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Download this literature review Download literature reviewextracted from a dissertation written by an Ashford University student. Read the literature review Essay

Download this literature review Download literature reviewextracted from a dissertation written by an Ashford University student. Read the literature review and critique it using this week’s readings and the following list to guide your thinking about the quality of the literature review: Is the literature review thorough and comprehensive? Explain. Describe the different kinds of sources that the research used to make key points about the topic. Provide examples of both seminal or foundational and contemporary studies that are used in the literature review. How well did the researcher integrate these sources to inform the reader about the topic? How well are important concepts defined and explained by the researcher? To what extent did the researcher clearly describe previous studies that are relevant to understanding the topic, including the study methodology, population, and research findings? What potential biases, if any, can you find in the literature review? To what extent did the researcher identify potential conflicts or disagreements about the topic?
Introduction: Warren Buffett Begins It is weird to think that there were the times when the name of Warren Buffet did not ring any bell. In the modern business world where the slightest change can possibly reinvent the whole world’s perception of what management and leadership is, such incredible instances of success as Warren Buffett’s one are truly worth taking a closer look at. When talking about the accomplishments of Buffett, it is necessary to mention that the man is one of those people who have redefined the whole perspective of a business theory. Understanding the way in which Buffett managed to reach for the top of his leadership career and achieved such tremendous success, one can see the impact that a single ma can have on the developing field of management and learn about new approaches towards unconventional entrepreneurial situations. Looking for the Pearls of Low Price: Below the Intrinsic Value. Buffett’s Organizational Situation To start with, Buffett’s situation was quite one of a kind. Instead of starting out as a clerk in a second-rate place, slowly moving to the position of the head of the company and then safely resuming the policy of the previous leader, with a lump sum of money to back him up in the case of a failure, Warren Buffett started with buying the stocks of the companies below their intrinsic value (Ryan, 2005). Further on, Buffett found the proper application for his revenues, buying out the Berkshire Hathaway Co. and becoming its leader for the rest of his career. It is the amazing strategy, the incredibly quick start and the unbelievable income brought by Warren Buffett’s strategy that are in the limelight of the given paper. From 105,000 to 105,000,000: The Legend of King Midas Has Been Proven Right Among the rest of Buffett’s achievements, the fact that he managed to multiply his income by $1000 is worth mentioning. After purchasing the shares beneath their nominal value, as it has been mentioned previously, he sold them right in the time when their price rose several times, thus, increasing his investment into the Berkshire Hathaway from the initial $105,000 to $105,000,000 (Ryan, 2005, 35). Warren Buffett and His Leadership Qualities: Watch the Legend Being Born However, it was not only the incredible luck and the amazing business skills that helped Warren Buffett out in his incredible venture with the Berkshire Hathaway. Apart from the talent to operate a truly great enterprise, the ability to organize the work of several hundreds of people and the rest of the amazing leadership and business skills that Warren Buffett possesses, the newly appointed leader of the Berkshire Hathaway was supposed to have a number of personal qualities that could help him survive in the fast-changing lane of the Berkshire business life (Ryan, 2005). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, listing and assessing the key qualities which predetermined his triumph and made him the leader in a matter of fifteen minutes, as the company’s then vice president would recall further on, one will be able not only to understand Buffett’s approaches and his incredible personality better, but also to see what makes a true leader who is capable of making groundbreaking changes. Humility: only the modest survive If there is such a thing in the world as the ability to run the business in a completely modest and honest way, Warren Buffett must be the king of it. Neither has he written any autobiographies (yet), nor has he ever been boastful or self-sufficient. Although it is widely accepted that the leader must be sled-assured and even somewhat arrogant when dealing with his business (thus, supposedly, establishing his one and only means of control – the power of fear), Buffett disregards any of the above-mentioned ways to trigger the public’s attention. Instead, he has won the admiration of millions of people by portraying himself as an honest and modest entrepreneur, allowing people to judge him by his accomplishments. It must be admitted that the given technique works perfectly in his case. Influence on people: listen to the chief Partially because of the above-mentioned modesty, partially because of his success, Buffett has an immense influence on every single person whom he works with. Another impressive leadership quality, the ability to shape the others’ behavior by merely offering an example of an impeccable office worker is what Buffest is best at. It seems that Buffett’s behavior is incredibly catchy – as most sources claim, the entrepreneur has never exercised any specific policy on the way people should act in his company, yet Berkshire Hathaway still remains one of those places where every single employee provides a perfect performance, and where every single process goes like clockwork. According to Ann Miller, there are only three people whose influence can literally turn the world upside down, and Buffett is among them: “Bill Gates, Warren Buffet and Oprah Winfrey are the people with enough influence and social capital that they are amongst the most likely people to cause the balance of public opinion to tip” (Miller, 2011, 140). We will write a custom Essay on Warren Buffet and His Take-a-Chance Theory: Where Recklessness Leads specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, it is obvious that Buffett has the charisma one needs to persuade people to follow the example. A truly impressive quality, such skill is basically the essence of a real leader. Learning from mistakes Another important quality that Buffett doubtfully possess is the ability to drive conclusions even from his failures. Though it seems rather obvious skill for a business leader, it is necessary to admit that few people are able to analyze their failures and, which is even more humiliating for their dignity, to get valuable lessons learnt from these unfortunate experiences. However, with Buffett, this is not the case – the entrepreneur eagerly analyzes every single experience which he has ever had, including both the negative and the positive