This is capstone project ( graduation project) for engineering major. the project is to do pedestrian tunnel between Tarawa Rd & SR 75 in Coronado, California, USA. read RFP for more informationI need to do some calculations (handwritten and using program) and do plans see attached below for more informationUse google map to see the location. I also provided the site layout , proposed picture for the tunnel design and dimensions, request for proposal,and proposal. I provided geotechnical report so you can use the information for the calculations needed please see attached excel sheet for the plans and calculations needed and some information to use important note: we will use boring machine, so you can know how to do the structural calculations
Do structural calculations and draw the following plans using AutoCADD
Can someone do my Contract Analysis?
Can someone do my Contract Analysis?.
Hi I need someone to do a contract analysis for my business law class. It has to be one of the following contracts which I am going to include here. The criteria is the following:CriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSummary Paragraph5.0 ptsFull Marks0.0 ptsNo Marks5.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeClause 1, 2 and 3Clause 1, 2 and 3, 12 points each with a further breakdown for each clause of 3 Points for defining it, 1 point for referencing it to the text, and 5 points for the analysis.36.0 ptsFull Marks0.0 ptsNo Marks36.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeContract attached if not from Canvas1.0 ptsFull Marks0.0 ptsNo Marks1.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSpelling and Grammar8.0 ptsFull Marks0.0 ptsNo Marks8.0 ptsTotal Points: 50.0
Can someone do my Contract Analysis?
Jammu And Kashmir State History Essay
best assignment help 1. The total area of erstwhile Jammu and Kashmir state (prior to 1947) comprised 2,22,236 square kilometers of which as of now Pakistan occupies about 35 percent, besides illegally ceding 2.5 percent area to China. China grabbed 17 percent of the area in 1962 leaving only 45.5 percent territory with India.  2. Located between the Shivaliks and the outer ranges of the Great Himalayas – the region has been of immense attraction. Part of Jammu and Kashmir, presently with India extends approximately 1,38,832 square kilometers. This can be divided into three broad regions:- (a) Ladakh Region. Largest region extending over an area of approximately 96,701 square kilometers with sparse population mainly comprising Ladakhis who are Buddists and some Shia Muslims in Kargil districts. However this region has only four seats in the State Assembly. (b) Jammu Region. Covering an area of approximately 26,293 square kilometers, it comprises the districts of Jammu, Doda, Udhampur, Akhnur Rajauri and Poonch. Of these Doda, Rajauri and Poonch are affected by terrorism. This area is represented by 37 members in the State Assembly. (c) Kashmir Region. 15,838 square kilometers of the valley houses approximately 55 percent of the population. It is represented by 46 members in a 87 member State Assembly. This region can be further subdivided into the mountainous sector and plains sector:- (i) Mountainous Sector. Enclosed by the Greater Himalayas to the North and East, Shamsabari range to the North and West and Pir Panjal to the south, the height in the region varies from 2000 to 4500 meters. Rugged terrain and poor communication network facilitates infiltration and establishment of hideouts. (ii) Plains Sector. The alluvial plains in the valley are served by a number of rivers, irrigation channels and lakes. The region has major population centres and a good network of roads and tracks. 3. Pakistan Occupied Kashmir. Extending over an area of approximately 77,783 square kilometers, it comprises what Pakistan calls `Azad Kashmir’ and Northern Areas with districts of Gilgit and Hunza to the North and Muzaffarabad to the West. River Jhelum is joined by River Kishanganga (Neelam) at Muzaffarabad. It is politically the most important town of the region with headquarters of large number of militant groups and training camps in its vicinity. 4. Analysis. An analysis of para 2 above highlights the following facts:-  (a) Almost 89 percent of the area of Jammu and Kashmir, comprising Ladakh and Jammu accounts for only 45 percent of the population, whereas the remaining 11 percent of the area namely the valley accounts for almost 55 percent of the population. (b) Since the concentration of the population is in the valley, it enjoys a major say in the affairs of the state. (c) Border areas of Jammu region namely Poonch, Rajouri and Doda have a larger Muslim population resulting in greater affinity with the people of Kashmir region. 5. Demographic Structure. The state has a population of over nine million. Of these approximately 64 percent are Muslims, 32 percent Hindus and remainder four percent includes Sikhs, Buddists, Christians and others. Literacy rate is approximately 40 percent among small and 20 percent among females. Pre Independence History 6. It shall be appropriate to take a brief stock of significant events in the history of Jammu and Kashmir as the past has relevance to the present. Earliest reference to Kashmir can be found in the chinese documents of 541 AD, referring the valley as Ku-Shih-mi.  The presence of Naga worshippers before and even after the Buddhist period testifies that the first residents in the valley were aborigines, who later spread over India. Subsequently the Aryans invaded from the north-east and mixed with the local aborigines. The physical features and ethnic culture, distinct from the surrounding races has given rise to several conjectures – one of them connecting the people of valley even with the Jews. It can therefore be said that Kashmiri race is a mix of aborigines, majority of Aryans, Jews and some other races. 7. It has a long and chequered history. Several invasions bear testimony to the significance of Jammu and Kashmir which attracted the attention of invaders. The pre-independence history of the region can be covered broadly under the following periods:- (a) Pre Islamic Period (upto 1320 AD). (b) Early Muslim Period (1320-1586). (c) Mughal Period (1586-1752). (d) Afghan Period (1752-1819). (e) Sikh Period (1819-1846). (f) Dogra period (1846-1947). 