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Domestic Partner Abuse Advocacy Interventions

Domestic Partner Abuse Advocacy Interventions. If you were advising practitioners, would you recommend the use of advocacy interventions for women who experience domestic partner abuse? Please use your appraisal of the evidence to support your discussion. Introduction I would recommend the use of advocacy interventions for women experiencing domestic partner violence. Rivas et al., systematically review evidence on “the effectiveness of advocacy interventions” in diminishing or eradicating domestic violence and improving the “physical and psychosocial well-being” of domestically abused women (2015, pg.1). My critical appraisal of this review (Appendix) acts as the foundation of my argument; the conclusions and policy implications provided in Rivas et al.’s high quality review inform and add nuance to my recommendation. Based on the assessment I conducted on Rivas et al.’s review using the Joanna Briggs Institute’s Critical Appraisal Checklist for Systematic Reviews and Research Syntheses, it is evident that this systematic review is of high quality (2017). The authors put forth a clear review question, use adequate and appropriate methods, thoroughly assess risk of bias, and draw conclusions that align with the data and with their analysis of each study. The recommendation by Rivas et al. to not discontinue or withdraw pre-existing advocacy interventions is sound and the detailed contextual information the authors provide on when and for what outcomes advocacy interventions are most effective should be considered when giving advice to practitioners (2015, pg. 41). As a result, I recommend the use of brief, context specific, advocacy programmes implemented in tandem with other services to reduce physical abuse, anxiety, depression, and psychological distress among abused women. To support my recommendation, I will first present two counterarguments and explain why they are not sufficient in refuting my position. I will then present reasoning for why advocacy interventions should be implemented to support women who experience domestic partner abuse. Counterarguments There are two main reasons why one could argue that practitioners should not use advocacy interventions for women who experience domestic partner abuse: (1) there is poor quality evidence and inconclusive evidence on effectiveness, and (2) there are alternative policy options that could be more effective and cost efficient than advocacy interventions. Poor quality evidence and inconclusive evidence on effectiveness The risk of bias assessment in Rivas et al.’s systematic review finds that only one trial included in the review had a low risk of bias for all of the criteria used by the authors and that ten of the thirteen included studies were deemed to have a moderate to high risk of bias (2015, pg. 24 and 40). Further, Rivas et al. conclude that there is “weak evidence” on advocacy intervention effectiveness (2015, pg. 41). However, given that the risk of bias assessment is transparent and thorough, the reader is able to understand the specific limitations of the evidence (outlined below) and use this understanding to inform how advocacy interventions should be implemented rather than claiming that they should not be implemented. First, reporting omissions account for the majority of times a high risk of bias was identified in a particular category for a particular study; Rivas et al. claim that the evidence for the intervention effectiveness is “undermined because of difficulties in assessing the risk of bias for most trials in the review” (2015, pg. 40). An author neglecting to report an aspect of their research does not necessarily mean there were flaws in the study design and execution. Therefore, the issues with the quality of some studies is a reflection of reporting (i.e. not including all of the “details on how the studies have been conducted”) rather than violations of the risk of bias criteria (Rivas et al., 2015, pg. 41). These reporting issues are not enough to render advocacy interventions useless. Instead, reporting issues should be used to provide a realistic state of the evidence and to inform future research. Second, even the studies that do report on the criteria assessed by the risk of bias tool and were deemed to have a high risk of violence should not be used to discredit the use of advocacy interventions. Due to the highly sensitive nature of domestic violence, the most rigorous research practices may not align with prioritizing research participants’ safety and best interest, and may not be possible to implement given the complex life situations experienced by victims of domestic violence (World Health Organization, 2012). For example, in many studies there was attrition for the “follow-up” portion of the research that impacted the risk of bias assessment (Rivas et al., 2015, pg. 23). In most instances, the reason for this attrition was that the researchers could not find the women who participated in the trials when these women were needed to complete follow-up assessments (Rivas et al., 2015, pg. 23). Abused women may face barriers to accessing private forms of communications (phone, mail, or email) and medical care due to monitoring and controlling behaviours by their partners (World Health Organization, 2012). The other reasons for loss of participants provided by Rivas et al. include: “refusal of women to carry on with the study, women returning to their abusive partner, women moving out of the area, and women