ones to come to certain conclusions and perfect his leadership style to the nth degree. As Buffett himself sad, “We all make mistakes. If you can’t make mistakes, you can’t make decisions” (Tucker, 2008, 307). Thus, whether Buffett loses or wins, he always has something to get from e4very situation he gets in, which has had the greatest impact on the Berkshire Hathaway Co. Strengths and Weaknesses: Forced to Admit His Mortality However, considering Buffett a human reincarnation of a kind of a financial god would be incorrect as well; like any other human being, he does make a mistake one in a while, and his career in Berkshire Hathaway is no exception to the rules of the wheel of fortune. Therefore, considering the strengths and especially the weaknesses of a business titan is bound to be quite an entertainment. Despite the fact that Buffett is an extraordinary person and must be considered the financial genius of the XXI century, it is still necessary to add that his own weaknesses and strengths do not exceed the ones of a typical businessman. What makes Buffet so special is not a particular asset, but the way he makes use of it, as well as of any weakness of his. Unable to bear the bureaucracy According to Warren’s own confession, his key weakness is the lack of patience when it comes to bureaucratic issues. Quite understandable and often recurring, the inability to handle emotions when things start to slacken because of immense paperwork is truly something that everyone can relate to. Creating the famous Buffett proviso (Waltzek, 2010, 69), he made an attempt to get rid of bureaucracy within his own company once and for all. However, the given weakness could have caused serious complexities when it came to restructuring the Berkshire Hathaway company. Since the entire redevelopment of the enterprise involved a lot of bureaucratic issues to tackle, the whole process could have gone wrong because of Buffett’s weakness. Not sure if you can write a paper on Warren Buffet and His Take-a-Chance Theory: Where Recklessness Leads by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the given issue must have also been used as a push for the Berkshire Hathaway Co. rapid development. Indeed, since Buffett hates so much any bureaucratic issues, he must have done everything to avoid them when rebuilding the company. Allocating the capital the correct way As for the greatest asset of one of the greatest businessmen on the Earth, the ability to handle the largest amounts of money in the most reasonable way must take the first prize. Since business is not only about earning considerable revenue, but also about knowing how to distribute the money and where to invest them, every leader must know what to do eventually with the obtained income: “[…] he became not a manager, steel executive, or insurance man, but an allocator of capital” (O’Loughlin, 2003, 58). Thus, with his ability to place the capital in the right venture and on the right time, Buffett has all the rights to be called a true leader. Blazing One’s Own Track: When a Leader Creates a Theory It goes without saying that a suitable theory defines the success of a venture to a considerable extent. When knowing in what manner, according to what plan and, which is the most important, for the sake of what purpose the actions are carried out, the leader will definitely take the company to its ultimate success. However, choosing an efficient theory is quite a complicated task as well, since the choice defines the outcome. Creating his own fundament for the venture to base on, Buffett managed to comprise several theories into a single entity and, thus, develop the most efficient method to raise the company from the ashes. Addressing the situation: when there is only one way It seems that Buffett’s personality as a leader, as well as his manner of tackling business situations, stems from a blend of various leadership theories; indeed, why settling with one single manner of reaching for success, when one can go for a whole bunch of them? For instance, in Buffett’s manner of leading, there are evident features of transactional leadership. According to the definition of the situational leadership provided by Martin, Buffett possesses the exact same qualities which the given leadership strategy requires: Transactional leadership applies to leaders who are task oriented and able to direct their groups in specific ways to accomplish finite goals. Transactional leaders work to gain their group’s compliance through various approaches: offering rewards, threatening punishment, appealing to group members’ sense of altruism, or appealing to followers’ rational judgment. (Martin, 2006, 47) Indeed, as it has been mentioned previously, Buffett did use certain means to encourage his employees for a better performance. However, it is also essential to mention that Buffett did not resort to a single style of leadership; Warren’s strategy was also based on situational leadership. Since Buffet faced the company almost falling to pieces, he had to take immediate actions. Taking into account that the company situation was rather unique, it was also obvious that Buffet was supposed to come up with a unique plan. Thus, if following Martin’s definition, Buffett’s style was also a representation of a situational leadership: Situational leadership theory accounts for two ideas: 1) any situation plays a large part in determining leadership qualities and the leader for that situation, and 2) the leadership qualities of an individual are themselves the products of a previous leadership situation that have molded the individual. (Martin, 2006, 46) Another leadership theory which made Buffett’s strategy complete was the trait leadership. “Trait theory describes a leader as one who exhibit a certain set of physical, intellectual, and interpersonal characteristics. This traditional leader would show good posture, be attractive, speak firmly, act confidently, be task oriented, and be assertive” (Martin, 2006, 44). As it has been mentioned before, Buffett has contributed a lot to building an image of an ideal manager, which means that he also uses the trait leadership theory. The servant of the customers: another prospect The last, but not the least, the servant leadership theory deserves a special mentioning. It is essential that Buffet not only poses himself as a perfect leader, but also tries to address the employees, influencing them and helping them improve. Thus, it can be considered that Buffett also uses a touch of servant leadership theory to add to his general strategy. Although Buffett does not take it to the same extreme as Martin does, there are still some elements of servant leadership in Buffett’s strategy: “You can approach your leadership role form a perspective of a servant first,” (50) Martin (2006) says, which Buffett seems to follow. Conclusion: Waiting for the Sequel Therefore, it is obvious that the effect which Buffett has had on the contemporary business management and leadership theory development is truly priceless; with all the valuable lessons learnt from Buffett’s experience of establishing his own business, one can possibly see that in the modern world, the key to success is the ability to adapt to the rapidly changing situation. Buffett’s experience is not only a peculiar story worth knowing – this is a model of a leader’s behavior which must be analyzed to understand what kind of qualities suffice for becoming a real entrepreneur. As it has turned out, in the modern world, triumph depends on one’s own personal qualities rather than on the initial capital. Of course, there are a lot of factors which are to be taken into account when entering the business world, like the level of competition and the clientele, as well as the demand and supply ratio of the goods in question. However, the key to business success is the leader’s personality – once the leader takes his/her place, the rest of the puzzle pieces fall into their places, which Buffett’s example is a perfect proof for. Reference List Martin, B. (2006). Outdoor relationship: Theory and practice. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Miller, A. (2011). Life’s lessons: Working together to transform education, business and government. Bloomington, IA: iUniverse. O’Loughlin, J. (2003). The real Warren Buffett: Managing capital, leading people. Yarmouth, ME: Nicholas Brealey Publishing. Ryan, B. (2005). Warren Buffett: Financier. New York City, NY: Infobase Publishing. Tucker, D. E. (2008). Using the power of purpose: How to overcome bureaucracy and achieve extraordinary business success! Bloomington, IA: Author House. Waltzek, C. (2010). Wealth building strategies in energy, metals and other markets. New York, NY: John Wiley
Is the British political class to blame for political disaffection and disengagement? The Founding Fathers suggested that a democracy can only come to impartial decisions if both high levels of representation and deliberation take place (Gargarella, 1998). As a result of growing political disengagement and disaffection within contemporary British politics, there is a growing, “focus on the quality of representative democracy in Britain and on the quality of participatory democracy” (Kelso, 2007, p365) – the relationship that has been recognised is that political disaffection and disengagement are not conducive with an impartial democracy. Worryingly, both the Hansard Society’s annual, ‘Audit of Political Engagement’ (2017), and a recent House of Commons briefing paper, ‘Political disengagement in the UK: who is disengaged?” (2017), suggest that political disaffection and disengagement are growing issues; knowledge of politics is down six percent from the previous year (49%), the level of trust in Government ‘to put the needs of the nation first’ has dropped to 17% (2013) and trust in the credibility of MPs stands at a measly 9%. These figures indicate that there is indeed an issue of disaffection and disengagement within the UK, thus, to determine if the political class or instead, something else is responsible, it becomes necessary to investigate what the cause of disengagement and disaffection is within specific subsections of the population; especially those who are more likely to become disengaged from politics – the ‘disaffected democrats’ (Flinders, 2015). These factions include demographics such as the ‘working class’ and ‘18-24 year olds’, both of which account for low levels of knowledge in politics compared to the average mentioned above; 29% and 33% respectively (Hansard Society 2017). The term ‘political class’ is contentious and, ‘is still not thoroughly developed in literature’ (Manolov 2013). Allen

Classroom Design for Children with Disabilities Research Paper

Learners with disabilities are frequently ignored when they do not perform well in academics. Usually, the cause of their declining performance lies within the four walls of the classroom. It should be understood that these learners have special needs and when these needs are not met, learning becomes difficult to them. In this regards, this paper will shed light on how classroom design improves the education of children disabilities. Every child has a right to be educated, whether disabled or not, and both the parents and educators want their learners to get the best out of the education system. When both sides realize that the students are not performing as expected, they should consider checking out whether the design of the classroom is compatible with the needs of children with disabilities. Torelli and Durrett (2008) explain that most schools have smaller classrooms because when the structures were constructed when there were budget constraints. This is because bigger classrooms require more building materials. Learners without special needs can cope with such situations, but it would be difficult for children with disabilities because they require enough space for them to move around the classroom when the need arises. Space is vital to children with disabilities because it makes it possible for them to be able to interact with other learners and the environment. For instance, majority of these children use walking aides such as wheel chairs, and when there is no adequate space, their movements bothers the other learners and becomes clumsy and nuisance. Sometimes, the teacher needs to establish relationships with such learners to be able to know what areas in class sessions need more attention, but then if the teacher’s movement is hindered by congestion the performance of such learners continues to decline. Furthermore, children with disabilities require individual attention from the teacher just like the other children, and if the classroom is congested it would be difficult for the teacher to reach such learners. In such a case the teacher may not realize the weaknesses that the learner has with regard to learning. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The choice of interior classroom color is also important because children hate dull colors. It would be better if the walls and ceilings are painted with bright colors so that the children can feel like they are still at home. Dull colors make them feel like they are out of place and some may become recessive when they enter such a classroom. Having the walls painted in bright colors and complemented with drawings that are appealing to children such as cartoon characters helps them to develop a liking for school environment because they feel like they are still at home. Gillies (2004) points out that sometimes the windows play a role in the decline in the performance of children with special needs. This is because if the windows cannot resist the noise from outside, the children’s attention can be carried away by the events that are taking place outside the classroom. By the time their focus shifts back to the teacher, they would have missed important lessons. It is therefore important to raise the window frames so that the learners’ attention is not interfered by external noise and events. The blackboard should also be placed in close vicinity to the children so that they can see clearly what is written on it without having to strain. When the blackboard is at the extreme end of the classroom, the children do not see exactly the writings on the board and thus, end up missing some points of sentences and formulas. Similarly, lack of ventilation in the classroom can cause the room to have high temperatures. This can cause the learners to doze while the lesson is in progress and thus, not understand what is being taught. The furniture that is used in the classroom