8. Pre Islamic Period. During this period, the valley was ruled by Brahmins, Buddhists and certain Non-Brahmins as well. Prominent amongst them were the Gonandas, the Damodarans, the Pandus, the Mauryas, the Kushiaras, the White Hans, the Karkotas and the Loharas. Rule of King Ashoka (272-231 BC) of Maurya dynasty stands out predominantly. A staunch follower of Buddhism, he preached the philosophy of religious tolerance. This influenced the Kashmir culture immensely. The last dynasty of pre-Islamic period was the Lohara dynasty. The end of Hindu rule in Kashmir can be attributed to the indifference and clashes between the Brahmins and Buddhists and lack of security of the frontiers. This period can also be described as a period of great learning and cultural activities. 9. Early Muslim Period. Islam made its entry into Kashmir by gradual conversions, for which the influx of foreign adventurers, both from south and Central Asia had made the ground.When Turks, Afghans and Mughals dominated North India, the upper class of Hindu and Muslims in the valley came closer. Sultan Sadr ud-din or Rinchana was the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir. He was originally a Buddhist from West Tibet, who converted to Islam. Sheikh Nur-ud-din was an influential personality of the period whose tomb at Charar-e-Sahrif, about 26 kilometers southwest of Srinagar is visited by thousands of people even today. 10. The Mughal Period. The Mughal rule ushered in an era of stability and cultural activities. Kashmiri artisans touched heights of excellence, the administration improved and trade and industry grew to enviable proportions. Exquisite gardens, laid out during the Mughal era, bear testimony to their love for nature. 11. The Afghan Period. In 1752 Ahmed Shah Durrani, the Afghan ruler annexed Kashmir and made it part of the Afghan empire. They ruled through governors. In 1810 when strife and struggle erupted between various claimants of the throne, Atta Mulla Khan, the then governor of Kashmir declared his independence. In 1814, Maharaja Ranjit Singh invaded Kashmir and by 1819, Kashmir came under the Sikh rule. 12. The Sikh period. The Sikh contact with Kashmir can be linked with the visit of Guru Nanak to the valley. Maharaja Ranjit Singh captured Kashmir in 1819. This period lasted only 27 years during which the governors were harsh on Kashmiris. 13. The Dogra Period. Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu extended his rule to Kashmir in 1846. The Dogras ruled till October 1947. With a view to curb the power and spirit of the Sikhs and in order to cutdown the Lahore Kingdom to size, the British signed two treaties with Raja Gulab Singh. By the first treaty the state of Kashmir was handed over to the British on indemnity equivalent to one crore rupees. By the second treaty signed seven days later, the British handed over to Gulab Singh, all the hilly and mountain areas lying between Ravi and Indus for a sum of Rs 75 lakhs. The amount which Gulab Singh agreed to pay was actually the indemnity of a crore of rupees imposed on the Sikh government. The Sikhs were unable to pay the indemnity and consequently agreed to handover Jammu, Kashmir, Ladakh and Baltistan to the British. The British retained the possession of trans-Beas portion only including Manali and Nurpur, giving remainder to Gulab Singh. He extended his territory to include Basholi, Bhadarwah, Kistwar, Bhimbar, Rajouri and Skardu covering an area of approximately 84,471 square miles. This period saw a spate of famines, epidemics, earthquake and destruction. However it ushered in an era of modern age to include establishment of road and rail communications as well as telephone communications. 14. Analysis. Despite two major communities namely Muslims and Hindus in the valley, there has been a peculiar mutual affinity and respect for each other. There is a lot of tolerance giving rise to Kashmiriat culture in which both communities lived in peace and love. It has imbibed best of Islam and Hinduism. But the common binding of Kashmiris led to a feeling of opposition to Non-Kashmiris. Post Independence Conflicts 15. While inheriting the newly constituted nations in 1947 anti-communal feelings were also inherited, which later manifested themselves in Indo-Pak conflicts. Since independence, there have been several conflicts between the two nations in which Jammu and Kashmir was involved. The main conflicts were the wars of 1947-48, 1965, 1971 and the Kargil crisis of 1999. 16. 1947-48 war. At the time of independence, the future of Jammu and Kashmir hung fire due to the indecisiveness of Maharaja Hari Singh. He had lost the support of muslim – majority areas and some of the state force personnel had started defecting. Finding the Maharaja vacillating between joining one of the dominions and desire to continue with his own rule, Pakistan launched a tribal invasion and codenamed it Operation GULMARG. On 20 October 1947 Pakistan sponsored tribals invaded Jammu and Kashmir. On 26 October 1947, Instrument of Accession was signed and the following day Indian Army landed in Srinagar to save it from the clutches of Pakistan. The tribal invaders had wasted three days in Baramulla in rape, arson and loot, which delayed their arrival in Srinagar thus giving Indian Army an air head. The operation in Gilgit, Skardu and Baltisan went Pakistan’s way. India could save Poonch, Rajouri, Valley and such adjoining areas. However the summer offensive of 1949 to liberate remaining part of Jammu and Kashmir did not materialise. Nehru abruptly ordered “no further advance” and decided to approach the UNO. This war can be described as “a war where each side threw the advantages gained to the winds”. 17. Instrument of Accession. Following clauses of the Instrument of Accession merit attention, as these prevented amalgamation of the state fully into India:- (a) Clause 6. Indian dominion legislature could not make any law for the state authorising the compulsory acquisition of land for any purpose. (b) Clause 7. Acceptance of the constitution of India was not obligatory and the ruler could exercise his discretion to enter into any arrangements with the Government of India under such constitution. (c) Clause 8. Continuance of the ruler’s sovereignty over his state was not to be affected in any manner. 18. 