having difficulties with transport, childcare, or living conditions” (2015, pg. 23). The challenges that emerge from the often precarious lives of domestic violence victims makes follow up in trials not only understandable but often unfeasible and must be considered when interpreting risk of bias assessments. Further, in attempt to “do no harm”, it is reasonable to expect that RCTs in this topic area may violate ideal rigorous research practices. The most prominent consideration in domestic violence research “is the potential to inadvertently cause harm or distress” (Ellsberg, 2002, pg. 1599). In domestic violence research, female participants have, in the past, been “placed at risk as a result of inadequate attention to their safety” (Ellsberg, 2002, pg 1599). If a participant’s partner discovers that she has discussed her relationship with a researcher or health care professional, the respondent could be exposed to additional physical harm (Ellsberg, 2002). The World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommendations for conducting ethical studies on violence against women state that researchers should take every effort to try to minimize harm for participants; these extra efforts are often unique for research involving domestic violence victims (2001). For example, privacy protection has greater importance for abused women as confidentiality is imperative for ensuring women’s safety in their homes and communities (WHO, 2001). This WHO recommendation could violate ideal rigorous research practices as it could require researchers to change times or locations of the intervention and data collection, or alter the implementation of the intervention, to accommodate the participant (1999). Further, the WHO recommends that researchers in the field should be trained to assist research participants through providing referrals to short term support services when needed; these additional supports could act as confounding variables when measuring effect sizes (1999). Ultimately, efforts to ensure that no additional harm is inflicted on study participants could jeopardize key elements of RCT design such as true randomization, blinding, and contamination. I use this understanding to contextualize the risk of bias assessment conducted by Rivas et al.; the field of domestic violence research might not always be able to generate studies with low risk of bias but that should not impact the availability of supports to victims. Third, a key reason for the inconclusiveness of the evidence is that the heterogenous nature of included studies – in terms of participant demographics, contexts, and outcome measures – made it so only a small number of studies could be meta-analysed (Rivas et al., 2015, pg. 26). Rivas et al. report that “eleven studies measured some form of abuse – physical, emotional, and/or sexual (eight scales), six assessed quality of life (three scales), and six measured depressions” (2015, pg. 3). These differences in the studies combined with the low power in each study hinders the ability of the analysis to find statistically significant effects (Rivas et al., 2015, pg. 28). This limitation does not necessarily point to the ineffectiveness of advocacy interventions and instead calls for more research and for researchers to conduct larger studies. While it is not possible to definitively conclude that advocacy interventions are effective, Rivas et al.’s thorough and transparent review concludes that the “weak evidence” for advocacy interventions does not mean that “existing services should be withdrawn” (2015, pg. 41). Given that recent research efforts demonstrate growing support for advocacy intervention effectiveness, that there have been “positive point estimates” on the majority of the outcomes assessed, and that there has been no evidence indicating harm, advocacy interventions can be seen as promising (Rivas et al., 2015, pg. 41). Alternative options It could be argued that advocacy interventions should not be implemented due to the fact that alternative options exist for supporting victims of domestic violence. For example, the WHO claims that training “health care providers in all aspects of intimate partner violence” is the most effective way to meet the specific needs of domestic violence victims (WHO, 2013, pg. 33). The issue with this approach is the poor existing state of care for women experiencing domestic violence (Colombini, 2008). Further, clinicians working in larger emergency or hospital systems may not be best placed to respond appropriately to victims even if they do receive training due to time and resource limitations and perceived priorities (Rivas et al, 2015, pg. 11). “Screening practices” are additional ways to support domestic violence victims. However, a systematic review on screening practices found that while screening “increases identification”, there is “insufficient evidence to justify using this practice in health care settings” (O’Doherty, 2015, pg. 2). Psychological interventions or emergency shelter/housing provisions are additional services that could be provided to victims of domestic violence abuse (Feder, 2013). However, these interventions do not preclude the use of advocacy interventions. Specialized programs and services for domestic violence should be implemented in tandem with advocacy interventions to complement each other; advocates for domestic violence victims assist victims in being aware of and accessing services and stronger services will ensure that victims receive the support they need after they have received advocacy (Rivas et al., 