should offer maximum comfort so that the learner does not feel irritated by the rough edges and protrusions that could otherwise harm him/her. The classroom furniture should offer smooth body coordination such that if the learner wishes to move his legs or arms he should do so without straining. Jorgensen, Schuh, and Nisbet (2005) assert that this makes it possible for the learners to actively participate in learning activities and pay attention to what is being taught in the classroom. We will write a custom Research Paper on Classroom Design for Children with Disabilities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, electrical wiring should be done with a lot of care because if the wires are left hanging the learners can pull them unknowingly and result in electrocution. The classroom should be put in such a way that other equipments such as computers and assistive devices can be easily integrated into the classroom. More importantly, children with disabilities need some time to play just like the other children, and because they cannot stand on their own the, classroom should have a designated area that can be used for playing. Playing allows the minds of children to refresh and discover their abilities. Moreover, playing makes them get used to their condition and learn how to maneuver without requiring somebody else’s assistance. Denying them an opportunity to play is like denying them their childhood. The exit and entry of the classroom should be wide enough to prevent them from bumping each other as they leave and enter the classroom. It is very easy for contagious and airborne illnesses to be spread in congested classrooms and therefore, if an illness of such nature was reported, it often affects the entire class and the learners have to go for medication when they should have been learning. Moreover, it is better to have fewer learners that are manageable rather than have many learners and make the teachers become overwhelmed. It would be better to have bigger classrooms for the disabled children because in such classrooms the teachers are able to reach out to the learners when the need arises. In such classrooms the sitting arrangements are made in a way that there is enough space for both the learner and the teacher to move around. Besides, spacious classrooms enhance the development of disabled children because they are able to interact with the environment and become independent and exercise control over their environment. Thomas and Loxley (2007) argue that meeting the needs of disabled children while designing their classroom offers them equal opportunities. By ignoring the design of the classroom educators would have themselves to blame because it is only the first learners who would excel in academics. In fact, teachers should take their lessons outdoors when the weather is favorable if the classroom is congested. In conclusion, teachers should use appropriate teaching methods in congested classrooms to ensure that all the learners have equal learning opportunities so that when they sit for exams the teacher is certain that they will perform as expected. The teacher should make arrangements with the school administration to make sure that the materials that are used in learning are displayed appropriately. Not sure if you can write a paper on Classroom Design for Children with Disabilities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since the teacher is the one who spends most his/her time with disabled children, he/she should provide counsel to the school administration when new structures are constructed so that they can be designed in a way that they can accommodate disabled children. Therefore, proper classroom design improves the learning experience of children with disabilities. References Gillies, R.M. (2004).The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Junior High School Students during Small Group Learning. Learning and Instruction, 14(2), 197-213. Jorgensen, C., Schuh, M.,

ENG 112 Pitt Community College Literary Analysis Essay

cheap assignment writing service ENG 112 Pitt Community College Literary Analysis Essay.

The Literary Anaylsis Paper (4-5 pages + Works Cited)
This paper will identify major and/or minor themes in The Man in the High Castle. This will come mainly from
your own interpretations, and you should not seek out or cite outside sources to draw conclusions for you,
though you are required to cite at least two outside sources of some kind that help provide clarification of your
interpretations. You will also cite the book itself, for a total minimum of three sources.
Start by reading Chapter 15 (pp. 187-201) in They Say/I Say. The text provides a good introdution to writing
about literature, though keep in mind that for this assignment, you do not have to cite the opinions of other
writers about the book unless you feel that bringing in another opinion would help support your own point(s). It
should be your unique interpretations being highlighted in the paper, not someone else’s.
The paper should be designed as follows:
• The paper is built around you finding major or minor themes in the book and highlighting five of them.
• It should begin with an introduction, which ends with a thesis statement stating the five themes you will
discuss in the paper.
• You should have five main idea paragraphs, each devoted to a major or minor theme you have identified
from the book; the novel itself should be referenced in every main idea paragraph and cited
appropriately (quote or paraphrase)
• Your main idea paragraphs will highlight each theme by pointing them out in the book and stating your
interpretation(s); you will also cite outside sources where needed, though not necessarily in every
paragraph.
• Your conclusion should bring the discussion to a close, making sure to not introduce any new
information.
• MLA format is required for this paper; be sure to remember your Works Cited and in-text citations!
ENG 112 Pitt Community College Literary Analysis Essay

ISOL 536 University of Cumberlands Activities an Architect Must Execute Questions

ISOL 536 University of Cumberlands Activities an Architect Must Execute Questions.

I’m working on a computer science question and need a sample draft to help me study.

Briefly respond to all the following questions. Make sure to explain and back up
your responses with facts and examples. Answer the questions in an essay format. Create a cover sheet. This assignment should be written in APA format. Include at least three references. Include at least three in-text citations. Write with clarity, check spelling and grammar. Recommend that you use Grammarly.1. What are some activities an architect must execute. Provide examples?2. What are some tips and tricks that can make security architecture risk assessment easier?Need this in 600 words., no plagiarism at all.!
ISOL 536 University of Cumberlands Activities an Architect Must Execute Questions

Design a simple apnea detection system