1965 War. Kashmir continued to be an obsession with Pakistan. It was impatient to decide the Jammu and Kashmir issue through military action, before India could acquire substantial qualitative edge over it. It launched Operation GIBRALTAR supported by Operation GRAND SLAM in July 1965. Pakistan’s political aim was to create large scale disturbance in Jammu and Kashmir and compel India to take major political and military steps and thus to place it in a dilemma whether to restrict its response to Jammu and Kashmir only or escalate the situation, where the superpowers would step in, which in turn would bring the Jammu and Kashmir problem to the international forum. Within this overall aim Pakistan military plan evolved around certain salient factors like – creation of a situation of crisis in Jammu and Kashmir by resorting to guerilla operations (OPERATION GIBRALTER) and in case the clandestine operations failed, to have a contingency plan to capture Akhnur, in the Line of Control (LC) environment. Operation GIBRALTER had failed. Then Pakistan decided to launch Operation GRAND SLAM along the Chhamb – Akhnur axis, so as to capture some Indian territory for bargaining later. Chhamb offensive launched on 01 September 1965 had to be called off when India launched its counter-offensive in Lahore and Sialkot sectors. The Pakistani troops in Chhamb Sector had to be diverted to save Lahore and Sialkot. Pakistan failed to internationalize the Kashmir issue. Status-quo was restored under the Tashkent Agreement of January 1966 and the strategic Haji Pir pass was returned to Pakistan, which did not help India’s short term and long term interests. 19. 1971 War. Brief analysis of 1971 war, though not related to Kashmir issue can be highlighted here. One of the articles in Simla Agreement records:-  “In Jammu and Kashmir, the line of control from cease fire of 17 September 1971 shall be respected by both sides without prejudice to the recognized position of either side. Neither side shall seek to alter it unilaterally, irrespective of mutual differences and local interpretations. Both sides undertake to refrain from threats or use of force in violation of this line”. 20. Pakistan suffered a great humiliation when 90,000 defence personnel surrendered to the Indian Army. This gave rise to resolve for a revenge. Like the breakup of East Pakistan, they started dreaming of break-up of India, namely in Punjab, in North East and in Kashmir and thus started in proxy war. Pakistan attempted to grab a portion of Jammu and Kashmir in Siachen Glacier of Ladakh Sector. However it was foiled when Indian troops occupied the pass by a heliborne operation. Ever since frequent fire fight on the LC/international border has continued. 21. Kargil Crisis. Yet another attempt to internationalize the Jammu and Kashmir issue was made in May 99 when in the garb of Mujahideen, Pakistan made intrusions in Batalik, Kaksar, Dras and Mushko sub sectors of Kargil. Their military aim was based on:- (a) Exploitation of large gaps in the defences. (b) Intrusions would enable them to secure dominating heights from where National Highway 1A could be interdicted at a number of places. (c) Intrusion would also draw in and tie down Indian Army reserves. (d) It would enable Pakistan to negotiate from position of strength. (e) The intrusion would irrevocably alter the status of the LC. 22. The international pressure especially from USA on Mr Nawaz Sharif forced Pakistan for a withdrawal. However before that could be affected the Indian Army and Air Force got into action and restored the situation by pushing back the intruders. 23. Ground for Proxy War. Short term steps taken by the Central Government and vested petty political interests alienated the local population and gave rise to the separatist forces. Corruption crept in badly in the governance in the state. Pakistan started exploiting the ground set by India, to its advantage by fomenting terrorism in the state. The action plan was based on five major steps:- (a) Exploitation of religious sensitivity. (b) Enrolment of Kashmiri Youth. (c) Supply of Arms and Equipment. (d) Funding. (e) Internationalizing the Jammu and Kashmir issue. 24. The infiltration and induction of arms and ammunition from Pakistan/POK into Jammu and Kashmir had really commenced in 1965 when Pakistan made an abortive attempt to grab Jammu and Kashmir.  The unused arms and ammunition left behind in 1965 were stored in hidden and well guarded caches. However movement picked up considerably after 1985 when proxy war was conceived and launched. By end of 1989 militants had established small and big camps in the forest areas. Communication centres were developed at Srinagar, Kupwara, Baramulla, Sopore, Gulmarg and Anantnag. By December 1989 stage was set for the militants due to the neglect, drift and Government’s approach being indifferent. The state government having moved down to its winter capital at Jammu was not in intimate touch with the worsening situation. 25. Insurgency Since 1989. Attack on CRPF post, killing of Justice NK Ganjoo, kidnapping of Dr Rubaiya Sayeed , daughter of then the Home Minister and her release in exchange for five hard crore militants are some of the terrorist activities with which it all started in the valley. Kidnapping of swedish engineer from Uri Hydel Project, Mr K Doraiswamy, an Indian Oil Corporation executive in June 1991 and such atrocities continued to rise. In 1992 itself 202 cases of terrorism occurred in the state . Strike by the state police, followed by 72 day strike by IAS officers of the state further worsened the situation. Hazratbal crisis in 1993 could be resolved by the mature and patient handling by the government and security forces. Militant buildup in holy shrine of Charar-E-Sharif had started in end 1994. As the initial intelligence reports were not considered in all seriousness, it led to the burning of the shrine and the operations could be completed only by 15 May 1995. Kidnapping of five foreign tourists and not releasing them despite protracted negotiations brought the terrorists under strong international criticism. Parliamentary elections followed by assembly elections were successfully completed in 1996. Killing of innocent civilians, ambush of security personnel, abduction and killings continued. 1997 and 98 saw heavy exchange of fire including artillery fire resulting in heavy damage to the civil population and their assets. Simultaneously with the bus diplomacy of Indian prime Minister, preparations for ‘covert’ open conflict was on in Pakistan. 