2015, pg. 10). While no cost effectiveness analysis of advocacy interventions exist, advocacy interventions could provide cost and time savings to medical professionals and hospitals. Further, if advocacy interventions reduce physical violence they should, in theory, reduce high emergency room costs. Rivas et al., provide evidence that: in Canada, abused women are three times more likely than women who are not victims of domestic violence to access medical services (Ratner, 1993); in the US, healthcare costs are much greater for victims of domestic violence when compared to non-abused women (Bonomi 2009b); and in the UK domestic violence costs 23 billion GBP per year (Walby, 2004). Therefore, in addition to the importance of assisting victims in domestic violence, advocacy interventions could reduce the health care burdens of this type of violence. Recommendation Even though the existing research body has not fully established the benefits of advocacy interventions, Rivas et al. argue that active advocacy interventions should not be removed (2015). My recommendation, understanding that challenges exist with the quality and completeness of the evidence, echoes this sentiment. Domestic violence victims experience a variety of acute and long-term health, social, and economic impacts as a result of their violence (WHO, 2012). It is unreasonable to expect that one type of intervention will be able to address all of the challenges faced by victims. Therefore, this recommendation outlines the specific outcomes advocacy interventions are most effective in targeting and provides best practices for implementation. Based on the review of evidence conducted by Rivas et al., I recommend the use of brief advocacy programs implemented in tandem with other services and interventions to support domestic violence victims in reducing subsequent physical abuse and in reducing anxiety, depression, and psychological distress. The justification for this specific recommendation is as follows. First, Rivas et al. find that the majority of studies included in their review report on physical violence as compared to other forms of abuse such as sexual or psychological abuse (2015, pg. 22). While the meta-analysis conducted by Rivas et al., did not point to any conclusive effect sizes in reducing physical violence, Tiwari’s 2005 study, deemed to have a low risk of bias, presented “striking evidence that the provision of a one-off session of advocacy led to a reduction in minor physical abuse, emotional abuse, and post-natal depression” (Rivas et al., 2015, pg. 40). While Tiwari’s study was not the only study that found positive effect evidence, it was the only study that found both statistically significant results and was deemed to have a low risk of bias, and therefore, provides trusting and promising indications that advocacy interventions are effective (Rivas et al., 2015, pg. 40). Second, there is evidence that anxiety and psychological distress of victims of domestic violence can be reduced through advocacy interventions. Rivas et al. state that short term advocacy delivered within health care settings may reduce levels of “perceived stress” and may temporarily alleviate “anxiety and psychological distress” (2015, pg. 31 and 39). Further, three studies show evidence that brief advocacy can improve depressive symptoms and that “psychological distress” decreases in the short-term when “abused women attending a hospital emergency department receive a brief session of advocacy” (Rivas et al., 2015, pg. 39). Third, brief advocacy interventions appear to be more effective than longer-term interventions. While there are several possibilities for this finding, it could be hypothesized that advocacy interventions are best delivered to victims of domestic violence who are in emergency situations or periods of crisis. Therefore, to successfully assist victims of domestic violence, advocacy interventions must be supplemented with additional programmes and policies to assist women in the long-term. Perhaps this means investing in sustainable, cost effective, and viable options for women and their families to leave abusive situations safely. Advocacy interventions will only be as successful as the resources and services that advocates are connecting victims of domestic violence to. Conclusion: Evaluation of policy implementation Implementing advocacy interventions in the ways described above provides a unique opportunity to evaluate and study advocacy effectiveness using recommendations and insights provided by Rivas et al.’s 2015 review. First, it would provide the opportunity for researchers to conduct a study with increased power and longer follow up assessments – two key elements missing from existing studies evaluating advocacy interventions (Rivas et al., 2015, pg. 41). Second, there is a possibility of conducting a qualitative analysis to provide an enhanced and nuanced understanding of effectiveness. Domestic violence victims are operating in a context that may not always be conducive for randomization and quantitative measures. Qualitative research aimed at understanding the impacts of advocacy interventions on women could provide useful insight on their effectiveness and circumvent the barriers of other research methods. Ultimately, more support in the form of advocacy interventions and simultaneously more and better research on this type of support is required to adequately support victims of domestic violence. References: Bonomi, A. E., Anderson, M. L., Rivara, F. P.,Domestic Partner Abuse Advocacy Interventions