CHAPTER 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION AIM The aim of the project is to design a simple apnea detecting system with an alarm and to classify the type of apnea identified using LabVIEW. 1.1.1 Normal Respiratory Event: Respiration is the phenomenon of supplying oxygen to the tissues and removing the carbon dioxide from the tissues. External respiration is the process of exchange of gases between the lungs and atmosphere. Internal respiration is the process of gas exchange in the tissues. The balance between the absorption and excretion of these gases in blood are maintained as breathing activity. During inspiration the level of blood in oxygen increases and it decreases during exhalation. Chemoreceptors are the sensory receptors in the blood stream that senses the level of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood ,and sends signals to the brain. Then the brain allows the opening of larynx and vocal cords, followed by the expansion of ribcage and diaphragm muscles. The chest cavity enlarges to allow the inflow of oxygen into the lungs thus resulting in inhalation process. Similarly the chest cavity occludes during the process of exhalation and expels the carbon dioxide from lungs. More of oxygen inflow results in maximum tidal volume and a normal respiratory flow. Fig 1.1 shows the normal respiratory signal with respiration rate of 12 breaths per minute. 1.1.2 Applications Sleep analysis Polygraphy Pulmonary function Stress test Sports Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) 1.1.3 Respiration Signal Specifications Amplitude – 2-200mV Frequency waveform-0 – 150Hz Repetition frequency- 20 cycles per minute (adults) – 100 cycles per minute (neonates) 1.1.4 Respiratory Measurements Respiration rate Tidal volume Apnea’s Obstructive apnea Central apnea Hypopnea Tachypnea Bradypnea Apnea index Also several correlations between EEG, REM sleep, apnea’s, quiet sleep, non-quiet sleep and de-saturations. 1.2 APNEA AND ITS TYPES Apnea is the cessation of breathing during sleep which may precede the arrest of the heart and circulation in several clinical situations such as head injury, drug overdose, anesthetic complications and obstructive respiratory diseases. Apnea may also occur in premature babies during the first weeks of life because of their immature nervous system. If apnea persists for a prolonged period, brain function can be severely damaged. Therefore, patients suffering from apnea require close and constant observation of their respiratory activity. Apnea monitors are particularly useful for monitoring the respiratory activity of premature infants. There are three types of sleep apnea. They are Obstructive apnea Central sleep apnea Mixed or complex sleep apnea 1.2.1 Obstructive Sleep Apnea Individuals with obesity due to low muscle tone and soft tissue around the airway give rise to a narrowed airway ,so they are at high risk of obstructive sleep apnea. The elderly people are more likely to suffer from OSA than young people because of their food habits, smoking and alcoholic life style. Men are more typical sleep apnea sufferers when compared to women and children.The risk of OSA rises with increasing body weight, age, high cholesterol, sinus problems, and in addition, patients with diabetes have up to three times the risk of having OSA compared to others. Loudsnoring, restless sleep, and sleepiness during the daytime are some of the common symptoms of OSA. Diagnostic tests include homeoximetryorpolysomnographyin a sleep clinic. Treatment includes CPAP apparatus that gives continuous positive airway pressure in order to expand their narrowed nasal pathway 1.2.2 Central Sleep Apnea When the brain’s respiratory control centers are imbalanced during sleep, it results in pure central sleep apnea ,also called as Cheyne-Stokes respiration. In this type of apnea the brain pauses to trigger the respiratory activity for about 30 seconds and triggers when it realizes that the patient suffocates for oxygen. The sleeper do not breathe for a certain period, during which there are no chest movements and no effort by the patient. Brain does not react immediately with a neurological feedback to make the respiratory rate even. There is a swing between apnea and hyperpnea in order to compensate the need for oxygen. After an apnea episode the hypoxia condition is reduced by breathing faster and absorbing more oxygen. Central sleep apnea may be due to hypertension, excess stress,and neuronal damage.In most of the cases CSA is treated with medications while some need surgery. Fig.1.3 shows Central Sleep Apnea. 1.2.3 Mixed Sleep Apnea Mixed sleep apnea is a combination of obstructive and central sleep apnea . It is also called as complex sleep apnea.When obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is severe and longstanding, some episodes of central apnea develop during the course of sleep. Though the exact mechanism of the loss of central respiratory drive during sleep in OSA is unknown it is most commonly related to acid-base and CO2feedback malfunctions originating fromheart failure. Complex sleep apnea has been described by researchers as a different dimension of sleep apnea. Patients with complex sleep apnea when treated with positive airway pressure for OSA was observed to exhibit persistent central sleep apnea. In sleep-disordered breathing there is a collection of diseases and symptoms relating to body mass, cardiovascular, respiratory, and occasionally, neurological dysfunction that have a synergistic effect. 1.2.4 Hypopnea Hypopnea refers to a transient reduction of airflow (often while asleep) that lasts for at least 10 seconds, shallow breathing, or an abnormally low respiratory rate. Breathing that is shallower or slower than normal. Hypopnea is distinct from apnea in which there is no breathing. Hypopnea comes from the Greek roots hypo- (meaning low, under, beneath, down, below normal) and pnoe (meaning breathing). Hypopnea is less severe than apnea (which is a more complete loss of airflow). It may likewise result in a decreased amount of air movement into the lungs and can cause oxygen levels in the blood to drop. It more commonly is due to partial obstruction of the upper airway 1.2.5 Tachypnea Tachypnea means elevated respiratory rate. In some situations, this might be usual, for example when climbing a flight of stairs. In disease it is indicative of problems with oxygenation. It occurs when the patient is breathing really hard to compensate for the higher than usual PCO2. When the patient is tachypneic it is important to sit him up in bed. In tachypnea the tidal volume is decreased, the minute volume may be the same because the respiratory rate is increased. Decreased tidal volume will have bad consequences for the patient because a lot of energy is being spent on moving dead air space which does not help oxygenate the interior of lungs where gas exchange takes place. 