There are two worldviews dated back to the eighteenth century in institutional economics. These are ‘topdown’ and ‘bottomup’ views (Easterly, 2008: 95). The topdown view sees institutions as dependent on laws designed by political leaders; thus the name, ‘designed order’. Institutions refer to “informal constraints and formal rules” (North, 1991: 97). The bottomup view sees institutions as originating gradually from the culture and ways of people in society. The written law formalizes the already shaped values ‘spontaneous order’ (Easterly, 2008: 95). Some of the differences between the two orders are the changes in institutions, functions of the economists, global acceptance and the treats that they encounter from economists. Distinctions and examples of these concepts are explained below. In the designed order the political leaders disregard the old rules and norms and make new ones. For instance, as it was tried in the French revolution whereby the French would disregard the culture, language and style of their colonists and would impose French culture and habits upon them. One of the rules was that the colonists had to speak in French therefore disregarding the indigenous languages of their colonists. They would also impose dressing and eating habits on them. The spontaneous theory on the other hand, views the recent institutions as highly tied up with the earlier ones. Such institutions rely on the previous theories and facts in order to come up with their decisions. Therefore, the change in institutions is gradual in nature (Easterly, 2008: 95). For example, Darwin’s theory of evolution gives an account of evolution of man over time. It relies on climate and change of behaviour to account for development of mankind from the first to the last stages. Under designed order, economists have a problem in determining the best possible institutions to advocate for the political leaders. This happens because they have to use theory to model the institutions afresh. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the spontaneous order, economists can advise only the desirable additional changes to be made while putting in mind the need for limited institutional change so as not to disrupt the functions of the economy (Easterly, 2008: 95). For instance, when during constitutional amendment, careful changes are made so that the original meaning is not distorted. The designed order states that there is one worldwide unique and acceptable set of institutions upon which all the societies are thought of being “developing”. This means that a common law can be developed by a nation regarded as a role model and all the other nations are supposed to follow or abide by it. For instance, most of the western countries develop ideologies which are taken up by the developing countries. On the contrary, the spontaneous view sees the societies as being able to evolve different institutions even over a long time (Easterly, 2008: 96). An example is seen whereby many developing countries can make decisions regarding the political leaders to vote for without having to make consultations from the developed countries. According to current research, it has been observed that countries that had their colonizers set up strong property rights many years back (spontaneous order) have higher income levels today than the countries with civil law foundations (designed order). For instance, when Korea split in to North and South Korea, the two countries had similar income levels. The Northerners planned centrally while disregarding any customs while the Southerners depended on property rights with a little help from the state. More than 50 years later, the South has per capita income that is ten times more than the North (Henry
University Maryland university College Workplace Violence and Response Discussion.
EXERCISE #1 – WORKPLACE VIOLENCE AND RESPONSE”Workplace Violence Prevention and Response Guidelines”Guidelines for Preventing Workplace” is a 2005 ASIS publication that provides security directors a strategy to prevent workplace violence and effectively manage and respond to threats.Workplace violence is a critical issue identified by security directors in a 2016 Securitas survey as discussed previously in class. Students of security management should understand that workplace violence takes many forms and is more than just active shooter scenarios we seem to be experiencing in today’s society. Security operatives often talk about employing a multidisciplinary approach when developing an organization’s workplace violence prevention and response strategy. After reviewing the ASIS document, explain what it means to employ a multidisciplinary approach and how such a strategy might be planned and implemented based on the guidelines presented. Incorporate into your response the essential elements that must be a part of any violence prevention program. Also, describe the role of the security department and other departments you believe to be key stakeholders in achieving the program’s goals and objectives.Deconstructed:1. Explain what it means to employ a multidisciplinary approach 2. How such a strategy might be planned and implemented based on the guidelines presented.3. Incorporate into your response the essential elements that must be a part of any violence prevention program, (there are eight). 4. Describe the role of the security department and other departments you believe to be key stakeholders in achieving the program’s goals and objectives.Be sure to cite your sources from both the Learning Materials and outside research. Please post your initial Discussion response by Sunday. Respond to the posts of two or more of your fellow students in a cogent and respectfully manner.Reference:Workplace Violence Prevention and Intervention – American National Standard. (2011, September 2). Retrieved August 27, 2020, from https://learn.umuc.edu/content/enforced/446355-001434-01-2202-OL3-7380/Workplace%20Violence%20Prevention%20and%20Intervention.pdf?