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Over the recent years, there was an escalating emphasis on the need for nurses to develop assessment consultation and history taking skills for prescribing patients with drugs as well as to gain knowledge within sophisticated clinical practice roles. Specifically, nurses are qualified to learn and apply patient assessment and consultation skills in their nursing practice. These skills can form a corner stone of becoming a proficient, well-trained nurse. The present essay focuses on the assessment skills, principles of drug history taking process and Clinical Management plan reflecting on a specific case study where in which the nurse prescriber indicated an Allevyn adhesive dressing to manage the healing process of Leg Ulcer in a patient. Assessment Skills Within primary and community health care, the methodological and systematic assessment plays a major role and it is the crucial requirement of government policy. In the face of congregating dependence upon care management and public fund targeting, the role of assessment skills was increasingly becoming important policy tool (Charles et al., 1996). Connecting to the present case study, the nurses must demonstrate and utilise all of his/her senses in assessing the patient. Typically, these involve listening (hearing), feeling (touching), observing (visual) and therapeutic communication processes (Wright, 2007). Generally, an approach pertaining to cephalocaudal type must be utilised by all nurses in assessing the patient from head to toe region. In performing an assessment with relation to Leg Ulcer (or any disease), it is very important for the nurse to possess basic requirements related to stethoscope, sphygmomanometer (to check the blood pressure), thermometer and penlight. The hospital and the instrumental setting are also important in carrying out an assessment. The nurse must indicate high observant skills and must strive hard in obtaining as much information as possible (about the Leg Ulcer disease) from the patient to effectively formulate the nursing diagnosis (Kimmel, 2005). Additionally, the nurses need to have the following skills: Broad Experience This specific skill can enable the nurse to identify the similarity patterns of the events associated with the Leg Ulcer and linking them to the previous encounters visualised with other patients. Nurses must recognise the subtle changes within the person’s health status, comprehend the potential consequences of the Ulceration and then act accordingly to specify the treatment (Wright, 2010). Implicit Knowledge This may help the nurse to engage within the process of holistic problem solving skills and to analyse the premonitions or intuitions. Particularly, this becomes significant in opening up the complexities associated with the disease (Kimmel 2005). Empirical Knowledge This feature develops from the fundamental sciences through which Nursing Sciences has been originated-physiology, sociology, pharmacology, ergonomics, medicine, philosophy. In addition, the knowledge gained through nursing practice, research and allied health professionals can also be included in this skill (Wright 2007). Observation Help in recognising formulating options and considerable changes persistent with the Leg Ulcer disease (Kimmel 2005). Psychological These skills get developed with the interpersonal communication with patients and residents, their families and colleagues. Supporting, enhancing, facilitatory and counselling skills in relation to the progression of the Leg Ulcer disease are the other types of skills that are essentially needed in patient diagnosis (Wright 2010). Lastly, the Standards of Care pertaining to diagnosis, outcome identification, planning and evaluation must be implemented to achieve a relatively higher level of wellness towards physical and emotional perspectives. By imbibing the above skills, the nurse carried out the initial assessment process soon after meeting the patient. Subsequently, other follow up measurements must be implemented on a weekly basis with special attention oriented towards the following characteristics: Signs of Infection For the patient with identified Leg Ulcer, the signs of infection involve decreased blood pressure, tachycardia, fever (septic symptoms), pain, redness and warmth including swelling near the ulcerated tissue, purulent drainage from the diseased area (yellow and greenish fluid draining out from the portion) (Morgan, Thomas 2010). Stage of Wound, Category and its Type Wound Staging is an effective way to effectively categorise the Leg Ulcer or any form of Progressive Ulcer. This involves understanding the stage or degree of wound (ranging from I-IV and alleged deep seated tissue injuries). Additionally, it enables in classifying the wound type (Arterial or Venous) based on the partial or complete thickness of discharged fluid (Harding, Leaper 1998). Slough Is the dead (devitalised) tissue that is soft and moist and which is usually adherent to the base portion of the wound. This indicates the infection processes near the wound site (Kimmel 2005). Detection of Eschar It is the dried, firm and harder dead tissue covering the wound surface. Typically, it can be black, red or brown in colour depending upon the necrosis in wound progression and amount of blood presence. This form must not be confused with the slough and should be evaluated by the Nurse as a part of wound assessment (Harding, Leaper 1998; Morgan, Thomas 2010). Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
Creating an Engagement Survey.

