consumption, thus, affecting Irelands GDP. In the event of a rise in inflation due to this, Irelands cost of living could increase which would negatively impact consumption as a whole. In the event of an EEA Brexit, agri-food will cause a decline in Irelands GDP by 1% out of 2.8%. In the case of a hard Brexit (WTO), agri-food will reduce the GDP by 1.9% out of 7% with the pharmaceutical and chemical sector negatively affecting it the most with 2.6% out of 7% (Thelle and Sunesen 2018). These figures paint a grim future for Irelands GDP overall. It is clear, with agri-food having such a major impact, rural areas in Ireland will suffer the most post-Brexit. “Production in the sector would also be negatively affected in all scenarios ranging from -10 per cent (EEA) to -21 per cent (WTO) compared to the 2030 baseline production level. The impact in the CU and FTA scenarios is -11 per cent to -12 per cent” (Thelle and Sunesen 2018). From this statement we can say that, employment in this sector would decline proportionally, causing major issues for the people of Ireland. Government expenditure is the consumption of the government and local authorities (Devitt 2018). An example of government expenditure would be, the building of a new motorway from Limerick to Galway. Government expenditure can be adjusted and influenced by a fiscal policy. A fiscal policy is an economic policy involving government spending and taxes (Gamez et al 2017). As of today, we are still paying for the mistakes of the Irish government with our outstanding debt being over €201 billion as of the end of 2017 (Department of Finance 2018). In the event of a hard Brexit, Ireland could be forced into recession and history could end up repeating itself. A report published by the fiscal council explained how the government need to “develop a clear anchor for spending plans if it is to avoid repeating mistakes of the past” (The Fiscal Council 2018). The report showed ways in which Ireland can improve its budget so to aim for a medium-term spending budget. If we are to plan ahead and prepare for all types of Brexit, we need to look at how we can improve our current financial state. The three main tools that need to be developed are; spending ceilings, debt target and rainy-day fund. The current government spending ceilings are unrealistic and not working (The Fiscal Council 2018). Ireland is constantly under-budgeting which means we are unable to foresee any shocks, for example, a hard Brexit. If we want to gain more control over government spending, an improvement in our debt target is imperative. The government has set debt targets; however, this was not seen in the budget for next year. The report prepared by the fiscal council suggests that, the government publish its debt targets so they can be ‘assessed over time’. As well as this, the report recommends setting a lower target than 55% of GDP as it is a more realistic goal. Lastly, an introduction of the rainy fund in 2019 could be the solutions to many potential problems post-Brexit. An increase in the current budgeted fund of €0.5 billion could benefit the state in the long-run, so to prepare for unforeseen events that could occur. Finally, in the wake of Brexit, another challenge that Ireland will face will be the border between Northern Ireland and The Republic of Ireland. Many firms will be affected by Brexit. Companies that have direct trading with Northern Ireland will face many problems, especially in the event of a WTO Brexit. “InterTradeIreland’s “Cross-border trade and supply chain linkages” report found that for just over a quarter of Irish firms, Northern Ireland is the destination for more than 95 per cent of their exports” (InterTradeIreland 2018). From this statement, we can see how necessary a mutual agreement on the border is. The introduction of border inspections will pose additional costs for traders in all scenarios. (Thelle and Sunesen 2018). InterTradeIreland advices companies currently benefitting from the cross-border trade, to plan ahead for the future and look for different options regarding trading relationships along with offering their full support (InterTradeIreland 2018). Resources • https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-32810887 (By Alex Hunt

Religious Studies homework help

Religious Studies homework help. For this option you will write a paper presenting a project procurement scenario from the project management perspective (example ? you are leading a project that needs to purchase materials, services, or resources). The paper will be based on procurement as defined by A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK?). You must include the following elements:Plan Procurement ManagementConduct ProcurementsControl ProcurementsClose Procurements.Your paper must have:An introduction. Use your introduction to summarize and define your topic, including a clear statement of the procurement goal.The discussion or body. The body of the paper must include:A discussion of the implications of proposed solutions for procurement and contracts.A discussion of how procurement works within project teams to facilitate the needs of projects.ÿYour evaluation and conclusions regarding possible methods of managing or addressing the problem raised by your opinion on the issues (supported by research).Current, relevant research from at least six to eight credible sources that are not used as readings in this course. At least three references must be peer-reviewed, scholarly sources, and the rest may be trade or professional procurement managementsources. You may certainly use your textbook and course readings, but these do not count as part of the required six to eight sources. The CSU-Global Library is a good place to find your resources. Cite and reference all sources used.The paper is expected to provide thoughtful analysis on the topic. Relate your paper to broader procurement and contract management issues, as discussed throughout the course. You are encouraged to add your own opinions, but those opinions should be carefully considered and supported by evidence. You are building on the work you?ve completed in the discussion forums and Critical Thinking Assignments. Be sure to incorporate feedback you have received along the way.A conclusion.Your paper should be eight to ten pages in length (not counting the cover and reference pages that you must include), well-written, and formatted according to the APA RequirementsReligious Studies homework help

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