1.2.6 Bradypnea This is a slow respiratory rate which is seen in the post anesthetic or sedated patient. Bradypnea is also seen in patients who have taken overdoses of barbiturates and/or hypnotics. Bradypnea with a respiratory rate of more than ten breaths may correct itself as the patient recovers from the anaesthetic gases. Sometimes, in bradypnea, the patient compensates by increasing the tidal volume thereby the blood gases and oxygen saturation remain stable.Fig 1.6 shows bradypnea with respiratory rate 8b/min. 1.3 IMPEDANCE PNEUMOGRAPHY Impedance pneumography is another practical method to monitor the breathing of the patient. The technique also enables the simultaneous monitoring of the heart rate and respiration. This has certain inherent disadvantages. One is that the placement of the electrodes is very critical and other is cardiovascular artifact. This results from the detection of movement between the electrodes because of the cardiovascular system, rather than due to respiration. Apnea monitors need to be designed to reject this artifact. The principle of impedance pneumography is to pass a current through the chest between two electrodes, and from the resultant voltage to determine the changes in chest impedance which occur during respiration. It has been proposed that the impedance change occurring in respiration is directly proportional to the change in volume of air contained in the thorax, and therefore reflects tidal volume. The technique works by applying a current of approximately 10 microamperes to 1milliamperes with a frequency of 30-100 kHz to the thorax. This frequency is high enough to avoid stimulation of tissues, electrode polarization and excessively high skin impedance. The electrodes are always maintained with negligible potential difference which makes it possible to measure the impedance of a central core of thoracic tissue.Thus these impedance changes are obtained as thoracic changes that gives details about respiration.Fig 1.7 shows the block diagram Of impedance pneumography technique. 1.4 LABVIEW AND ITS APPLICATIONS LabVIEW Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench.LabVIEW is a graphical programming environment used by millions of engineers and scientists to develop sophisticated measurement, test, and control systems using intuitive graphical icons and wires that resemble a flowchart. Biomedical Application: Multisim Simulation with anECGAmplifier Noninvasive Blood Pressure (NIBP) Analyzer Analog ECGGenerator Heart Rate Variability (HRV) Analyzer ECG Feature Extractor Online Biosignal Noise Reduction Data Logger Biosignal Logger OBJECTIVES To collect the respiratory database To study the apnea characteristics To detect and classify apnea To achieve maximum accuracy To design a respiratory signal simulation system CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY 2.1 RESPIRATION DATA ACQUISITION, CONVERSION AND DISPLAY SYSTEM 2.1.1 Methodology Respiration data is acquired and converted into a series of pulses, the frequency of which is related to the respiration rate of the data measured . The output pulses switch a timing device “on” and “off ”, and the average time of a respiration cycle is then converted and displayed as respiration rate. The timing device includes a means for delaying a first output pulses before beginning the sampling period and registering a count of clock pulses for a specified number which represents the time period of a second specified number of the output pulses occurring subsequently to the first specified number of output pulses. 2.1.2 Conclusion This invention relates to an acquisition unit for acquiring data relating to one or more physiological variables from a patient. Displaying the data digitally and, upon operator approval, recording the data in an internal memory. Further, the invention relates to a data storage system responsive to data stored in an acquisition unit for a display presentation. 2.2 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING A RESPIRATIONPARAMETER IN A MEDICAL DEVICE Shrivastav, Maneesh, Cho, Yong K., Bennett, Tommy D., Erickson, Mark K., Greenhut, Saul E., Kleckner, Karen J., Sperling, Charles P., Corey, Robert A. 2.2.1 Methodology A pressure sensor senses pressure signals, and a signal processor, coupled to the pressure sensor, receives the sensed pressure signaland generates corresponding sample points. A microprocessor continuously adjusts a breath detection threshold in response to the generated sample points to generate a current adjusted breath detection threshold. Then it compares a current generated sample point to the current adjusted breath detection threshold, suspends the continuous adjusting of the breath detection threshold. Then the microcontroller sets the breath detection threshold equal to the most current adjusted breath detection threshold generated prior to the suspending, and determines the respirationparameter in response to a comparing of a next generated sample point to the set breath detection threshold. 2.2.2 Conclusion This invention relates to a method of acquisition of respiratory signal using pressure sensor and displays that respiration parameter using a microcontroller. 2.3 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MONITORING RESPIRATION Rymut, Russell, Slotty, Eric, Kini, Narendra 2.3.1 Methodology The apparatus includes a piezoelectric film which converts acoustical waves generated by the patient’s respiration activity into electrical signal output. The piezoelectric film sensor placed in the subject can be used to monitor the respiration of a patient by correlating the sound generated in the patient’s airway with respiratory activity. Further, the data generated by the sensor may be further analyzed by a patient monitor to diagnose respiratory conditions and display it. 2.3.2 Conclusion This invention relates to a method and apparatus for monitoring and quantitatively measuring the respiration of a patient , particularly, using a flexible piezoelectric film sensor. 2.4 APNEA MONITOR Guixian Lu 2.4.1 Methodology 1. A conductive rubber string is used to measure the chest volume changes. It is not suitable for OSA. In that case a differential gas flow sensor is used. The output of the sensors is amplified and then fed to a re-shaper. 3.The re-shaper re-shapes the signal and generates pulses to trigger the counter. 4.The counter triggers the alarm circuit if the count exceeds a predetermined threshold. 2.4.2 Conclusion For adults one rubber string is enough. But for infants, the frequency of the body movement is measured. So an additional rubber string with motion detector is needed. The gas flow sensor is reliable and sensitive. A buzzer is used to give alarm. 2.5 DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A PROGRAMMABLE APNEA MONITORING SYSTEM Mustafa Çavuşoğlu, Osman Eroğul , Ziya Telatar 2.5.1 Methodology Respiratory signal is perceived by a thermal sensor. The signal is amplified and then fed to the microcontroller. The output of microcontroller is transferred to the computer and the relation between ECG and the signal is evaluated. An alarm system is also provided to indicate apnea 2.5.2 Conclusion The system is capable of detecting apnea, warns during the apnea and transfers the respiration signals to the computer. Finally,categorization of the apnea intervals is done to generate a real-time histogram of their frequency and duration which makes possible to investigate the relations between the EEG, ECG or other physiological signals and the respiratory patterns. 2.6 APNEA ALARM SYSTEMS 2.6.1 Methodology A crib or bed with piezo electric or strain gauge transducer attached to each leg is used to acquire the movement of infants. Whenever the infant is breathing there is a variation in the force distibution in the foam mat, so the vertical force applied on the frame of the crib also varies,which is captured by the sensors attached to the leg of the crib. These sensors convert the force into an electrical output signal and gives it to a summing amplifier to provide a summed output signal from all four legs. The summed output is given to a microcontroller where it is compared with the patients physical parameters to give an alarm if there is apnea detected using a buzzer or flashing light. 