InstructionsYour boss needs you to develop an employee engagement survey that consists of 10 questions that will be administered through email to all employees. She hands you the following requirements that must be addressed within the survey:
Organizational commitment type.
Monetary commitment – motivated by money
Continual commitment – robotic employee
Affective commitment – motivated by passion

Leader-member exchange to the supervisor.
What is the relationship between the employee and the supervisor?

Leader-member exchange to the organization.
What is the employee’s relationship to the operation?

Perception of support from the supervisor.

Perception of support from the organization.

Your job is to submit to your boss a questionnaire that contains 10 specific questions that integrate the defined requirements above along with any other necessary information you believe would add value to understanding the employees’ thoughts and feelings about the organization.Additionally, you need to write a one-page summary of why you chose these 10 questions. Include an introduction demonstrating an understanding of organizational commitment, leader-member exchange, and perception of support. Within the body of the summary, provide comparative research with other possible engagement surveys. Lastly, within the conclusion, explain why your survey will add operational value to the organization.***Use APA format and make sure all points are completed as documented in the attached grading rubric***
Creating an Engagement Survey

discussion and reply to a peer. I’m trying to study for my Social Science course and I need some help to understand this question.

Then, as you read the webtext, respond to the following prompt in one to two paragraphs.
Choose a sentence or short section from the article embedded in your webtext reading about Irish immigration. Copy and paste the sentence or section into your discussion post. Along with this sentence or section, briefly explain how your choice illustrates the concept of change over time.
You should also answer the following questions in your post:

How does this article give you a better understanding of the changing perception of Irish immigrants in America?
What forces allowed the Irish to be assimilated into U.S. culture despite initial resistance?

In response to your peers, compare and contrast their understanding of the changing perceptions of Irish immigrants to your own understanding of those changing perceptions.
To complete this assignment, review the Discussion Rubric document.
discussion and reply to a peer

Principles of Microeconomics

Principles of Microeconomics. I don’t know how to handle this Economics question and need guidance.

Prior to beginning work on this discussion, read Farah Mohammed’s article, Why Are Diamonds More Expensive Than Water? (Links to an external site.), as well as Chapter 5 in your textbook, especially Sections 5.1 and 5.3, and respond to the following:

Describe the relationship between total utility and marginal utility.
Explain if marginal utility can be negative.
Examine the diamond-water paradox. Why are diamonds more expensive than water?
Evaluate the law of diminishing marginal utility.
Identify some items, explaining your reasoning, that do not follow the law of diminishing marginal utility.
Evaluate how the law of diminishing marginal utility can explain the diamond-water paradox.

The Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility paper

Must be three to five double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s APA Style resource (Links to an external site.).
Must include a separate title page with the following:

Title of paper
Student’s name
Course name and number
Instructor’s name
Date submitted

For further assistance with the formatting and the title page, refer to APA Formatting for Word 2013 (Links to an external site.).
Must utilize academic voice. See the Academic Voice (Links to an external site.) resource for additional guidance.
Must include an introduction and conclusion paragraph. Your introduction paragraph needs to end with a clear thesis statement that indicates the purpose of your paper.

For assistance on writing Introductions & Conclusions (Links to an external site.) as well as Writing a Thesis Statement (Links to an external site.), refer to the Ashford Writing Center resources.

Must use at least three scholarly, peer-reviewed, and/or other credible sources in addition to the course text.

The Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.

Must document any information used from sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s Citing Within Your Paper guide (Links to an external site.).
Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. See the Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.) resource in the Ashford Writing Center for specifications.

Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.) for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment
Principles of Microeconomics

Sex Linkage In Drosophila Melanogaster

term paper help Sex Linkage In Drosophila Melanogaster. The principles governing heredity were first formulated by Gregor Mendel, who stated that allele pairs separate independently from parents to off springs in his principle of independent assortment. Later on, Thomas hunt Morgan proposed that genes were responsible for traits of organisms and he used the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) in his experiments to study the role of genes in biological processes. This Experiment was performed to show that traits occur as a result of inheritance due to separation or segregation of alleles/genes. The experiment was aimed at instilling genetic skills in order to ensure that individuals are able to differentiate male from female flies, identify common mutant phenotypes, set up genetic crosses using organism’s genotypes and understand how to utilize data from genetic crosses. Genetic crosses were carried out in the lab to illustrate the difference in the inheritance patterns of sex linked traits. It was observed that the white allele’s frequency is higher in males than in females even when reciprocal crosses are done. This is because this gene is linked to the X-chromosome. Introduction Fruit flies are widely used in genetics experiments due to their short life cycle, they multiply in abundance from just a single cross, the cost of maintaining the fly is low, availability of thousands of mutation and their studies are easy to perform. Thomas Hunt Morgan worked extensively with these flies and shade much light on genetics as it is today. During his experiments, he discovered that the gene for white eyes in males was exclusively inherited with the X-chromosome (Christiansen 143). This experiment not only initiated the study of sex linked traits, but also provided evidence of the chromosomal theory of inheritance. Sex linkage is a form of alternative inheritance pattern where by a specific gene is found on (X or Y chromosomes) sex chromosomes. Sex linked traits occur mainly in males since they only have one X-chromosome but in females they occur only when they are homozygous recessive (Roberts 453). Sex Linkage falls in a broad classification of genetic linkage where by different alleles are inherited together. This mainly happens when the gene loci occurring in the same chromosome are physically closer therefore do not segregate during meiosis, but stay together. The white-eyed trait was used in this experiment to show the inheritance of X linked traits. The rationale of this experiment is to be able to differentiate male from female flies, be able to identify common mutant phenotypes such as eye color, shape and body color, set up genetic crosses and understand how to utilize data from genetic crosses (Christiansen 143). This experiment will also ensure that one is in a position to generate punned squares for sex linked traits, know the outcome of certain sex linked traits, be able to use these results to calculate the number of individuals from the observed population in this case using