26. Withdrawal from the heights of Kargil was followed by a bloodless coup by General Parvez Musharraf. However there has been no change in Pakistan’s approach towards fomenting terrorism in the state. Militant’s attack on the headquarters of 15 Corps and Special Operations Group of police shows their desperation. Hijacking of Indian Airlines flight IC814 on 24 December 1999 has again highlighted their desperate attitude and approach towards annexation of Jammu and Kashmir. Having studied the geography, demography and historical background of the state, let us now examine the causes of terrorism. CAUSES OF TERRORISM 1. In the valley the Pro Indian mood evident till 1950, changed first into sullenness and indifference and then to nexious anti India complex. The Delhi Agreement of 1952 and the Kashmir Accord of 1975 highlighted the differences between the Government of India and Sheikh Abdullah. The Sheikh was arrested in 1953 and later deposed. He was reinstated in 1975. His arrest and dismissal gave rise to the separatist forces. The people in the valley also felt let down by India. The pro-Pakistan elements who were dormant till then surfaced. The blunders by the Indian government, especially from the mid fifties to the mid eighties and frequent change of the Chief Ministers further alienated the public. By then corruption had seeped so deep in the state system that major chunk of the liberal money allotted by the centre found its way into pockets of a few influential families only. Ironically, the ground was set by India for Pakistan to exploit. Pakistan with heavy doses of pan – Islamic support fomented the seed of separatist movement in the state. 2. Pakistan’s continued efforts to annex Kashmir since 1947-48 and its repeated failure in 1947-48, 1965 and 1999 has resulted in extreme frustration as a nation to Pakistan. It views Kashmir in the light of the two nation theory based on the religious alignment. However it shall be apt to discuss the reasons which set ground for Pakistan to exploit. It could be broadly grouped under internal and external factors. Article 370 of the Indian constitution needs to be kept in mind while discussing the causes of terrorism. This article accords special status to Jammu and Kashmir, aiming at protecting the legal, cultural, regional and demographic rights of its people. Internal Factors 3. The Chief Executive of Pakistan, General Parvez Musharraf in an interview conveyed about terrorism in the valley that “fish cannot survive in dirty-water” indicating that support of the local population for terrorism does exist. Not withstanding the patriotic sentiments and the determination with which terrorism is to be crushed, there is a need to look at our own house and set the blunders right even at this stage. These could be studied under political, social and economic factors. 4. Political Factors. Alliance between National conference and Congress (I) led to a political vacuum in the state. This alliance resulted in unprecedented interference by the centre in state administration. High level rigging of elections in 1987 alienated the masses resulting in loss of faith in the political system in the state. Article 370 has also prevented integration of the state into national mainstream fully. Inability of state and central governments to handle the worsening situation in the valley, frequent changes of chief ministers and overnors and number of agencies dealing with the state are an indicator of lack of clear policy and strategy on the subject at political level. 5. Social Factors. Society in Kashmir can be clearly divided as the `haves’ who are very well off, staying in urban and semi urban areas and the `have nots’ who are much larger in number, generally rural, belonging to peasent class. Due to lack of education and basic facilities with prevalent social injustice, these minds could be easily subverted. Corruption and nepotism further alienated the masses. Religious fundamentalists found the existing environment just appropriate for the proxy war. 6. Economic Factors. Lack of basic infrastructure, over dependence of the state on grants and subsidies, poor management of state economy with no clearcut economic policies topped with rampant corruption had brought the state economy to almost a collapse. Increasing unemployment and disparity in the society made the youth disillusioned with the state. This youth was easily available to Pakistan for a `Jehad’. External Factors 7. Resurgence of Islamic Fundamentalism. Rise of islamic fundamentalism affected the complete human civilization all over the world in this period. Muslims from various countries spread to all troubled spots world over to include Central Asia, Bosnia and Kashmir to fight a `Jehad’. Religious fanaticism and intolerance was propagated in the garb of spreading Islamic rule all over the world. The effect could be noticed in the western world as well. 8. Afghanistan crisis. With an aim to counter the Soviet troops and their influence, huge quantity of arms came into Afghanistan for the Mujahideens. After the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, the Mujahideens were diverted to the fertile ground in Jammu and Kashmir ushering in the culture of Kalashnikov. 9. The Pakistan Factor. Repeated failure on part of Pakistan to annex Kashmir from India, its continued commitment of providing support to the Mujahideens and its own weak establishment as a nation state has forced Pakistan to keep the pot boiling in the valley. Their aim in promoting insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir is to annex the valley and other muslim dominated areas of Jammu and Kashmir. It wants to tie down a large component of the Indian army in the valley and adjoining areas. It is of the belief that such acts will continue to protect its interest in Pak Occupied Kashmir (POK). To achieve this aim, General Zia had started giving material support to secession in Kashmir since 1986 and master minded OP TOPAC in 1988. 10. Role of ISI. The overall game plan of Pakistan was masterminded and implemented by the ISI. Having lured the local youth, indoctrinated and trained them, ISI pushed them back into the valley to propagate terrorism. In due course of time as the Kashmiri youth started getting disillusioned, ISI began induction of foreign mercenaries including Afghan Mujahideens who were fanatics and ruthless. ISI was also responsible for the following:- (a) Provide financial support to the militants. (b) Provide media support and propaganda for the Pro Pakistan outfits. (c) Induct foreign militants at a stage when support from the local youth was dying down. (d) Coordinate the activities of various Pro-Pakistan outfits. (e) Neutralise the pro independence outfits. 11. Narco-terrorism. The golden crescent of Pakistan – Afghanistan – Myanmar facilitated the availability of illegal funds from trade in narcotics. This so called ‘easy money’ provided adequate funds for spread of terrorism in the valley.
How does Annette Baier’s The Need for More than Justice and her critique of the notion of justice exemplify elements of feminist critique?
How does Annette Baier’s The Need for More than Justice and her critique of the notion of justice exemplify elements of feminist critique?.