_&d2lSessionVal=Mzfb1tvZcRgxtZkHTHXCXo9xhBe sure to cite your sources from both the Learning Materials and outside research. Please post your initial Discussion response by Sunday. Respond to the posts of two or more of your fellow students in a cogent and respectfully manner. EXERCISE #2- PHYSICAL AND IT SECURITY CONVERGENCE: THE BASICSIn a series of published articles, Derek Slater discusses one of the most significant security planning issues discussed in the security profession over the past 10 years—convergence. The author defines term and addresses the advantages and difficulties associated with convergence, but his article culminates with a convincing argument for implementing convergence and offers five specific reasons that are trending which he believes are “knocking down the walls between traditional security stovepipes” (Slater). Students of security management need to be familiar with the issues currently facing the security industry so they can better prepare to take a position and address the issue when they have the future opportunity. After reading the Slater article and conducting any additional independent research on this topic, discuss from the perspective of a security operative of a Fortune 1000 corporation how convergence might benefit the organization and what might be the unexpected “pitfalls” that can obstruct efforts to merge physical and information security operations. Be specific with the advantages and disadvantages. Finally, state whether or not you agree with convergence and explain your position.Deconstructed:1. Discuss from the perspective of a security operative of a Fortune 1000 corporation, how convergence might benefit the organization2. What might be the unexpected “pitfalls” that can obstruct efforts to merge physical and information security operations? a. Be specific with the advantages and disadvantages.3. Finally, state whether or not you agree with convergence and explain your position.Be sure to cite your sources from both the Learning Materials and outside research. Please post your initial Discussion response by Sunday. Respond to the posts of two or more of your fellow students in a cogent and respectfully manner.Reference:Slater, D. (2005, December 05). Physical and IT Security Convergence: The Basics. Retrieved August 27, 2020, from http://www.csoonline.com/article/2117824/strategic-planning-erm/physical-and-it-security-convergence–the-basics.html (NOTE: this reading has three (3) sections – you will have to click to the next section at the bottom of the page),
How Idea Generators Juggle Between the Pros and Cons of Teamwork?. The article which the researcher has chosen for reviewing the journal is I can do that alone.. or not? How idea generators juggle between the pros and cons of teamwork. This study has been undertaken and written by Dirk Deichmann and Michael Jensen. As this study wanted to understand the logic behind the tendency of the idea generators to ignore the advantages of teamwork and go for developing their ideas alone, therefore, they conducted a research work in a large European Company within the time period from 1996 to 2008. Therefore, this article falls under the category of empirical study because the results of the study consists data based on experimentation and observation (Salmon, W.C., 2017). Though, it has also included some theoretical arguments as well. The main idea behind this research work is to understand that despite having advantages of working in a team, why do idea generators develop ideas alone? The author has provided an extensive range of arguments by referring to different scholarly works on the advantage of team work. It is found that even though the advantage of working in a team develops newer ideas, idea generators ignores these advantages and develops idea alone. Therefore, it would focus on two important trades off: a) team work leads to increased coordination cost; b) sharing the risks and costs of developing an idea necessitates sharing the potential rewards of a successful idea (Deichmann and Jensen., 2017). After assessing the hypothesis undertaken and the research conducted in a European multinational energy company called Enco (an anonymous name was being used) of an innovation program, the main finding showed that the success rate is higher for team ideas yet, idea generators have developed incremental ideas alone to cut down the coordination cost. They only imply the coordination cost once it has to develop the radical ideas. Even once they have the prior team experience, then only these cases are undertaken. Once the idea generators were successful before and if they are open to share the rewards and risks of developing another idea with the team. In this empirical research article, there have been certain limitations to the undertaken research work like the strict Enco’s policy for personal data privacy. Therefore, collecting the demographic data for the people who generated and developed ideas was limited. There was a limitation in terms of direct assessment of the theorized mechanism. It opens up avenues of new research work like were idea generators more prone to working in a team and how this is driven by considerations related to different trade-offs. The innovation programs studied here were formalized however, the informal aspects also could be measured and a different viewpoint could be attained. It has often been noticed that if the structure are informal in nature, idea generators might have a different approach. The authors have adhered to both the empirical and normative philosophy. A large number of statistics have been used to substantiate the argument. The methodology which was undertaken suits the purpose of the research work. As an unanimous multinational energy company have been used where innovation programs could be studied, therefore, the role of idea generators and their work could be assessed. Though this methodology appropriates the study but the study might be insufficient because there have been no comparative analysis to it. This might happen the undertaken research work and the innovative program involves in this case suited the hypothesis but could have been different for other organization. Therefore, the data collected was insufficient to some extent and was one dimensional in nature (Deichmann and Jensen., 2017). The authors tried to link the variable of idea generator with the various factors. They wanted to understand the issue of access to resource and thus that lead to coordination. Thus, the following hypothesis was framed as radical ideas positively associates with team idea development and it moderates positively team idea development and radical ideas. It also tried to address possibility of risk and sharing rewards. For that, the authors have formulated the hypotheses as prior idea success positively associated with team idea development. It has also tried to enquire into the relational variable between Prior team idea development which negatively moderates the positive association between prior idea success and team idea development (Deichmann and Jensen., 2017). The main question asked by the author in this research