fruit fly reciprocal crosses monitor the number of phenotypes with regard to sex and eye color. The two alleles for eye color which are used in this experiment are white (w) and wild type (w ), the wild type allele produces red eye color and is usually dominant to the white allele (Kotpal 70). Methods: Experiment 1: Canton-S females and males flies were anesthetized by CO2 and dumped onto CO2 pads. The CO2 pad was them placed under a dissecting microscope and magnified appropriately. Differences and characteristics of males and females were observed appropriately. A vial of y w sn triple mutant flies was also prepared just like Canton-S. These were observed to identify and differentiate between the mutant phenotypes for eye color, body color, and bristle shape. These characteristics were compared with the wildtype phenotypes for each characteristic. Experiment 2: Three white eyed males (hemizygous for the white eye color allele) were anaesthetized and placed in a new vial. In this new vial, three wildtype virgin females (homozygous for the wildtype red eye color allele) were anaesthetized and introduced and the vial labeled appropriately. A reciprocal cross was then made for the same and labeled. After one week, the parents were removed from their respective vials and dumped into a morgue; the larvae were left to grow. After another week, the vials were retrieved for observation. This was done by anaesthetizing the flies and placing them in a Petri dish on top of an ice block. These were then counted to under magnification to identify the males and females as well as white eyed versus red eyed. Three female and three males were obtained and place in a new vial. A punnet square was performed to predict the results. Results: Experiment 1: The observed characteristics were drawn carefully. Experiment 2: From the experiment of the parental cross, the results of the first filial generation (F1) were as follows. The parental cross is between Xw Xw females and Xw Y males (wild type females vs. white males) XW XW XW XW XW XW XW Y XW Y XW Y White Males: 0% Red eyed males: 50% White Females: 0% Red eyed Females: 50% The parental cross is between Xw Xw females and Xw Y males (the F2 generation) XW XW XW XW XW XW XW Y XW Y XWY White eyed Males: 25% Red eyed Males: 25% White eyed Females: 0% Red eyed Females: 50% The reciprocal cross (wildtype males Vs. white virgin female flies) XW XW XW XW XW XW XW Y XWY XWY White Males: 50% Red eyed males: 0% White Females: 0% Red eyed Females: 50% The F1 crosses XW XW Xw XWXW XW XW Y XW Y XWY White Males: 25% Red eyed males: 25% White Females: 25% Red eyed Females: 25% Discussion Based on the observed characteristics, the males are larger than females and have shorter and rounder wings. The abdomen of the female is rounded and has striped appearance while that of the male is not rounded and is dark (Roberts 452). The two have different genitalia visible on the posterior ventral abdomen; the female genitalia having a small opening that forms a smooth point at the end of the abdomen while that of the male consists of more complex cuticular structures. Males have sex combs; these are small patches of hair on the elbows while female do not have these. Interesting frequencies are observed in the second experiment where by the parental cross completely differ from the reciprocal cross. In the original crosses’ F2 generation the results are as follows; White eyed Males: 25%, Red eyed Males: 25%, White eyed Females: 0%, Red eyed Females: 50%. This is completely different from the reciprocals’ crosses which yield 25% of each trait. Given these results, males are affected by the white eye mutation to a more extent than the females (Jeffreys and Wilson 11). This translates to typical sex linkage genetic crosses. Since males are hemizygous for this trait, it is expressed even if they have one copy of the gene. The females on the other hand must inherit two genes for the trait in question because they only express it when in homozygous state. This means that the trait will be less frequent in the population as compared to the male’s frequency. Work Cited Christiansen, Freddy, B. Theories of population variation in genes and genomes. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2008. Griffiths, A. J. F, Miller, J. H., Suzuki, D. T., Lewontin, R. C., Gelbart, W. M. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. 1993. Jeffreys, A.J., Wilson, Thein, S.L. (1986).DNA” fingerprints” and segregation analysis of Kotpal, Tyagi, Dr. Bendre,Sex Linkage In Drosophila Melanogaster

Imagine you are part of a forager’s group (hunter-gatherer) and you recently experienced a drought of several years that depleted