Homework assignment must be written in OWN Words. Minimum of 250-300 wordsread the following passages to answer the following questions: PGs. 721 by Annette Baier and PGs. 735 by Margaret Urban WalkerQuestions:1) How does Annette Baier’s The Need for More than Justice and her critique of the notion of justice exemplify elements of feminist critique?2) Considering Margaret Urban Walker’s Feminist Skepticism, Authority and Transparency, and in particular, her assertion that, when it comes to moral justification, the ultimate question is related to authority and whom one should believe, how does this reflect the feminist position towards traditional ethical systems? What concepts or ideas does she present to clarify her position?Textbook (if needed): https://www.upscsuccess.com/sites/default/files/documents/[email protected]
How does Annette Baier’s The Need for More than Justice and her critique of the notion of justice exemplify elements of feminist critique?
Globalization and how business is redefined
Globalization and how business is redefined. PART 1 – Project objectives and overall research approach 1.1. The reasons for choosing project topic area and choosing the particular organisation as a focus of research work 1.1.1. Reasons for choosing the project topic A phenomenal development in the concept of globalisation has been observed over the last couple of decades. Globalisation can be explained as a multidimensional concept that is expressed through several ways by many theorists. The significance of globalisation cannot be denied hence it has increasingly gained ever- growing supremacy that in the modern businesses today. Due to the increasing significance, need and requirement of globalisation to be adapted by organisations / and businesses, the author of this report is particularly interested in further exploring the concept of globalisation in context to financial institution such as Barclays Bank plc. The author also understands that globalisation had been explained with various perceptions where as parameters of the concept are hard to define because of several factors influencing the conceptualisation of globalisation. For example, the political, environmental, social, technological, legal etc. factors influence how firms globalise and operate their businesses. Therefore, this research study is also interested in identifying a valid explanation of globalisation that must be adapted along with the subsequent practices. In addition, it has also been observed that globalisation brings in new challenges and transformations that must be adapted by businesses in context to new risks and opportunities at the same time. Therefore an important question that emerges here is that how does globalisation influence on an organisational capacity of defining its business. In order to explore and examine these questions pertaining to and dimensions of the concept of globalisation, the author chooses the subject of globalisation to be explored in context of UK financial sector. 1.1.2. Reasons for choosing Barclays Plc. Due to the global economic recession, the most affected business sector has been the financial sector. As evident, the recent economic recession claims high influence on the banking sector of the world. The after effects are established leaving the stakeholders of the global banking industry with high concerns such as whether or not the returns on their investments made into the financial sector and specifically financial institutions will be returned. Secondly, stakeholders are also equally concerned with business challenges faced by financial institutions such as Barclays plc. These challenges have been observed as loss of customers, high employee redundancy, loss of market share, loss of global supremacy of the bank in the global financial sector and so on. It has been further observed by analysts that these challenges are a result of misconduct of US Federal reserves (Protchard, 2008). According to the bank these challenges are likely to result in increasing inflation affecting the financial assets of the bank and financial sector. The increasing challenges thus claims immeasurable influence with an increasing deteriorating circumstances leading the stakeholders in a grey area concerning the future of the bank and investments made by the stakeholders in the bank. Summing up the challenges, this research study aims to explore and identify the effect of globalisation on the bank in context to the challenges while redefining its business. The particular reason for choosing Barclays Bank plc is that it is one of the leading banks across the globe that has been successfully adapting globalisation long before other businesses had realised the opportunities to globalise their business operations. Secondly it is also intended to assess that how does a global giant redefines its business in order to address the challenges posed by globalisation. This particular bank has also been chosen because it operates in the global financial sector that has been immensely affected by the global economic recession. 188.8.131.52. Introduction to Barclays Plc. Barclays Bank plc is one of the major global banks that have been providing financial products and services in commercial, and investment banking and retail banking for over a period of 300 years. It is listed on New York and London stock market, whilst operating in 50 countries across the globe including United States, Asia, Africa and Europe. Employing 156,000 people across the globe and serving 48 million customers, the bank has developed its to business clusters that are: a) Commercial Banking and Global Retail and b) Investment Management and Investment Banking. These business clusters are made up of world-class financial and businesses brand portfolio. During the worst period of recession i.e. 2008, the bank announced a profit of £ 6.1 billion before tax (Barclays plc Sustainability Review report, 2008). The bank is headquartered in the UK and is called as Group Centre facilitating functional operations (Group.Barclays.Com, 2009). 1.2. Research objectives and research questions This paper aims to discuss tasks of defining an organisation mission influenced by globalisation. The objectives of this study are: 1.2.1. To identify globalisation influencing on how firm redefine its business. 1.2.2. With in the same context, what remains compelling now and what must be adapted and 1.2.3. Why redefining business mission and subsequent practices is significant and must be adapted. 1.2.4. To make recommendations. The research questions are: 1.2.5. What is globalisation and how does it affect the businesses in redefining their business? 1.2.6. What factors are influential upon management’s decision on redefining businesses due to globalisation? 1.3. Overall research approach and research framework developed to address the project objectives and research questions The overall research approach (Walsh and Wigens, 2003) that has been adapted by this study is explained as: a) identify research subject, b) obtain and review contextual / background information of the subject, c) identify research questions, d) define research strategy, e) identify the process and techniques of collecting data, f) carry out pilot study, g) analyse and interpret data, and h) draft research report. The data sources used for the purpose of this study are primary and secondary, where as the research strategy is the case study and survey strategy. Deductive approach of logical reasoning has also been implied along with using qualitative data analysis techniques. The research study has been underpinned by appropriate theories. PART 2 – Information gathering and business techniques The data and information that has been collected concerns the subject of globalisation and its impact on the business operations of Barclays bank plc. The primary and secondary data sources enabled the researcher to collect information regarding impact of globalisation on business operations of the bank. The researcher also concentrates on evaluating current business operations of the bank by means of using three business research tools, which are Porter’s value chain analysis model (Katisioludes, 2006), Porter’s five forces analysis model (Ahlstrom and Bruton, 2009), and Porter’s model for competitive advantage (Porter, 1998). Utilization of these business tools directed the research study towards making analysis and evaluation of the current business global practices adapted by Barclays bank plc. Once the process of analysis and evaluation is completed, the generated information was drawn to identify those factors that influence business operations in context of globalisation as well as impact of globalisation on the bank. This information has been further used to recognize and determine the need to redefine the business mission and subsequent strategies and practices. The last step was to make recommendations through which the bank can possibly address to the changing needs of the global market specifically customers and stakeholders. 