2.6.2 Conclusion This apparatus helps to detect apnea in infants who can be monitored even at home instead of hospitals.This alarm system is more comfortable to babies as it does not attach any sensor to infant s body.Mainly used to detect death due to apnea (‘crib death’ or ‘cot death’ ) very common in premature infants. 2.7 APNEA MONITOR DATA SYSTEM 2.7.1 Methodology An apnea monitoring system along with a portable data storage cartridge is presented. Respiration is monitored through the electrodes located on the thoracic cavity of the patient. Detected events are compared with respiration rates and when it is exceeded the signal is transmitted to audio and visual alarms indicating apnea. In addition to that a poratable data storage cartridge is provided which has enough memory to store all monitored events and waveforms that can be transferred to computer. 2.7.2 Conclusion This invention not only helps to monitor also contains a portable cartridge,that can be easily carried or mailed,which makes it time efficient and cost efficient method to store data.Another advantage is that the cartridge is replaceable,which provides an unlimited amount of memory space that helps in transfer of data. 2.8 A MODEL ANALYSIS OF ARTERIAL OXYGEN DESATURATION DURING APNEA IN PRETERM INFANTS Scott A. Sands, Bradley A. Edwards, Vanessa J. Kelly, Malcolm R. Davidson, Malcolm H. Wilkinson, Philip J. Berge 2.8.1 Methodology Independent influence of clinically relevant cardiorespiratory fators on the desaturation of arterial oxygen during apnea is determined using a two-compartmental lung-body mathematical model which incorporated realistic oxygen stores and gas exchange dynamic Analytic solutions were derived for arterial oxygen desaturation to quantify the importance of cardiorespiratory factors on arterial oxygen desaturation such as cardiac output, lung volume, metabolic oxygen consumption, pre-apneic ventilation, blood oxygen affinity, hemoglobin content and blood volume The model analysis reveals that lung volume, hemoglobin content, cardiac output, pre-apneic ventilation exerts a unique effect on arterial oxygen desaturation throughout the time-course of desaturation and metabolic oxygen consumption is uniformly influential throughout the process. Infants with elvated metabolic needs and low lung volume and those with anemia, cardiac dysfunction or hypovolemia which are common in prematurity are at heightened risk of rapid and profound arterial desaturation during apnea. 2.8.2 Conclusion A mathematical framework for quantifying the relative importance of key cardiorespiratory factors on the rate of arterial oxygen desaturation during apnea with particular relevance to preterm infants is provided. Each of the factors examined has a signature influence on the trajectory of desaturation, providing quantitativeinsight into the causes of rapidlydeveloping hypoxemia during apnea have been demonstrated. 2.9 OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA AS A RISK FACTOR FOR STROKE AND DEATH H. Klar Yaggi, M.D., M.P.H., John Concato, M.D., M.P.H., Walter N. Kernan, M.D., Judith H. Lichtman, Ph.D., M.P.H., Lawrence M. Brass, M.D., and Vahid Mohsenin, M.D. 2.9.1 Methodology 1.In this study patients underwent polysomnography and subsequent events like stroke and death are verified. 2.The diagnosis was based on apnea-hypopnea index of the patients.Patients with apnea-hypopnea index of less than 5 served as a comparison group. 3.Proportional hazards analysis was used to determine the independent effect of OSA syndrome on the outcome of stroke or death from any cause. 4.The mean apnea-hypopnea index for the patient with syndrome is 35 while the same for patients in the comparison group is 2. 5.After adjustment for age,sex, diabetes mellitus, smoking status, alcohol consumption status, body-mass index, hypertension, the OSA syndrome retained a statistically significant association with stroke or death. 2.9.2 Conclusion The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome significantly and severely increases the chance for stroke or death from any cause. The increase for the risk of stroke or death due to OSA syndrome is independent of the other risk factors,including hypertension. 2.10 AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE FOR THE TREATMENT OF OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA-HYPOPNEA SYNDROME Helen L. A. Weatherly, Susan C. Griffin, Catriona Mc Daid, Kate H. Durée, Robert J. O. Davies, John R. Stradling, Marie E. Westwood and Mark J. Sculpher. 2.10.1 Methodology This study reports on the cost-effectiveness of the continuous airway-pressure(CPAP) compared with the dental devices and lifestyle advice to the patient. The Markov model compared the interventions over the patient’s life expectancy. The primary measure for cost-effectiveness was the incremental cost per quality adjusted life-year(QALY) gained for every patient. On further analysis, CPAP was associated with higher costs and QALYs compared with dental devices and lifestyle advice. The result of analysis was that the probability that CPAP is more cost-effective than dental devices or lifestyle advice at a threshold value of £20,000 per QALY was 0.78 for men and 0.80 for women. 2.10.2 Conclusion This model suggests that CPAP is cost-effective compared with dental devices and also the lifestyle advice for adults with moderate or severe symptomatic Obstructive Sleep Apnea -Hypopnea Syndrome are at the cost-effectiveness thresholds used by NICE. This finding is reflected in the NICE guidance. CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 EXISTING METHODS Several contactless methods are available for monitoring the respiration of infants. The most successful apnea monitors to-date been mattress monitors. These instruments rely for their operation on the fact that the process of breathing redistributes an infant’s weight and this is detected by some form of a pressure sensitive pad or mattress on which infant is nursed. The mattress, in its simplest form, is a multi-compartment air bed, and in this case the weight redistribution forces air to flow from one compartment to another. The air flow is detected by the cooling effect it produces on a heated thermistor bead. Though the technique is simple, the main disadvantage with the air mattress is the short-term sensitivity variation and the double peaking effect when inspiration or expiration produces separate cooling of the thermistor. Alternatively, a capacitance type pressure sensor in the form of a thin square pad is usually placed under or slightly above the infant’s head. Respiratory movements produce regular pressure changes on the pad and these alter the capacitance between the electrode plates incorporated in the pad. The capacitance change is measured by applying a 200 kHz signal across the electrodes and by detecting the current flow with a phase-sensitive amplifier. The disadvantage of this method is that the system is much too sensitive to people moving nearby and thus an electrically screened incubator is essential for the infant. 