work is to address the logic behind the idea generators ignoring the team work using the incremental ideas of decision making. Though this research work uses extensive information from the database consisted of 12 years of archival records of 2,352 ideas. They have elaborately discussed about the role and ways in which idea generator process the ideas and some ideas were excluded as they were ‘in process’. They used the models of dependent and independent variables to conduct the study and statistically represented the correlation and established the findings. But, the theoretical terms like team idea development or idea generator or the role of the same were not adequately defined. This makes the study not well defined. The major idea could be interpreted as the positive correlation between radical idea and prior idea success associated to decision making and the team to develop the second idea. Even when the ideas are developed alone, there is prior team idea behind it. Hence, the idea generator evaluates the pros and cons of teamwork carefully. In this particular context, the research work and its evaluation have been very effectively done but could be biased in nature because it focuses on only one company as its case study. It does make some original contribution by highlighting the question of how sustained and successful ideas could be achieved. Thought- provoking ideas about the advantages and disadvantages of the team work versus alone was shown. Finally, idea generators often have different viewpoint than the organization regarding the cost and benefits of working with a team. Reference: Deichmann, D., Jensen, M., 2017, I can do that alone…or not? How idea generators juggle between the pros and cons of teamwork., Wiley., DOI: 10.1002/smj.2696 Salmon, W.C., 2017. Logical empiricism. A companion to the philosophy of science, pp.233-242. How Idea Generators Juggle Between the Pros and Cons of Teamwork?
University Maryland university College Workplace Violence and Response Discussion
Columbia Southern University Depression and the Link to Criminal Justice Paper
Columbia Southern University Depression and the Link to Criminal Justice Paper.
This is a multi part Homework. Each one should be at least 1 page, instruction below:For this essay, you will continue differentiating between the various categories of mental illness. You can pick either a psychotic disorder or a mood disorder. Mood Disorder picked “Depression.” Imagine you work in the criminal justice field, and you are responsible for training your department in either psychotic disorders or mood disorders. You are to create a handout containing information on the disorder, which should include the following: symptoms and onset, different disorders within that category and how they are different from each other, suggestions on working with these disorders in the field, and prevalence rate. Think about what you would find useful and what could help fellow practitioners. Use APA in-text citations for any statistics/figures. The handout should be a minimum of one page, not including the reference page.For your research project, you will choose one disorder from the textbook and focus on its interaction in the criminal justice system. Disorder picked “Depression.” You may look ahead or choose from one of the disorders that has already been covered in the course. Your proposal should be submitted in a Word document, and it should be at least one page in length. Explain which disorder you are researching, your interest in picking this disorder, and your initial belief on the disorder’s link to criminal justice.
Columbia Southern University Depression and the Link to Criminal Justice Paper
BUS 370 KCC Every Business Should Have a Vision to Give the Business Focus Reply
essay help online BUS 370 KCC Every Business Should Have a Vision to Give the Business Focus Reply.
Please respond to the paragraph below. State whether you agree or disagree with evidence and examples. You should be giving your justified opinion and most important generate a discussion about the topic.References required___________________________________________________________________________________________ I think initially the vision was driving the change but then I think as business began to suffer, the business began to drive the vision. A business needs to be proactive not reactive. Vision should always support change. This vision should be communicated to the employees and they should be asked for feedback. None of this was done and there was no buy-in by the employees for the later changes in vision so they just didn’t work for many reasons. I think heroic leaders and heroic businesses always rise to the challenge. All businesses go through a time of struggle and how that is handled always determines the outcome. Heroic leaders focus on the talent within the organization and ask what they think as well as look to what the competition is doing well and what they are not doing well. This is how business opportunities are created.
BUS 370 KCC Every Business Should Have a Vision to Give the Business Focus Reply
Discussion Board. I’m working on a Psychology exercise and need support.
Pretend that you are the guest instructor at a high school in your hometown. You are there to give a 30 minute presentation to a group of 12th graders about college.
What are the 5 most important points about college you would want them to know ?
Elaborate and justify each of your 5 points FULLY. (6 points)
Respond with at least 3 substantive statements on two of your classmates assignments (1point).
Please do not forget to cite your sources.
At Least 400 Words
Part of the material covered in the course comes from recently published academic papers. One of the objectives of
Part of the material covered in the course comes from recently published academic papers. One of the objectives of this course is to introduce you to how economic knowledge is created and distributed (research). To encourage you to read these papers, you will write 4 summaries of any articles discussed during class lectures. These will be no longer than 3 pages in length (12 point font). In the summary you will (1) identify the author’s main research question, (2) describe the data sources they use, (3) explain the methodology used to answer the question, (4) discuss the major results, and (5) describe a related extension question for further research. Summaries will be graded on a five-point scale, one point for successfully answering each question. I will provide a good example of one by the end of the first week.