2.1. The chosen business techniques 2.1.1. Sources of information The research data has been obtained from primary and secondary sources. Primary data source is formed of survey research study that has been carried out for the purpose of this specific study. In addition to primary research data surces, secondary data sources are formed of academic books, research journal articles, online newspapers, company published reports, independent reports published by organisations such as Datamonitor etc. 2.1.2. Description of the methods used to collect information, including online access 184.108.40.206. The data has been collected through implying two research tools i.e. a) survey research questionnaires and b) using and reviewing secondary sources to obtain background information regarding the context of subject of globalisation and Barclays Bank plc. The survey questionnaires are designed as open-ended and semi- structured in order to draw in-depth analysis concerning the participants’ experiences, viewpoints and opinions along with addressing the research questions. The strength of survey questionnaires lies in drawing out perceptive responses, exceptional characteristic and contradictory (if any) views of the participants. Secondly survey research method also draws out interpretive standpoint of the survey participants (Mack and Woodsong, 2005; Marshall and Rossman, 2006). This technique of primary data collection is cost-effective and efficient. The primary data was collected through a self-administered e-mail platform and the survey participants were randomly selected. An estimated number of hundred employees of Barclays Bank plc were contacted and invited through e-mails to participate in the survey research study. The purpose, objectives and outcomes of the survey research were explained. Only 35 of these contacted employees replied positively, demonstrating their interest and commitment in participating in the survey research. A pilot study was first conducted through inviting 10 respondents. The comments and feedback (explaining the validity and viability of questions, ease of understanding the questions, possible interpretations of the questions by the participants etc.) of these respondents were valuable in reforming the final survey questionnaire. Once the final questionnaire was designed, it was sent to all survey participants through e-mail. The respondents were provided with a period of four weeks to fill in the questionnaires and return it to the researcher’s provided e-mail address. 220.127.116.11. The secondary data was collected through reviewing research journal articles accessible through databases such as Emerald, Sage Journals, Informaworld, ScienceDirect, Willey Science, Datamonitor etc. Secondary data was also collected through reviewing reports published by Barclays Bank plc, along with reviewing online newspapers. The data was reviewed and analysed to extract valuable information concerning the subject. 2.1.3. Research limitations while gathering information While collecting the information certain limitations have been encountered by the researcher such as possibility of biased reviews regarding the organisational performance of the bank that is likely to mislead the researcher while forming opinions. Secondly while carrying out the primary research, it is expected that the survey participants may be influenced by certain factors that can affect the quality and validity of their replies. Lastly the researcher aimed to contact at least 75 employees in order to draw significant research findings, however due to limited survey population it is expected that the research findings and analysis may not be viable due to the fact that sample population may not represent the actual population. Drawing on these limitations, it is expected that the data validity can be challenged. 2.1.4. Identification of any ethical issues that arose during information gathering and how such issues are resolved While carrying out the primary research, researcher was particularly focused towards maintaining the integrity of the collected data. This means that all the data and information collected as a result of primary research must be protected against any misuse of information. For example the research explained the survey participants that the collected data will only be used for the identified purpose and objectives. In order to maintain the researcher’s claim, it is crucial that the data stays with the researcher where as the name, contact details such as email addresses etc. of survey participants are kept confidential. The data integrity has also been maintained which means that data has been interpreted and analyzed through avoiding any biased views of the researcher towards the studied organisation and collected data. Secondly, while referring to the secondary data collected for the purpose of this study, the researcher was particularly focused towards ensuring that all the previous research studies used for this study are appropriately and sufficiently referenced, credited and acknowledged. For this reason, the researcher ensured that all the data provided by previous researchers have been appropriately referred and acknowledged. For that reason, this report is free of plagiarism, where as all the previous research studies have been appropriately referenced and credited. 2.1.5. An explanation of business techniques that have been used, including a discussion of their limitations. The business research techniques that have been used for this research study are case study and survey strategies, qualitative data analysis techniques and deductive approach of logical reasoning. 18.104.22.168. The case study strategy is explained as strategy of carrying out research including practical examination and analysis of a specific contemporary phenomenon as explained within its real-life business scenarios through implication of multiple sources of data validation (Robson, 2002). The limitation of this strategy is to draw perceptive meaning out of the collected data that can vary from researcher to researcher. The perception of the data can also be influenced by the context of the research subject (Yin, 2004). The survey research strategy is explained as carrying out survey research by means of involving a sample of population to answer provided questions. The limitation of this strategy is that the researcher is solely dependent upon the data provided by the survey participants, hence the research findings and analysis is a result of data provided by the participants that may not be validated if required. 