3.1.1 METHOD ADOPTED This project is based on impedance pneumography method. Impedance pneumography is one of the practical methods to monitor the breathing of the patient. The technique also enables the simultaneous monitoring of the heart rate and respiration. This has certain inherent disadvantages. One is that the placement of the electrodes is very critical and other is cardiovascular artifact. This results from the detection of movement between the electrodes because of the cardiovascular system, rather than due to respiration. Apnea monitors need to be designed to reject this artifact. So in this project the respiratory signal is considered to be acquired by using respiratory sensor. As there is no availability of sensor, respiratory signal is simulated using our own designed impedance pneumography technique based circuit. Then this signal is given to microcontroller where apnea is detected and it then triggers an alarm. The classification of apnea is also done using LabVIEW. In future respiratory sensor will be designed and the respiratory signal will be acquired. Then this signal can be given to the microcontroller directly. 3.2 RESPIRATORY SIGNAL SIMULATION The respiratory signal simulation circuit consists of an excitation source and a constant current source circuit which gives a high frequency, low voltage and constant current signal. This constant current will be applied to the thorax of the subject. But due to the ethical issues the current is applied on the resistance circuit which acts as the thorax impedance. This circuit in turn gives a voltage signal. This voltage signal will be amplified by an instrumentation amplifier. The amplified signal will be fed to the LabVIEW for classification of normal and apnea signal and also types of apnea. Figure 3.2.1 shows the block diagram to simulate respiratory signal and the hardware design of the circuit 3.2.1 EXCITATION SOURCE The wien bridge oscillator which produces 50kHz and 8 V peak to peak signal is used as the excitation signal. The operational amplifier used in the circuit is LF351. The Voltage gain of the amplifier must be at least 3. The input resistance of the amplifier must be high compared toRso that theRCnetwork is not overloaded and alter the required conditions.The output resistance of the amplifier must be low so that the effect of external loading is minimized. Some method of stabilizing the amplitude of the oscillations must be provided because if the voltage gain of the amplifier is too small the desired oscillation will decay and if it is too large the waveform becomes distorted 3.2.2 CONSTANT CURRENT SOURCE The constant source circuit is used to generate a 4mA constant current to be applied on the resistance circuit. CL100 and CK100 transistors are used in this circuit and these are npn and pnp paired transistors. The base emitter on voltage of these transistors is 0.9V. The collector current can be found by using the formula, Ic= (Vcc-Vbe)/Rc Where Vcc-Supply voltage Rc-Collector Resistance Vbe-Base emitter on voltage 3.2.3 PHANTOM MODEL The model consists of four resistors of 500 ohms which mimics the thoracic resistance. 3.3 DATA COLLECTION To know about characteristics of normal respiration and apnea their corresponding signals were essential. So 40 respiration data sets with 100 sample values in each data set were collected from PHYSIONET -PHYSIOBANK ATM. Among these 20 were normal data sets obtained from SLEEP HEART HEALTH STUDY POLYSOMNOGRAPHY DATABASE (SHHPSGDB) while the other 20 were apnea data sets obtained from UCD SLEEP APNEA DATABASE (UCDDB). In Apnea data sets 10 belonged to Central Sleep Apnea and remaining 10 to Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Each Data set contained 100 samples whose units are volts(V).They were recorded for 100seconds.So on plotting each data we get time in X-axis and volts in Y axis. 3.4 CLASSIFICATION OF APNEA USING RESPIRATION RATE Input data which contains 60 samples each. Normalizing of the signal by squaring the signal. Extraction of maximum peak for every 5 samples.Display of respiratory cycles. If the peak value is greater than 6V it will be counted as normal respiratory cycle. If the count is between 10 and 20 the signal will be having normal respiratory rate. If the count is less than 10 the signal will be classified as bradypnea. If the count is greater than 20 the signal will be classified as tachypnea As the parameter of respiratory rate alone is not enough for classifying the types of apnea the statistical parameters are calculated and then signals are classified using LabVIEW. FLOWCHART 3.5 CLASSIFICATION OF APNEA USING STATISTICAL PARAMETERS The signal data was imported from a spread sheet into labview using READ FROM SPREADSHEET block in labview. Then signal was plotted as a graph using WAVEFORM CHART block. The data cannot be manipulated directly so the transpose of the data is taken to find the statistical parameters using TRANSPOSE ARRAY block. Now using the STATISTICS block the signal’s various parameters like arithmetic mean, median, mode, maximum peak, minimum peak, range, standard deviation variance, and rms value are found and recorded. Considering the range and mean of the signal it can be classified as its respective type. Give the upper and (or) lower limit for range and mean. Now using AND operator the signal is classified when its condition are satisfied. When the signal s range is greater than 7 and its mean is less than 0.1 it is normal. When the signal s range is lesser than 6 and its mean is greater than 0.21 it is abnormal. When the signal s range lies below 3.0 it is obstructive. When the signal s range lies between 3.1 and 6.99 it is central. FLOWCHART CHAPTER 4 4.1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1.1 Hardware Results Output from the excitation source (wein bridge oscillator) was checked in MULTISIM and then implemented using hardware. On applying the constant current to a resistance network that imitates human thoracic impedance , the current varied to a greater extent because of loading effect. The same problem will occur even when the patient is connected to the high frequency, low voltage, constant current module. Also, due to ethical issues the constant current generated cannot be given to the patient directly. So monitoring of real time data could not be done using the hardware design. Hence ,the idea of respiration signal simulation was dropped and offline data were collected from respiration databases for further classification. 4.1.2 Normal and Apnea Data To know about characteristics of normal respiration and apnea their corresponding signals were essential. So 40 respiration data sets with 100 sample values in each data set were collected from PHYSIONET -PHYSIOBANK ATM. Among these 20 were normal data sets obtained from SLEEP HEART HEALTH STUDY POLYSOMNOGRAPHY DATABASE (SHHPSGDB) while the other 20 were apnea data sets obtained from UCD SLEEP APNEA DATABASE(UCDDB).The Resulting plot for each type of respiration signal is plotted below. The following figure shows the normal respiration data plotted for 100 samples with time in x-axis and amplitude in y-axis with a maximum peak to peak voltage of 8V and 24 respiration cycles for 100seconds. The following figure 4.4 shows Ce

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