Imagine you are part of a forager’s group (hunter-gatherer) and you recently experienced a drought of several years that depleted your access to water resources and as a result to vegetation. In addition, animals that you and your group hunted died or left the area in search of water. Your group decided you must leave and join another group to be able to survive. Your foraging group consists of the following people: • You and your spouse (both of you of childbearing age) • Two male relatives ages 18-35 • One female married age 19 • One female married age 26 • One female single age 17 • A 6 month old baby • An 80 year old female relative You identified a group with resources across the mountains, but they are two weeks away and you only have food to sustain your group for a week. Not all of you will be able to travel to join the neighboring band; some may need to stay behind. Who would you take with you to improve your chances of survival? Who would you leave behind? What are you planning to take with you to secure an exchange with the other group to get the needed resources? Explain why you made those decisions. 

Differences Between Conference And Liaison Interpreters Tourism Essay

Differences Between Conference And Liaison Interpreters Tourism Essay. Konrad (2004: 2) stated that interpretation is a tool for communication that helps in coordinating verbal and sign language as the communication takes place. This is usually aimed at facilitating comprehension in people with various disabilities. In addition, interpretation is also used to translate information in a different language from one used by the speaker, whereby the interpreter repeats words in another language after the main speaker has spoken in order to facilitate inclusive comprehension. These forms of interpretation are known as simultaneous interpretation and consecutive interpreting respectively. An interpreter is required to make communication easy by converting the register and tone of the chief speaker into a form that is familiar to the audience with a lot of accuracy. As indicated by Aranda (2007: 35), simultaneous interpretation is whereby the speaker and interpreter talk concurrently. On the other hand, consecutive interpretation involves the interpreter taking notes as the speaker speaks, then reads out the interpreted version after the speaker has completed a sentence, paragraph or entire presentation. However, these breaks are determined by the nature of the message and the agreement between the speaker and interpreter. Consecutive interpretation is therefore only possible in some fields. It gives more accurate information because the interpreter does not need to memorize a lot of content (Aranda 2007: 35). However, the periodic interruptions affect content delivery and subsequently affect the concentration of the audience. Nevertheless, when done at convenient points, the breaks do not affect the presentation and thus full consecutive interpretation is better than simultaneous interpretation in terms of comprehension of message. Other modes of interpretation include whispered, relay and liaison interpretation. (Soto 2010: 195). Liaison interpretation involves spread of information from one person to another or a group. Once a speaker delivers message to one person, they relay the information to a multiple number of other third parties. It can also be referred to as bilateral or escort. There are various types of interpretation, such as conference, judicial, escort, public sector, medical, media and sign language interpretations. Different specialists in different areas of specialization venture into different categories of interpreters (Aranda 2007: 35). The aim of this paper is to discuss the ways in which the work of the simultaneous and consecutive conference interpreters differs from a liaison interpreter working in the public service. Conference interpreting is useful during conference and multi-national meetings. Further, public service interpreting is also called community interpreting mainly targets public services agents. Liaison interpreters are mainly used in police interviews, court interpretation as well as medical consultations. These settings may often involve rare language dialects, posing major challenges to this type of interpretation (Soto 2010: 195). According to Soto (2010: 195), the environment for conference interpreting can be multi-party conference, one-to-one business meeting or even public services. However, liaison interpretation only occurs in formal public meetings or intervention, such as courts, police or hospitals. The message is in the form of an interview, where the interpreter acts as a middleman between the interviewer and interviewee. Simultaneous and consecutive interpretations are the only forms of conference interpreting, and require that the interpreters use a boot that is sound proof (Hung 2002: 129).. They use microphones and headphones to interpret messages. Liaison interpreting does not need any technical devices. Since it is one of the many forms of semi-skilled labor requiring one-on-one mediation, there is no need for technical gadgets. Simultaneous interpreting can either be in the form of a whisper or tour guiding. There are acoustic difficulties that hinder the interpretation process. Public service interpreting can involve simultaneous interpreting, though without the use of technical devices. The chief mode of communication is bilateral exchange (WardDifferences Between Conference And Liaison Interpreters Tourism Essay