22.214.171.124. The data analysis technique adapted by this research study is qualitative data analysis technique. The qualitative technique enables the researcher to determine information that is extracted according to the constructivist perspective or participatory perspective or even both. Constructivist perspective has been explained as research built upon several interpretations of various understandings collected by the researcher with an ambition of establishing a theory or research pattern. On the other hand, participatory perspective has been explained as constructing upon issue- related, change oriented or combined perspectives (Creswell, 2003). This research study adapts the constructivist perspective of data analysis technique. The limitations of this technique experienced by the researcher are a) difficulty in making structured comparisons while analyzing and interpreting data, b) process of data analysis is dependent upon the skills of the researcher, c) time-consuming process and d) relatively less easy to generalise the data. 126.96.36.199. In addition to above technique, deductive approach of logical reasoning has been implied by this study. This approach is directly associated with research environment. Deductive approach of logical reasoning has been utilised by means of using following pattern: a) making observations, b) observing research patterns, c) testing hypothesis and d) testing the theory involved (Miles and Huberman, 1994; Cooper and Schindler, 2006). The limitation of this approach as experienced by the researcher is that conclusions are made based on assumptions drawn through empirical evidences that can be different within the context of different research environments. PART 3 – Results, analysis, conclusions and recommendations 3.1. A description of the results that have obtained and any limitations This section of the report aims to present all the collected data and information, based upon which, analysis and research findings have been presented in the following section. This section identifies global challenges faced by the bank while operating globally. Upon identifying these challenges, the adapted practices of the bank are examined in redefining its global business mission resulting in subsequent strategies and practices. The limitations faced during the data collection and data analysis process are same as identified in the previous section of this report. 3.1.1. Challenges faced by Barclays Bank plc as a result of globalisation Globalisation has been explained as a multi- faceted phenomenon carrying different viewpoints as has been realised by the review of the literature (e.g. Rapley, 2004; Meffert and Bloch, 1991). This means that the dynamic nature of the phenomenon is likely to raise challenges such as global warming, carrying out ethical business, addressing social responsibility issues, paying back to the communities where the business operates and so on. These challenges were not known about 50 years ago before the advent of globalisation. Similarly, even though Barclays Bank plc has been increasingly expanding its global business, nevertheless the aforementioned issues increasingly and continually keep challenge the bank. In addition, other economical challenges such as poverty and taking strategic steps to combat poverty require competent economic policies to be adapted that supports the business policies at the same time (Fischer, 2003). Therefore, Barclays is increasingly challenged to not only deliver business performance excellence but it is also challenged to serve back the communities by means of addressing issues such as fighting poverty with in the communities where it is operating. Secondly the economic challenge faced by the bank is addressing to the issues of credit crunch. The recessed economy restricts economic development of countries where it is currently operation. As a result of which, management has to take decisions such as job redundancies. For that reason it is argued that despite of the fact that globalisation fosters equality, the results of integration of global economy, and the consequences of flow of capital across national boundaries is likely to threaten the global financial structure of the economies (Fischer 2003; Lloyd and Demos 2001; Baldwin and Winters 2004). Another issue that is faced by the bank is technological advancement, which is considered to be a dominant driver for the changes experienced by the bank in the due course of process of globalisation (Mulgan, 2007). The same researcher states that those organisations which were household names with in last 20 years time of time period, are now web- based organisations with established and fundamental fears that Internet could further advance into more commercialised and develop in to inaccessible commodity then it can be realised today (Mulgan, 2007). Upon identifying these challenges, the researcher now aims to examine the business operations of the bank in context to creating its value chain and competitive advantage. This identification leads the researcher towards assessing how the effect of global age, and globalisation resulted in defining the business mission and subsequent strategies and practices by Barclays Bank plc. In context with the above challenges faced by the bank due to adaption of globalisation as a fundamental business need, the research study now aims to analyse and evaluate current value chain of the bank and industrial competitive forces in order to identify how these challenges influence the redefinition of business mission and subsequent strategic practices of the bank. 3.1.2. Implying the value chain analysis as proposed by Porter (Katsioloudes, 2006), following findings and analysis has been presented. The data of Barclays Bank has been extracted from Barclays Bank PLC Sustainability Review (2008) and primary data collected through survey research questionnaires (see appendix 1). 188.8.131.52. Inbound logistics Suppliers of the bank are required to attend to challenges such as supply chain risks, business integrity, human rights and environmental issues so that a sustainable supply chain steering group can be established that will be accountable to improve business processes, tools and techniques along with addressing training and development needs of its employees as well as supply chain partners in order to operate successfully in the global market. 184.108.40.206. Operations The UK and the European business operations of the bank equalized operational carbon emissions as well as reduced energy consumption per employee by a rate of 2.1 per cent. The same carbon operations had been executed and practiced across the global operations by the end of year 2009. Secondly the bank demonstrates its commitment to stabilize economies those extending beyond its own operations and procurement strategies so that a distinguished role of the bank can be recognised in developing long-term relationship with its customers and stakeholders. 220.127.116.11. Outbound logistics The bank capitalizes on the advantages laid by new regulations on the banking and financial sector to secure a handful of distributors. Previously, the bank was connected to one provider and regulated by the legislative requirements, however today it is tied to 6 distributors such as fund managers, life insurance and so forth. 18.104.22.168. Marketing and sales The bank has been observed and reported to be supporting small and medium enterprises in the UK even though the local economy had been under financial distress that resulted in an increment of 6 per cent in its lending to the small and medium enterprises. In context of its global operations, the bank also announced and executed a debt repair line for South African customers who were facing financial difficulties. Further on with an ambition of attending to the changing customer needs and demands, the bank has been increasingly observed and reported to be developing its customer relationship along with investing in innovation and technologically enabled and advance services and products. Customer relationship have been improved through implying customer relationship management practices, however drawing on the collected data, such practices needs to be further developed and improved. 22.214.171.124. Services Due to innovative products and services offered by the bank during the recessed economic situation, the bank reported an improvement in its financial records. For example during the year 2008, more than 57,000 employees of the bank were engaged in volunteering and fundraising activities with a purpose of serving the community such as collecting donations for charitable causes. In addition to this, the market share of the bank’s mortgage lending also increased from 8 per cent to 36 per cent, whereas the income rate of the bank also increased up to £ 23.1 billion by the end of year 2008. As suggested by the value chain analysis model, the above strategic system obtains further support through business infrastructure of the bank that has been assessed below: (Data source: Group.Barclays.com, 2009; Primary research see appendix 1) 126.96.36.199. The infrastructure The bank has also been reported to form partnerships and alliances with micro-finance firms, technical providers, local charities and government so that the needs and demands of its customers and stakeholders can be addressed. The bank also cultivates a performance- base management system supported by organisational culture that regulates and facilitates target- oriented performances to be delivered by the employees and subsequently the bank. 188.8.131.52. Human Resource Management The bank also practices diversity (cultural, ethnical and gender- based) while recruiting employees across the globe, solely based upon their talents. Secondly, the hard efforts and good performances of employees are rewarded and recognised. Most importantly the bank reports that women fill 25 per cent of senior managerial positions. This proportion has increased from 2 per cent from year 2007 up to 25 per cent during the financial year 2008. An estimated number of hundred and fifty three thousand employees are employed by the bank across the globe. Most importantly the bank claims to practice work- based diversity. 184.108.40.206. Technological development The bank employs technology- based equipment in order to generate clean energy, reducing gas and carbon emissions along with reducing use of electricity and water. In order to further reduce the consumption of paper, it offers mobile banking services in India, UK etc. In South Africa, the bank offers services and products that help government welfare beneficiaries to obtain inclusion in the financial system. 220.127.116.11. Procurement Barclays Bank plc also adapts to industrial best practices in supply chain monitoring in order to evaluate supply chain verification along with deploying tools and techniques that are aligned with adapted business strategies. The supply chain stretches across 50 countries where the bank operates. The strategic intent is to employ competent supply chain management practices so that the strategic and long-term business benefits can be obtained. 3.1.3. Upon assessing the value chain of the bank, their researcher and now aims to examine five competitive forces responsible for redefining business strategies. In order to do so Porter’s (1998) tool of assessing five competitive forces have been implied: 18.104.22.168. The force of threats of new entrants has been evaluated at a moderate level because the bank obtains its increased share of 36 per cent mortgage market in 2008, which is an increase from just 8 per cent market share in the financial year 2007. The bank had also obtained higher customer satisfaction rate in the UK raising from 64 per cent in 2007 to 67 per cent in 2008. Nevertheless, the bank also demonstrates increasing potential to bring this force to minimum because of the strategic practices it has adapted such as business diversity, employee diversity, environmental consumption, inclusive banking and strategic supply chain management initiatives. 22.214.171.124. The industrial force of bargaining power of suppliers has been evaluated to be low due to the bank’s policy of development and deployment of supply chain through carrying out strict screening policies so that the business vision of the suppliers are in line with the business vision of the bank. It has also been observed that because of its dominant market presence, strategic market positioning along with bank’s investments made into developing its supply chain, Barclays is privileged to be the first choice of suppliers thus making this force low. 126.96.36.199. The bargaining power of buyers has been evaluated to be at a modest level because buyers have other substitutes (banks, and financial institutions etc.) to attend to their banking needs. These needs can also be addressed by the competitors such as ABN Amro, Lloyds TSB, Royal Bank of Scotland, Standard Chartered and so on. It has also been assessed that this force can be lowered through bank’s continued commitment towards addressing customer demands and conducting ethical business. 188.8.131.52. The threats of substitutes have been evaluated as low because of the distressed economic situation that makes it intricate for the substitutes entering into new markets that are regulated by cash starved economy. On the other hand, emerging economic nations such as Brazil, Russia, China and India could be a potential market for substitutes that are likely to promise positive results. This can induce competition for the bank with in the emerging / and developing economies. 184.108.40.206. The industrial force of market rivalry among the financial organisations has been evaluated as extremely high because of the volatile banking sector resulting from mergers and business acquisitions, business alliances etc. that had been recently experienced by banking giants such as HBOS and Lehman Bros. In addition to this, the global economic distressed situation increases rivalry among financial institutions, services and products that are offered in the market since they are closely associated with economic conditions and interest rates, governed by the individual governments. 3.2. A critical analysis / evaluation of results including an explanation of significant research findings 3.2.1. Competitive advantage of Barclays Bank plc as a result of redefined business mission, strategies and practices Utilisation of competitive advantage model as proposed by Porter (table 3.1) while evaluating the bank’s competitive advantage demonstrates that the bank keeps an ambition of producing innovative and unique products and services by means of using innovative and technologically enabled organisational resources. In addition the organisation resources and subsequent competitive advantage that has been achieved by the bank adds value to the business by means of the adapted practices of supply chain management (section 3.1.2). Along with, the bank also provides inclusive banking services and products. Inclusive banking has been explained as “helping those who are excluded from the financial system to join and benefit from it” through opening 1.77 million accounts for low-income customers (Barclays Bank PLC Sustainability Review 2008, p12). The bank also concentrates to exercise ‘sustainability strategy’ by means of demonstrating its commitment towards stabilizing and developing those economies where the bank operates. In addition the bank also concentrates on carrying out ethical business (such as reducing water gas and electricity usage, lowering down carbon emission, making communal investments, practicing diversity at work etc.). In particular the bank has also been observed as developing relationships with its stakeholders (employees, customers, shareholders, supply chain partners, business creditors and investors, community etc.) Conclusively the competitive advantage of the bank has been assessed as to differentiation and focused according to the Porter’s model of competitive advantage as illustrated in the table below. Table 3. 1. Porter’s model for competitive advantage Competitive advantage Low cost Differentiation Competitive scope – Broad target Cost leadership Differentiation Competitive scope – Narrow target Cost focus Differentiation focus 3.2.2.Â Drawing on the above analysis and evaluation, following factors have been identified that influences the redefinition of business mission and subsequent strategies and practices: 220.127.116.11. The globa Globalization and how business is redefined